Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the German settlements and of the Lutheran church in North and South Carolina : from the earliest period of the colonization of the Dutch, German, and Swiss settlers to the close of the first half of the present century"

See other formats

Itttorattg of ptttBburglj 

Darlington Memorial Library 

look CSIH....5..&..5. 






JTwtleran C|m| 






G.' d; beenheim, 



—Isaiah 51 : 1. 





te> " ^ 1 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, 


In the ©ffice of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 














An historical work requires no haste in its production, — 
it should be the creature of time, inasmuch as the arrange- 
ment of material, the weighing of testimony, and the search 
for missing links in the chain of narrative, all require time. 
That the historical contribution which is herewith offered 
to the public has not been hastily prepared, nor unadvisedly 
thrust upon the reader's notice, may be seen from the fol- 
lowing statements. 

In the year 1851, the Lutheran Synod of South Carolina, 
by resolution, made it the duty of the author to gather 
together a copy of all its printed minutes, have them prop- 
erly bound, and place the bound vohnnes in the library of 
its Theological Seminary. In so doing, the author became 
interested in the records of Synod, provided a set of dupli- 
cate copies for himself, and arranged certain tables of 
statistics of that Synod, exhibiting the gradual increase of 
the Church, the date of each minister's licensure and ordi- 
nation, &c., &c., and had these written statistics bound 
with his volumes of the Synod's minutes, merely for his 
own private use and future reference. A prominent min- 
ister of that Synod happening to overlook these statistics, 
suggested the propriety of their publication. To which the 
author replied, that it might be done, provided the minutes 
of the Korth Carolina Synod could also be procured, and 
similar statistical tables be arranged from them, when 
both could be published at the same time. 

IsTot long afterwards, in 1858, the author was called to 
reside in North Carolina, when he commenced collecting 
the minutes of the Lutheran Synod of that State also, and 

found such a large amount of additional historical docu- 
ments, that he became exceedingly interested in the search, 
and the labor has been to him a recreation and a pleasure 
rather than a wearisome toil. Public libraries were next 
visited ; the records of the Secretaries of State in the Capitol 
buildings of Korth and South Carolina were examined ; each 
colony of Germans in the two Carolinas was traced to its 
origin ; missionary journals, discovered to have been sent 
from the i3rst ministers in Korth Carolina to Germany 
and there published, but no longer known to have any exist- 
ence, were sought after and obtained in Europe ; all of 
which produced a collection of historical material greater 
than was at first believed to be possible. 

During the years, from 1861 to 1864, the author pub- 
lished, from the material then on hand, seventy-two "His- 
torical Sketches" in the columns of the ^'■Southern Lu- 
theran^'''' which were received with so much favor, that un- 
solicited suggestions came from Rev. John Bachman, D.D., 
LL.D., and from editors of several Southern journals, to 
have these "Historical Sketches published in a more con- 
venient and durable form ;" besides, letters were received 
from private parties urging the same thing. On a visit to 
the North at the close of the war, these "Sketches" were 
exhibited to Eev. Dr. Hawks, of New York, avithor of the 
History of North Carolina, and to Rev. Dr. Krauth, of 
Philadelphia, and the same suggestion was repeated by 
both those learned gentlemen. 

And now, believing that the information contained in 
this work is too valuable to be lost ; believing also, that the 
ripe and scholarly judgment of others should not be disre- 
garded ; believing, that the labor of twenty-one years, the 
leisure time of which was mostly spent in gathering to- 
gether the materials for this work, should not be spent in 
vain ; and lastly, believing that some good towards the 
advancing of the interests of the Redeemer's kingdom will 
thereby be effected, and that a generous public will so re- 
gard this work, these pages are sent upon the world with 


the earnest hope that they may accomplish this their mis- 

But probably the most important question is : Is this 
book a reliable historical work ? To which the author re- 
plies, that it is as much so, as human labor and patient 
toil can make it. This work has been altogether a la1)or of 
love, hence no pains were spared to make it eminently 
correct and exact in dates, names, localities, &c. That it 
occasionally comes in conflict with other historical authori- 
ties could not be avoided, as the author felt assured that 
Church records, missionary reports, records of the Councils 
of State, minutes of Synod, private journals and the like 
sources of information, produced at the time when the 
events occurred, are all of them more reliable than the 
statements made by authors, who had not these records at 
their command, however highly those authors may other- 
wise be regarded. 

Some of them were unacquainted with the German lan- 
guage, German characteristics, and the religion of the Ger- 
man settlers, hence originated the errors that are sometimes 
found in American histories in reference to the German 

It was deemed unnecessary to furnish a list on one or 
more separate pages of the sources whence the materials 
for this work were derived ; but, in order to remove all 
doubt concerning the reliability of this work, it was 
thought to be more serviceable to the reader to mention 
the names of authorities on the page where such, authors 
and records are quoted. 

There is a niche in the history of North and South Caro- 
lina that has never been filled. It is a well-known fact 
that these two Provinces were largely settled by German 
colonists, and yet their history has hitherto never been fully 
written. In the various histories of Korth Carolina we 
have extended accounts of the German settlements at New- 
berne and at Salem, but of the other German settlers, who 
located themselves in the central and western parts of the 
State, nothing is said, although they comprise more than 


three-fourths of the German population. South Carohna 
historians have been equally remiss ; with the exception of 
the Purysburg and the Hard Labor Creek settlements, very 
little is said concerning those colonies from Germany and 
Switzerland, which were spread over a large portion of the 
interior of that Province. There can be but one solution 
of this apparent neglect, and that is, the records of these 
German settlements were couched in a language foreign to 
those historical writers. It is hoped that the omission has 
been, at least, largely supplied. A few more years, and 
the records of the history of our German forefathers would 
have passed beyond human reach. In view of this fact, 
how forcible are the remarks of Dr. Eamsay in the preface 
to his "History of South Carolina:" "Every day that 
minute local histories of these States are deferred is an in- 
jury to posterity, for, by means thereof, more of that knowl- 
edge which ought to be transmitted to them will be irre- 
coverably lost. " 

The author confesses to a few omissions in this work, 
and that this history has not been extended to the present 
time. His reason for the latter fact is. that occurrences so 
recent can scarcely be regarded as history, until they have 
been mellowed by age — have passed into perspective — when 
" distance lends enchantment to the view." At all events, 
the author prefers to close at a point, where he will not be 
obliged to record occurrences in which he was more or less 
IDersonally interested. 

The first omission consists in the want of an extended 
account of the ecclesiastical difficulty that arose in the year 
1819, between the ISTorth Carolina Synod and the ministers, 
who afterwards formed the Tennessee Synod. In this the 
object was, not to open afresh those wounds which have 
been more than fifty years in healing. Let us by all means 
have a hopeful future, and let us throw no obstacles in the 
way of " the dead past burying its dead." 

The second omission is a trifiing one, namely, the pass- 
ing in silence the efforts made in 1842 by the North and 
South Carolina Synods to celebrate the supposed centenary 


anniversary of the introduction of the Lutheran Church 
in America. To the Soutli this celebration was peculiarly 
anachronistic. German Lutheranism was established in 
Pennsylvania in 1742, but it existed in the South eight years 
earlier, when Revs. Bolzius and Gronau commenced their 
labors in the German (Salzburg) colony at Ebenezer, Geor- 
gia, A.D. 1734, and in the Carolinas, five years sooner, 
when Rev. Giessendanner labored for the Germans in 
Orangeburg, S. C, in 1737. 

The author is aware that this historical work, especially 
in its detailed ecclesiastical information, must be interest- 
ing chiefly to the members of the Lutheran Church in the 
Carolinas ; it is hoped, nevertheless, that the general reader 
will gather from it much information which is not to be 
obtained from any other source. 

G. D. Bernheim. 

Wilmington, N. C, 

June 10th, 1872. 



An Account of the Early Colonization of the Dutch, 
German and Swiss Settlers in the Carolinas. 


Section 1. The Causes, in general, which led to the Colo- 
nization of America with European settlers, . . 25 

Section 2. The Religious Persecutions in Europe as another 
effective cause of Emigration to America, . 

Section 3. The War of the Spanish Succession, 

Section 4. The Mission Societies established in Europe for 
the benefit of the early settlers in America, 

Section 5. John Lederer's Explorations, A.D. 1670, 

Section 6. The Dutch Colony of Lutherans on James 
Island, South Carolina, A.D. 1674, .... 

Section 7. The Colony of Palatinate and Swiss German; 
in Newberne, North Carolina, A.D. 1710, . 

Section 8. The German settlers in Charleston, S. C, 

Section 9. The Swiss Colony at Purysburg, S. C, A.D 

Section 10. The German and Swiss colonists of Orange- 
burg, S. C, A.D. 1735 

Section 11. The German settlers of Saxe-Gotha Township, 
now Lexington County, S. C, A.D. 1737, 

Section 12. The German settlers from Pennsylvania ir 
Central North Carolina, A.D. 1750, . 

Section 13. The Moravians at Salem, N. C, A.D. 1753, 

Section 14. The German Lutheran colony at Hard Labor 
Creek, Abbeville County, S. C, A.D. 1763 and 1764, 





Section 15. Other German Settlements, particularly in 

South Carolina, 167 

Section 16. Hessian Deserters during the Kevolution, . 171 


Condition and History of the German Colonies in the 
Carolinas to the close of the Eevolutionary War. 

Section 1. A brief review of the planting of the different 

German colonies in North and South Carolina, . 175 

Section 2. Trials and Difficulties of the Early Settlers, . 181 

Section 3. Character, occupation and condition of the Ger- 
man settlers in the Carolinas, 185 

Section 4. Great want of the means of grace among the 

early German colonists in the Carolinas, . . . 191 

Section 5. An account of the Weber Heresy, . . . 195 

Section 6. History of St. John's Lutheran Church, Charles- 
ton, S. C, to the close of the Eevolutionary War, . 205 

Section 7. The Lutheran Church in Amelia Township, 

Orangeburg District (County), S. C, ... 224 

Section 8. The Lutheran churches in Saxe-Gotha Town- 
ship, Lexington District (County), S. C, . . . 229 

Section 9. Other German churches in South Carolina, . 233 

Section 10. Early History of St. John's Lutheran Church, 

Salisbury, N.G., 239 

Section 11. Early History of Organ Church, Kowan 

County, N.C., 243 

Section 12 Early History of St. John's Church, Cabarrus 

County, N. C, 246 

Section 13. The Delegation sent from North Carolina to 
Europe for Pastors and Teachers, and the Subsequent 
Organization of the Helmstaedt Mission Society, . 253 

Section 14. The Labors of Eevs. Nussmann and Arndt in 

North Carolina, 259 

Section 15. Character of the Lutheran Ministry in the 
Carolinas previous to the Eevolutionary War — Their 
Piety, Learning, Firm Adherence to the Confessions 
of their Church, Faithfulness in the Discharge of 
their Ministerial Duties — Liturgical Worship, &c., . 262 


Section 16. Gradual Improvement of the Condition of the 
German Colonies and of their Churches in the Caro- 
linas, and Bright Prospects for the Future, . . 267 

Section 17. The Eftect of the Revolutionary War upon 

the German Settlements and their Churches, . . 260 

History of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas 


1783, TO THE Organization of the Synod of North 
Carolina, A.D. 1803, embracing a Period of Twenty 

Section 1. State of the German Colonies and of the Lu- 
theran Church at the close of the Revolution, . . 274 

Section 2. Reorganization of Ecclesiastical Affairs in the 

Lutheran Church in the Carolinas, .... 278 

Section 3. Arrival of Rev. John Charles Faber — Reunion 
of the North Carolina Churches with the Parent 
Church in Germany — The North Carolina Catechism, 
published by Rev, Dr. Velthusen ; and Rev. Daser's 
Report to the Helmstaedt Fathers, . . . ,281 

Section 4. The Corpus Evangelicum or Unio Ecclesias- 
tica in South Carolina, and the Ordination of Rev. J. 
G. Bamberg, . . ^ 288 

Section 5. The Act of Incorporation of the fifteen Ger- 
man Churches in the Interior of South Carolina, . 305 

Section 6. Arrival of Revs. Bernhardt, Storch and Rosch- 

en in North Carolina, A.D. 1787 and 1788, . . 311 

Section 7. The Helmstaedt Mission Society — Letters from 
Revs. Nussmann, Storch and Roschen, published in 
the Helmstaedt Reports, indicating the Condition of 
the Lutheran Church in North Carolina during the 
years 1788 and 1789, 322 

Section 8. Further intelligence from St. John's and Organ 
Churches, and a Ministerial Assembly in North Caro- 
lina, called to ordain the Rev. Robert Johnson Miller, 335 

Section 9. Death of Revs. Nussmann and Martin— Resig- 


nation of Rev. John Charles Taber — Removal of Rev. 
Bernhardt to South Carolina — Return of Rev. Rosch- 
en to Gernaany — Arrival of Revs. Paul and Philip 
Henkel 340 

Section 10. St. John's Church, Cabarrus County, N. C, 
after Rev. Nussmann's Death — Report of Rev. Storch 
to Dr. Velthusen — Decline of the German Reformed 
Church in South Carolina, 346 

Section 11. The great religious revival of the years 1800 
and 1801, which swept over the United States ; reports 
of Revs. Storch and Henkel concerning it, . . 350 

Section 12. Organization of the Evangelical Lutheran 

Synod of North Carolina, A.D. 1803, . . .355 


History of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas 
Continued, from the Organization of the North 
Carolina Synod, A.D. 1803, to the Formation of the 
First Lutheran General Synod in America, A.D. 
1820; Embracing a Period of Seventeen Years. 

Section 1. Condition of the Lutheran Church in South 

Carolina in the year 1803, 359 

Section 2. Henkel's report on the condition of the Lu- 
theran Church in North Carolina in the year 1806, . 366 

Section 3. Extracts from the First Minutes of the North 

Carolina Synod, from A.D. 1803 to 1810, . . .372 

Section 4. Missionary tours of Revs. Miller, Franklow 

andScherer, 378 

Section 5. Emigration from North Carolina to several 

new States and Territories, 392 

Section 6. Additional extracts from the Minutes of the 
North Carolina Synod from 1811 to 1815, exhibiting 
the Rapid Increase of its Influence, the Extension of 
its Borders, and its great want of Ministers, . . 395 

Section 7. Origin and History of several new Congrega- 
tions established in North and South Carolina, . 401 

Section 8. Continued history of several of the older Lu- 
theran Congregations in the Carolinas, . . . 411 



Section 9, Arrival of Kev. John Bachman as pastor of St. 
John's Lutheran Church in Charleston, S. C, and 
his Keport on the State of the Country and the Condi- 
tion of the Lutheran Church in America in the year 
1815, 415 

Section 10. The Ordination Question, and Opposition to 

the Licensure of Candidates for the Ministry, . . 425 

Section 11. The Literary Institution in Tennessee for the 
Education of Ministers, and the Publication ty au- 
thority of the North Carolina Synod of a book, called 
"Luther," 429 

Section 12. The Convention which was called for the Pur- 
pose of Organizing a General Synod, .... 435 

Section 13. The First Pvupture in the Lutheran Church in 
America, and the subsequent Formation of the Ten- 
nessee Synod, A.D. 1819 and 1820, . . . .440 


From the Organization of the Tennessee Synod to 

THE Establishment of the Theological Seminary 

AT Lexington, South Carolina, A.D. 1833. 

Section 1. A Glimpse into the History of some of the 

Older Congregations, 446 

Section 2. Fraternal Union of the North Carolina Synod 
with the Protestant Episcopal Convention of North 
Carolina, 4.57 

Section 3. Kev. John Bachman's Labors in Savannah and 

Ebenezer, Georgia, . ' . . . . . . 463 

Section 4. Organization of the Lutheran Synod of South 

Carolina, A.D. 1824, 467 

Section 5. Eemovals to the West, and Missionary Labors 
of the North Carolina Synod in Illinois and other 
States, 470 

Section 6. Rapid Progress of the South Carolina Synod, 
and the Missionary Labors of Revs. Scheck, Schwartz, 
and W. D. Strobel, 474 

Section 7. Death of Rev. Charles A. G. Storch in 1831, 
and arrival of other Lutheran Ministers in North 
Carolina, 480 



Section 8. Principal Transactions of the Tennessee Synod, 

from 1820 to 1833, 485 

Section 9. Establishment of a Theological Seminary in 
South Carolina, under the Professorship of Kev. John 
G. Schwartz, A.D. 1830 489 

Section 10. New Churches Erected in South Carolina; 
and the Early Deaths of Revs. Wingard, Schwartz, 
Bergman and Daniel Dreher, 497 

Section 11. Founding of the Theological Seminary at 
Lexington, S C, and arrival of Eev. E. L. Hazelius, 
D.D., as Professor of Theology, .... 507 

History of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas 


Section 1. Condition of the Lutheran Church in North 

and South Carolina in 1834, 512 

Section 2. Rev. Daniel Jenkins' Revivals in North Caro- 
lina — Commissioners sent by the South Carolina 
Synod to the North Carolina Synod with Proposals 
in behalf of the Lexington Theological Seminary — 
Death of Rev. Gottlieb Shober, 516 

Section 3. Increase of Lutheran Ministers in the Caroli- 
nas — Establishment of New Congregations — Visit of 
Rev. Dr. Bachman to Europe, ..... 520 

Section 4. Settlement of North Germans in Southern 
Cities — Organization and Early History of St. Mat- 
thew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Charles- 
ton, S. C, 529 

Section 5. Formation of the Western Virginia Synod; 

and Death of Rev. Henry Graeber, .... 533 

Section 6. Endowment of a Second Professorship in the 
Theological Seminary at Lexington, S. C. — Memoir 
of Henry Miiller, Sr., 538 

Section 7. Colony of German Settlers at Walhalla, S. C. — 
Additional New Congregations Organized — The Mis- 
sissippi and Texas Missions, 544 

Section 8. State of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas, 

in the Year 1850, 549 

Section 9. Concluding Remarks, 554 


emai Settlenieits ai the 

Blleran tteli 






Section 1. TJie causes, in general, loliich led to the 
colonization of America with Euroi^ean settlers. 

The memory of the early settlers of America 
should ever be regarded as sacred ; it was their 
courageous hearts or conscientious convictions of 
duty that led them to venture upon the dangers 
of a long and tedious voyage across the Atlantic, 
and to endure the perils and hardships of an in- 
hospitable wilderness, which greeted them upon 
their arrival in this country. To them America 
owes the debt of gratitude for having planted the 
"westward star of empire" on its shores; for 
having introduced the dawn of civilization on 
this continent, where brutal savages, always at 


war with themselves, and threatening each other's 
destruction, formerly roamed unrestrained over 
its wide and trackless forests; for having borne 
the standard of Christianity to this vast country, 
where once the curses of idolatry hung like a 
funeral pall over its future progress and prosperity. 
In such a wilderness, and under many adverse and 
dangerous circumstances, our adventurous or pious 
forefathers made their homes and reared their 
hardy families ; well may those early settlers, in 
more senses than one, be denominated the fathers 
of this — their adopted — country. 

The causes which induced the early settlers of 
America to leave their native homes and seek an 
abode in the Far West, across the wide Atlantic, 
which, on account of its dangers, and a long, 
tedious, and expensive voyage, severed them for- 
ever from all that they once held dear, were nu- 
merous and of great variety ; but the principal of 
these causes of emigration shall be given and de- 
scribed in the following narrative. 

Amid the over-abundant population of Europe, 
crowded within a small area of productive land, 
there always existed, for many centuries past, a 
large proportion of inhabitants of every class of 
society, whose pecuniary circumstances ever for- 
bade them to arrive at the condition of competency 
and wealth in the ordinary pursuits of life ; the 
titled nobleman, by misfortune or bad manage- 
ment, had become deprived of that affluence, 
which once gilded the coronet of his ancestral 
house; the unfortunate merchant, by unwise 


speculation, improper investments, want of suc- 
cess, or some other mismanagement in his com- 
mercial affairs, brought himself and family to the 
verge of ruin; the industrious artisan could 
scarcely maintain a large and increasing family 
on the small pittance which was his daily support, 
forbidding his industry ever to reach beyond that 
which was necessarily consumed in the mainte- 
nance of his esteemed wife and beloved children ; 
whilst the tenant upon a lordly estate was so over- 
burdened with tithes and gatherings, that lie 
groaned over the profitless labor which he daily 

In addition to these classes, many young and 
unmarried men and women, who could see noth- 
ing before them but pre-occupied situations, closed 
avenues of industry; and servants, already too nu- 
merous, awaiting the rich man's bidding, felt but 
too keenly that the Old World had little employ- 
ment to offer, and less bread to spare. 

Thus necessity, as well as inclination, induced 
these worthy members of society to seek a fortune 
in America, or at least to improve their pecuniary 
condition, which was accomplished by engaging 
in remunerative agriculture, trading with the 
aborigines of the forests, or in the pursuit of such 
commercial enterprises as invited the settlers to 
the enjoyment of prospective wealth, luxury, and 
influence. Capital was necessary, connected with 
the ordinar}' commercial judgment and prudence, 
to build up a fortune for the enterprising merchant 
in the Old World, but in America, industry and 


economy accomplished astonisliing results; oppor- 
tunity was wanting to many an anxious aspirant 
in the Fatherland in all the various departments 
of industry, but in the 'New World, unoccupied 
situations presented themselves every day to all 
classes of honest and useful men, whilst the want 
of labor in the wilds of America was constantly 
felt. Lands, farms, and plantations were freely 
offered to every settler for a small amount of pur- 
chase-money, or for an annual quit-rent of a trilling 

What an alluring prospect presented itself in 
this country to all the inhabitants of Europe, a 
country crowded for many centuries to its utmost 
capacity ! What an outlet to the inhabitants 
thereof, groaning under the stringent civil laws 
necessary for such a superabundant population, 
which was at times somewhat reduced by the 
horrors of civil war ! They came, like so many 
swarms of bees from their native hives, to seek 
subsistence and wealth in America, where good 
prospects and fine opportunities awaited them. 

A large number of emigrants to this country 
were possessed of a romantic spirit, desiring to 
roam free and unrestrained through the primeval 
forests in search of adventure; their highest am- 
bition was to hunt the wild deer, chase the fox 
and the buffalo, trap the beaver and the otter, or 
encounter other but more dangerous animals 
without the restraints of law or privilege of fa- 
voritism, which forbade their entering into Euro- 
pean forests with the rifle, the huntsman's dog, 


and the horn ; at that time even the Atlantic slope 
of our country afibrded them ample opportunities 
and advantages to follow the bent of their inclina- 
tions; their wonderful narratives composed many 
of the winter-evening tales that were then pub- 
lished for the amusement and instruction of many 
a European tamily. 

Another, and a very useful and valuable, class 
of colonists were the redemptioners, who came to 
America to escape the poverty and starvation that 
stared them in the face in their native country ; 
bread for themselves, their wives, and their little 
ones, was all they asked and expected from the 
fruitful soil of their adopted country; too poor to 
pay their passage-money across the ocean, the 
lather, and sometimes the mother also, were sold 
by the captain of the shij), as soon as the vessel 
arrived in port, and thus several years' labor of 
these poor emigrants were required to pay the ex- 
pense of their passage to America. These settlers 
had a hard life of it; however, with strict economy 
and by honest industry they became qualified for 
future independence, which they had learned to 
appreciate well by a previous state of servitude. 
Others of the same class were aided by European 
philanthropists to settle themselves in the various 
colonies in America, having a debt of gratitude 
ever resting upon them and their children, for the 
kindness extended to them by their benefactors in 
the Fatherland. 

Political refugees also found an asylum and a 
home in this country; some of these came from 


Scotland, "who had espoused the cause of the Pre- 
tender, Charles Edward, and were persecuted by 
the reigning house of Hanover in Great Britain ; 
others came from Ireland, after the rebellion ; and 
some again emigrated from other countries for the 
same reasons ; many came from all parts of Ger- 
many, in order to escape the demands of their 
country upon them for military service ; whilst not 
a few from all lands came to settle in America, 
having been fugitives from justice, and "left their 
country for their country's good." 

Thus these early settlers came from every na- 
tion in Europe ; they spoke ever^^ language of that 
country; they were possessed of every shade of 
idea; they differed in their manners, customs, and 
habits. In this way was America peopled; and 
these were the parents of that hardy and indomi- 
table race which eventually broke the rule and 
power of the English crown in the colonies of 
America, during the bloody period of the Eevo- 
lutionary War. 

Section 2. The religious 'persecutions in Evroye^ as 
another effective cause of emigration to America. 

What would finally have become of America 
with its heterogeneous mass of inhabitants, with- 
out the intermixture of a people possessed of an 
earnest and active Christianity, as "the salt of the 
earth," or "the leaven for the whole lump," is a 
fruitful subject for the pen of the speculative phi- 
losopher; happily, however, Providence furnished 


this precious leaven at the commencement of the 
colonization of America, by employing the fires 
of bloody persecutions in various parts of the Old 
"World, and thus again was " the wrath of man 
made to praise God," whilst " the remainder of 
wrath He did restrain." "We are fiimiliar with 
the history of the Puritans of England, who sought 
and found a home on the barren rocks and shores 
of Plymouth, Massachusetts; but the story of the 
persecuted Huguenots of France, who settled 
themselves in the Carolinas ; of the JS'on-conform- 
ists of Scotland ; of the German Palatines (Pfalzer) 
from the Ehine; of the Salzburgers from the Al- 
pine districts of Austria, is as yet but imperfectly 
known, and but partially understood. 

It was religious persecution which caused a very 
large number of European inhabitants to emigrate, 
and to seek an asylum in America, and, in so doing, 
they sought not wealth nor fortune, but simply, 
"freedom to worship God;" here they found the 
asylum they sought; no hand of political or eccle- 
siastical power has ever materially disturbed the 
votaries of any religious tenet or worship in the 
enjoyment of this inalienable right. These noble 
colonists erected many a Plymouth monument of 
religious liberty on our Southern shores, and under 
circumstances much more interesting than those 
which attended the crossing of the noted Mayflower 
from Old to New England. 

A cloud of persecution overshadowed the Prot- 
estant Christian on the continent of Europe, more 
fierce and unrelenting than that which ever op- 


pressed the Puritans in their native country. The 
Church of Rome, which had long been schooled 
in the doctrine of "death to heretics," which had 
led a John Huss and a Jerome of Prague to a 
martyr's death, which had endeavored to exter- 
minate with fire and sword the pious Piedmoutese 
in their peaceful valleys and mountain fastnesses 
of Italy, which had inaugurated the horrors of St. 
Bartholomew's night, continued its savage orgies 
against the devoted Huguenots of France, by the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, when 
France lost 750,000 of its most useful and indus- 
trious citizens, many of whom located themselves 
permanently in America. 

The name "Huguenot" was a term of derision 
applied by the Eomish Church to those Protestant 
Christians who had early embraced the doctrines 
of the Reformation, and is said to have originated 
from a certain locality near the city of Tours, 
where the first French Protestants usually assem- 
bled themselves for public worship. 

Under the reign of Henry H, of France, the 
Huguenots increased rapidly, which so alarmed 
the Romanists, that they organized themselves into 
a party with the intention of exterminating all 
traces of Protestantism in the realm; yet in this 
they were not successful. Thus matters were con- 
tinued during the short reign of Francis H, a 
young and imbecile prince; when at last his bro- 
ther, Charles IX, surnamed the Bloody, ascended 
the throne. A civil war now broke out between 
the Romanists and Protestants, in which tlie 


former were in the main successful. Charles IX, 
instigated by his wicked mother, Catharine de' 
Medicis, introduced the awful liorrors of St. Bar- 
tholomew's night, August 24th, 1572, when Ad- 
miral Coligni and thousands of his fellow-Protest- 
ants met with a treacherous and bloody death. 
"The massacre was continued in the city and 
throughout the kingdom for a week, and it is com- 
puted that from eighty to one hundred thousand 
were slain in France. The annals of the world 
are filled with narratives of crime and woe, but 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew stands, perhaps, 
without a parallel." 

During the reign of Henry IV, the Protestants 
were treated with marked favor, and in 1598 he 
proclaimed an edict at the city of Kantes, granting 
to the Protestants the right of religious liberty. 
This celebrated Edict of Nantes continued in force 
for eighty-seven years, until the reign of Louis 
XIV, when, in 1685, it was revoked, and now 
again were the tires of persecution lighted anew, 
and the Hui^uenots, feelino; themselves no longer 
secure in their own native land, and dreading a 
repetition of the horrors of former years, resolved 
to leave a country over which such a hostile gov- 
ernment had unlimited sway. They fled to Swit- 
zerland, Germany, Holland, England, and Amer- 
ica, and thus was France depopulated of thou- 
sands of her most useful, industrious, and wealthy 
citizens, who carried with them not only their 
religion, but likewise some of the finer and most 
useful arts of France. In America the Iluii-uenots 


located themselves principally iu the provinces of 
North and South Carolina, where we meet with 
their honored descendants at the present day. 

The Non-conformists or Dissenters were those 
Calviuistic Christians in Scotland, who were un- 
willing to be connected with the established Church 
of England, and were persecuted on account of 
their religious faith. Some of these fled directly to 
America, others at first located themselves in the 
northern part of Ireland, and from thence they and 
their descendants removed to this country, hence 
they are called Scotch-Irish. They came flocking 
in large numbers to America, and their descend- 
ants may be traced in the bosom of the various 
branches of the Presbyterian Church in this 

We must now turn our attention to our German 
forefathers. Soon after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV, king of France, not 
content with persecuting his own subjects, spread 
desolation into Germany. The country named 
Alsace, formerly a French province, located along 
the banks of the beautiful Rhine; the Palatinate, 
a country no longer known in the geography of 
Europe, but known well in its history, these were 
the fields of bloody carnage for the grand and 
cruel Louis, who threatened the utter extermina- 
tion not only of the strong men, who might oppose 
him in battle, but of the aged fathers, as well as of 
the helpless females and innocent children, whose 
only crime was, in his view, the sin of Protestant- 
ism. The persecution of the German Palatines 


(Pfalzer) was occasioned b}' the war of the Spanish 
Succession, to which brief allusion is made in Dr. 
Hazelius' American Lutheran Church, page 23, 
an account of Avhich shall be given in the next 
section of this history. 

Another valuable accession of German settlers, 
who were driven to this country by the cruelties 
of religious intolerance, were the pious Salzburgers 
from the regions of the ISToric Alps, in Upper 
Austria, and who were persecuted on account of 
their religion by Leopold, the Roman Catholic 
Archbishop of Salzburg. 

Of these German colonists, who settled them- 
selves in Ebenezer, Georgia, twenty-six miles 
northwest of Savannah, Bancroft, the historian, 
writes thus: "They were indeed a noble army of 
martyrs going forth in the strength of God, and 
triumphing in the faith of the Gospel under the 
severest hardships and the most rigorous persecu- 
tions. They were marshalled under no banners 
save that of the cross, and were preceded by no 
leaders save their spiritual teachers and the great 
Captain of their salvation." Sympathy had been 
so greatly enlisted in their behalf throughout all 
Protestant Europe, that their journey from the in- 
terior of Austria to the seaboard was like a con- 
stant ovation ; the cities and towns, through which 
they passed, vied with each other to do them honor 
and bid them God-speed. 

They travelled on foot, passing through Augs- 
burg and Halle, until they reached Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, where they embarked in a vessel, and 


were soon floating on the bosom of the beautiful 
Rhine. "And as they passed," says Bancroft, 
"between the castled crags, the vineyards, and 
the white-walled towns that adorn its banks, their 
conversation, amid hymns and psalms, is of justi- 
fication and sanctification." 

It is not necessary to give an extended history 
of the Salzburgers, inasmuch as they were not set- 
tlers of North and South Carolina, though near 
neighbors to their brethren in those two provinces, 
and exerting great influence over them. However, 
should the reader desire to know more of their 
history, he is referred to "Strobel's History of the 
Salzburgers," or to "Urlsperger's ISTachrichten der 
ersteu JSTiederlassung der Salzburger Emigranten in 
Georgien," and "Das Americanische Ackerwerk 
Gottes," in large quarto volumes of some 1200 
pages each. 

It will not be uninteresting to state, that though 
these Salzburg emigrants were Germans at the 
time of their departure from Austria, they are, 
nevertheless, the descendants of those noble Val- 
lenses of Piedmont, Italy, who had fled from the 
persecutions of the Dukes of Savoy, following the 
mountain crags of the Alps until they arrived at 
a place of comparative safety in Austria, where 
for awhile they could worship their God unmo- 
lested by Papal intolerance. There they soon em- 
braced the Lutheran faith, and educated their 
children in the pure doctrines and principles of 
the Reformation ; and it is only to be regretted 
that such an able historian as Bancroft should, 


with "Urlsperger's Nachrichten" before him, al- 
tlioiigh written in the German language, make all 
these Salzburgers Moravians, which error is, of 
course, copied by nearly all the minor historians 
who have written text-books for our common 
schools. Even Moravians smile at this Bancroftian 
error in history and geography, as no Moravians 
had ever a habitation in that portion of Austria 
where once the Salzburgers resided. 

Section 3. The War of the Spanish Succession. 

War is alwaj^s the occasion of great upheavals 
in society; the anxiety, the feeling of insecurity, 
the ravages of a brutal soldiery passing through 
the country of a people whom they regard as their 
enemies, has the efl'ect of dislodging many a peace- 
ful citizen from his native home. In addition to 
that, the persecutions which generally follow the 
unsuccessful party after the conflict is over, makes 
many a one a fugitive from the land he once loved, 
to seek an asylum in some undisturbed country, 
where he may enjoy both the fruits of his labor 
and his religion unmolested. 

Among the many wars which afflicted Europe 
during the period of American colonization, the 
War of the Spanish Succession stands prominent 
in history, as being the chief instrument in send- 
ing numerous settlers to the English colonies on. 
this side of the Atlantic ; and, inasmuch as the 
English government was also drawn into the vortex 
of this strife, the British queen, Anne, made large 


provision for the welfare of those Germans who 
were made unfortunate and homeless exiles from 
their native land by the effects of this useless war. 
Extensive grants of land were made for the bene- 
fit of these German Palatines in 'New York, J^orth 
and South Carolina, by the benevolent Queen Anne, 
of which more shall be said in this history at the 
proper place. 

Charles II, king of Spain, departed this life 
E'ovember 1st, 1700, without having been blessed 
with any heir in his own immediate family as a 
successor to his throne. He was the last scion of 
that branch of the Hapsburg family which bore 
the rule in Spain for nearly two hundred years. 
In Austria the house of Hapsburg has been the 
occupant of the throne from A. I). 1273 to the 
present day, a period of about six hundred years; 
and on account of its distant relationship with the 
ruhng family of Spain, one of the sons of Leopold 
I, king of Austria, was the natural successor to 
the vacant throne. 

This matter v^ould have been thus adjudged by 
all Europe without any difficulty, had not Louis 
XIV, king of France, by intrigue and persuasion, 
induced Charles, shortly before his decease, to make 
a will, in which he nominated Philip, a grandson 
of Louis, to be his successor to the Spanish throne. 
This involved the question of the Spanish succes- 
sion in a difficulty, which agitated all Europe at 
the commencement of the eighteenth century, as 
it became a question of state policy which threat- 
ened to disarrange the system of equilibrium of 


power in Europe. Should the Bourbon family 
become possessed of the thrones of France and 
Spain, a power would then have been established 
which could and would overawe all the kingdoms 
and minor states of Europe, to the destruction ot 
their independence and, perhaps, of their religion. 
Hence it was that all the powers of Europe became 
interested in the proper settlement of this vexa- 
tious affair of state. 

The vacant throne of Spain presented a most 
tempting object of desire to the two claimants, for 
at that time Spain was in the enjoyment of the 
zenith of her wealth and glory ; her rule extended 
over the JSTetherlands, Naples, Sicily, Milan, and 
the larger portion of America — a handsome legacy 
indeed, of wealth, power, and regal glory for the 
fortunate successor of the deceased Charles. What 
a blessing it would have been for Europe for a 
court of law to have decided this matter, as is done 
in all other cases of disputed inheritance ; or, if 
resort must have been had to a conflict of arms, 
the persons immediately interested to have fought 
it out among themselves, without dragging their 
unfortunate subjects and neighbors into the bloody 

In this manner originated this dreadful conflict, 
known in history as the " War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession," which raged so fiercely in Europe for a 
period of thirteen years. 

Leopold I, Emperor of Austria, had two sons, 
Joseph I, heir-apparent to his father's throne, and 
Archduke Charles, whom his father expected to 


wear the crown of Spain, as the legitimate suc- 
cessor of his kinsman, Charles II. The King of 
France, Louis XIV, had no son living, hut his two 
grandsons became the object of his care and solici- 
tude. Louis, the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XV, 
was heir-apparent to the throne of France, and 
Philip, Duke of Anjou, afterwards Phihp V of 
Spain, was the person named in Charles's will as 
his successor. 

The French king enlisted France, Spain, and 
the Electorates of Bavaria and Cologne on his 
side; whilst the Emperor of Austria induced the 
German States, the Netherlands, and England to 
declare themselves in favor of the house of Haps- 
burg. Denmark permitted herself to be subsidized 
by England, and arrayed herself also on the side 
of the allies against France. The countries, which 
felt the direful effects of the war most severely, 
were Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the 
Netherlands, as all of these countries became the 
theatre for the bloody strife. 

The war had lasted several years, when Leopold, 
Emperor of Austria, died, A.D. 1705, and his 
eldest son, Joseph I, ascended the imperial throne 
as his successor, but without producing any change 
in the progress of the war, which was waged on 
both sides as fiercely as ever, and in which the allied 
Austrian powers were in the main successful, and 
Louis XIV would soon have been so humbled as 
to withdraw his claim to the Spanish throne ; how- 
ever, the new Emperor of Austria, Joseph I, died 
in the year 1711, leaving no issue, when his brother, 


the Archduke Charles, succeeded to the vacant 
throne. This event so materiallj^ attected the 
question in dispute, that it promised a speedy re- 
turn of peace. 

The derangement of the State system of Europe 
of equilihrium of power was now more to be 
dreaded in the Ilapsburg family, by uniting the 
crowns of Austria and Spain, as in the Bourbon 
family reigning in France ; consequently, England 
and some of the other European States were pre- 
pared for terms of settlement ; and Charles of Aus- 
tria could have been no longer so anxious for the 
throne of Spain, since he had come into possession 
of the crowns of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia. 

A change of administration in England inter- 
rupted for a season the settlement of the difficulty; 
however, all matters were finally adjusted at the 
Congress of Utrecht and Rastadt, A.D. 1713 and 
1714, when it was agreed that Philip V, Duke of 
Anjou, and grandson of Louis XIV, should suc- 
ceed to the Spanish throne, with the proviso that 
France and Spain shall be, and forever remain, 
separate kingdoms; that the crowns of these two 
kingdoms shall never descend upon one head, in 
order that the equilibrium of State power in Eu- 
rope should in no wise be disturbed; and thus has 
the Bourbon family, until recently, occupied the 
throne of Spain, except for the short time when 
Napoleon I disturbed the peace of all Europe at 
the commencement of the present century. 

It is not necessary to give an account of the 
• battles that were fought during this war, or to 


name the generals who became conspicuous in the 
strife, or to enumerate the principles, rights, privi- 
leges, towns, and fortresses which each nation se- 
cured or lost at the peace of Utrecht and Rastadt; 
our purposes will be served by turning our atten- 
tion to Germany, and notice the dire effects of this 
cruel war upon its peaceful inhabitants. 

In order to gain his end, and the sooner to se- 
cure his coveted prize, Louis XIV carried his war 
into all Germany, except Bavaria and Cologne, 
which countries belonged to his allies; besides, 
being a bigoted Romanist, aud the inhabitants of 
Germany being nearly all Protestants, he had a 
twofold motive in carrying fire and sword, desola- 
tion and ruin, wherever he sent his army among 
our German forefathers, who were residing so 
peacefully and prosperously in those countries 
bordering on the beautiful Rhine, insomuch that 
a proverb arose among them, "We dread the 
French, as well as the Turks, as enemies of our 
holy religion." 

The peaceful inhabitants of the Palatinate, plun- 
dered of all their earthly possessions, were driven 
in midwinter as exiles from their native land to 
seek an asylum in some safe and friendly country. 
They beheld their comfortable cottages and once 
amply-filled barns and storehouses smouldering in 
the flames behind them, whilst they and their 
helpless wives and children, ruined in worldly 
prosperity, naked, feeble, and in a starving condi- 
tion, were wending their weary way over vast 
fields of snow and ice, leaving their bloody foot- 


prints in the frozen snow, seeking shelter and 
finding none. l^umhers perished by tlie way, 
others dragged along their feeble bodies until at 
last they found safety in the Netherlands, and 
from thence they journeyed into England. This 
is no overdrawn picture. Says a distinguished 
writer:* "The ravages of Louis XIV in the beau- 
tiful valleys of the Rhine, were more fierce and 
cruel than even Mahometans could have had the 
heart to perpetrate. Private dwellings were razed 
to the ground, fields laid waste, cities burnt, 
churches demolished, and the fruits of industry 
wantonly and ruthlessly destroyed. But three 
days of grace were allowed to the wretched in- 
habitants to flee their country, and in a short time, 
the historian tells us, ' the roads were blackened 
by innumerable multitudes of men, women, and 
children, flying from their homes. Many died of 
cold and hunger; but enough survived to fill the 
streets of all the cities of Europe with lean and 
squalid beggars, who had once been thriving 
farmers and shopkeepers.' " 

The cruel-hearted Louis exhibited no mercy to 
his own French-Protestant subjects at the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of ISTantes, but persecuted them 
with fire and sword, and drove them from his 
realm, though their loss would be greatly felt in 
France; would he then be less lenient to those 
foreigners whom he regarded both as his political 
enemies as well as his spiritual foes, inasmuch as 

* Kev. Dr. Thornwell, 


they were believers in the principles of the Refor- 
mation ? Thus were these inhabitants of the 
Palatinate continually harassed by the French 
army, until they were safely landed in England. 
The good Queen Anne had invited them to her 
realm, and thither they flocked by thousands, 
where they were kindly treated and hospitably 

'It occurred to the benevolent Queen, that she 
could better provide for these poor Palatines by 
inducing them to become settlers in her American 
colonies, where all classes of useful citizens were 
greatly needed. Accordingly, some were settled 
in the Province of New York ; others again were 
brought over by De Grati'enreid and Mitchell to 
Newberne, North Carolina; and some found a 
home in various portions of the colony of South 
Carolina, principally in Charleston and along the 
banks of the Congaree, Saluda, and Broad Rivers; 
whilst others can be traced to have settled in 
Orangeburg District, and some along the Savan- 
nah River, occupying some of the most fertile 
valleys of that Province. 

Thus they became at length happily, and, to all 
appearances, safely located. Every possible ar- 
rangement was made by the Queen to provide not 
only comfortable homes for these unfortunate 
refugees, but likewise extensive grants of land for 
churches, pastorates, glebes, and schools for the 
education of their children. 

When these persecuted German Protestants 
journeyed to America, they brought with them 


their Bibles, hj-mn-books, catechisms, and other 
religious books for edification and instruction; 
and, what was still better, thej brought with them 
the pearl of great price, their religion, their piety, 
and their habits of devotion, and thus they be- 
came, in a great measure, the salt of the earth to 
all around them where they were located. 

"Whilst it is true that the War of the Spanish 
Succession left its dire effects upon the face of the 
lovely countries along the Rhine, and that the 
peaceful inhabitants, wiio were innocent in bring- 
ing it about, were nevertheless the principal suf- 
ferers, whilst wicked and designing men were the 
agents of this dreadful scourge; yet God, for wise 
purposes, permitted them to afflict and humble his 
people; America stood in need of pious, industri- 
ous, and useful settlers, who might otherwise 
never have departed from their comfortable and 
happy homes in the Fatherland, but who now came 
flocking to the l!^ew World in great numbers, to 
build up Christ's kingdom in a rising and future 
prosperous country. Time, progress, and indus- 
try — the powerful healers of all national troubles — 
would eventually rectify the devastations, and re- 
build the ruins which war had made in the Palat- 
inate, whilst America became blessed in her policy 
of being the asylum for the oppressed of all na- 

It is, however, sad to reflect that these German 
refugees did not improve the advantages offered 
and granted them for churches and schools by 
the benevolent Queen of Enoland ; their olebes. 



pastorates, and school-tracts were suffered to re- 
main unoccupied by themselves and their de- 
scendants, until these grants and privileges were 
forgotten, and the lands otherwise disposed of. 
A large body of land, now forming a county in 
South Carolina, and yet remembered by the name 
of " the Saxe-Gotha tract," situated along the 
banks of the Congaree River, which was once 
allotted by Queen Anne for this purpose, was 
finally lost to the Church, although the Germans 
made settlements in that vicinity at a later date. 
What an immense amount of wealth might have 
been preserved to the Lutheran Church, to ad- 
vance religion and education among the descend- 
ants of these Palatines and other German settlers 
to their latest generation, in the different colonies 
of America, where these grants were located. 

Section Jf. The. Mission Societies established in Europe 
for the benefit of the early settlers in America. 

It is not to be supposed that the various colonists 
of America were soon forgotten by their friends 
and relatives in the old country, or were neglected 
by their former spiritual shepherds. We send 
missionaries, at the present time, to nations still 
benighted with heathenism, and not at all con- 
nected with us by the strong ties of consanguinity; 
how much more would the European Christians 
feel interested in the progress of evangelization 
in this Western world, where their own kindred 
resided, who were of the same household of faith, 



and from whom they occasionally received infor- 
mation by letters, beseeching them to send them 
ministers of the gospel to break the bread of 
eternal life to them. 

Some of the colonists, like the Salzburgers, took 
their pastors with them to America; others were 
not so fortunate; and all had need of more min- 
isters, in order that they might regularly enjoy 
the administration of all the means of grace. Con- 
sequently, various mission societies were formed 
in Europe among the Episcopalians, the Lutherans, 
the Moravians, and, perhaps, some other denom- 
inations, to meet this want. A society of this kind 
seems to have been first organized in England, called 
" The Society for Promoting the Knowledge of 
Christ in Foreign Parts," with which the Lutheran 
Church on the Continent must have been in some 
way connected, having her directors in that institu- 
tion, such as, the Rev. Dr. Ziegenhagen, Lutheran 
chaplain at the Court of St. James, London ; Pev. 
Dr. Urlsperger, pastor of St. AnnaLutheran Church 
of Augsburg; Rev. Dr. Francke, sou of tbe founder 
of the Orphan House al: Halle; this missionary in- 
stitution is also noticed in many historical works 
under its Latin title, " Societas promovenda cog- 
nitione Christi," and was exceedingly effective in 
doing great good in this country; under its care 
the mission in Ebenezer, Georgia, was placed; it 
not only supported their pastors, but built their 
churches and endowed them by various investments. 

These Ebenezer pastors were in duty bound to 
report minutely, extensively, and frequently to the 


missionary board in Europe, or Fathers (as they 
were then called); which reports were published 
by Dr. Urlsperger, of Augsburg, for the purpose 
of keeping up the interest in Germany in behalf 
of this mission in Georgia; they are still extant, 
and known by the name of " The Urlsperger 

The University of Halle organized a separate 
mission society, which was altogether under Lu- 
theran management. It was this society that sent 
Rev. H. M. Muhlenberg, D.D., and other Lutheran 
ministers to the Province of Pennsylvania, who 
labored there among the German settlers. Their 
missionary reports were sent to the society in 
Halle, where they were likewise published, and 
are now known by the double name of " Die Hal- 
lische Nachrichten," or "Die Pennsylvanische 
Nachrichten," many copies of which are still pre- 
served in the libraries of several Lutheran colleges 
in the United States, to which they were donated 
by a great-grandson of the Halle Society's first mis- 
sionary, H. H. Muhlenberg, M.D., of Reading, Pa. 

At a later period another mission society was 
organized in Germany by the professors of the 
Julius Charles University, located in Helmstaedt, 
Duchy of Brunswick. This society sent a number 
of laborers to North Carolina. Rev. Dr. Velthu- 
sen was the leading spirit of that organization, 
which provided for the support of Rev. Nussmann, 
and sent out Revs. Storch and Roschen to labor 
among the scattered and neglected Germans in 
North Carolina. 


The reports of these missionaries were published 
from time to time, as soon as they reached the 
Society in Hehnstaedt. Some of them have re- 
cently been brought to light, but others are still 
missing. They are interesting to the antiquarian, 
and though not voluminous, they supply an im- 
portant link in the chain of narrative concerning 
the German settlers in North Carolina. 

Ko documents can be more valuable to the his- 
torian than the reports of these missionaries, which 
were written by learned, conscientious and reliable 
men, who were themselves residents in the colo- ' 
nies, and were well acquainted with facts that 
transpired under their immediate observation. An 
insight into the difficulties, the customs, and the < 
spirit of those times is thus furnished, which en- 
ables the writer of history to understand the more, 
readily the events of a succeeding age, which are 
but imperfectly reported in isolated state docu- 

Section 5. John Lederer's Explorations, A.D. 1670.^ 

Having now furnished the reader with such his- 
torical facts of a general character, which must 
necessarily be known in order to understand cor-^ 
rectly the history of the German colonies in the - 
Carolinas, inasmuch as those facts likewise apply- 
to these two provinces, and frequent allusion must , 
be made to those events, it is time to confine our, 
attention to the principal subject of this history^ 
which is introduced by an account of John Leder- 
er's explorations. This will afford us an insight 


into the condition of these two provinces before 
they were colonized to any extent. This narrative 
of Lederer's explorations will be none the less 
welcome to the reader, when it is remembered that 
this early explorer was of the same nation, whose 
history in the Carolinas is made the subject of this 

Thus the first German that set foot upon the 
soil of Carolina was John Lederer, who was sent 
on three different expeditions by Sir William 
Berkeley, Governor of the Colony of Virginia, to 
explore the lands lying south and west of the James 
River, during the years 1669 and 1670. 

From his map of the country which he explored, 
as well as from his journal, we gather the fact that 
he passed through ITorth Carolina, and proceeded 
as far into South Carolina as the Santee River. 
North and South Carolina were at that time one 
province, and had passed, but a few years previous, 
^A.D. 1663, by a grant of Charles II, into the hands 
of several noblemen in England, who were styled 
." The Lords-Proprietors." 

At the time when Lederer made his first explor- 
|ing tour, South Carolina was destitute of any white 
settlers, whilst the eastern portion of JSTorth Caro- 
lina had been improved by only two small colo- 
nies, the one on Albemarle Sound, the other on 
Clarendon (now Cape Fear) River. The entire 
'interior and western part of North Carolina, with 
ihe whole of the territory of South Carolina, con- 
stituted as yet the undisturbed home of the red 
man of the forest. However, the same year that 


John Lederer reached the interior of South Caro- 
lina, the first English colony, under Colonel Wil- 
liam Sayle as their Governor, arrived at Port 
Royal, near Beaufort, and a few months later 
located themselves, "for the convenience of pas- 
turage and tillage," on the banks of the Ashley 
River, and near its mouth laid the foundation of 
Old Charlestown, A. D. 1670. 

Lederer was a man of learning. His journal 
was written in the Latin language, his map indi- 
cates a knowledge of geographical calculation, 
considering the circumstances and advantages of 
those times, and the difficulties under which he 
labored. The translator of his journal. Sir Wil- 
liam Talbot, Governor of Maryland, also speaks 
highly of his literary attainments. 

Concerning his courageous and enterprising 
disposition and the success of his explorations, we 
must permit Rev. Dr. Hawks to speak, who in- 
forms us that "John Lederer was a learned Ger- 
man, who lived in Virginia during the administra- 
tion of Sir William Berkeley. Little was then 
known of the mountainous part of that State, or 
of what was beyond. Berkeley commissioned 
Lederer to make explorations, and accordingly he 
went upon three several expeditions. The first 
was from the head of York River due west to the 
Appalachian Mountains. The second was from 
the falls of the James River west and southwest, 
which brought him into Carolina. The third was 
from the falls of the Rappahannock westward to- 
wards the mountains. 


" Certain Englishmen were appointed by Berke- 
ley to accompany him. These, however, forsook 
him, and turned back. Lederer proceeded not- 
withstanding alone, and on his return to Virginia, 
which, by the way, was never expected, met with 
insult and reproaches, instead of the cordial wel- 
come to which he was entitled. For this he was 
indebted to his English companions who had for- 
saken him ; and so active were they in creating a 
prejudice against him, that he was not safe among 
the people of Virginia, who had been told that the 
public taxes of that year had all been expended in 
his wanderings." 

Thus it appears that, like Christopher Colum- 
bus, John Lederer never received that respect and 
gratitude which was due him by his fellow-citi- 
zens, though they were greatly benefited by his 
scientific and hazardous exploits. How frequently 
does it happen that to future generations it is left 
to award tribute of just praise to merit, which an 
ignorant and selfish populace could not appreciate, 
who persecute their contemporaries for having ex- 
celled their fellow-men in literature, science, or 
moral excellence. 

The following brief extract from Lederer's jour- 
nal will afford us a nearer acquaintance with the 
character and attainments of this worthy and sci- 
entific German. 

"The 20th of May, 1670, one Major Harris and 
myself, with twenty Christian horse (horsemen) 
and five Indians, marched from the falls of the 
James River, in Virginia, towards the Monakins; 


and on the 22d we were welcomed by them with 
volleys of shot. Near this village we observed a 
pyramid of stones piled up together, which their 
priests told ns was the number of an Indian colony, 
drawn out by lot from a neighbor country over- 
peopled, and led hither by one Monack, from 
whom they take the name Monakin. Here, in- 
quiring the way to the mountains, an ancient man 
described with a staff two paths on the ground, 
one pointing to the Mahocks, and the other to the 
ITahyssans. But my English companions, slight- 
ing the Indian's directions, shaped their course by 
the compass due west; and, therefore, it fell out 
with us as it does with those land-crabs, that, 
crawling backward in a direct line, avoid not the 
trees that stand in their way, but climbing over 
their very tops, come down again on the other 
side, and so after a day's labor gain not above two 
feet of ground. Thus we, obstinately pursuing a 
due west course, rode over steep and ragged cliffs, 
which beat our horses quite off the hoof. In these 
mountains we wandered from the 25th of May till 
the 3d of June, finding very little sustenance for 
man or horse, as these places are destitute both of 
grain and herbage. 

"The 3d of June we came to the south branch 
of the James River, which Major Harris, observ- 
ing to run northwardly, vainly imagined to be an 
arm of the lake of Canada, and was so transported 
with this fancy that he would have raised a pillar 
to the discovery if the fear of the Mahock Indians 
and want of food had permitted him to stay. 


Here I moved to cross the river and march on, 
but the rest of the company were so weary of tlie 
enterprise that, crying out, one and all, they would 
have offered violence to me had I not been pro- 
vided with a private commission from the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia to proceed though the rest of 
the company should abandon me, the sight of 
which laid their fnry. 

"The air in these parts was so moist that all 
our biscuits became mouldy and unfit to be eaten, 
so that some nicer stomachs, who at our setting 
out laughed at my provision of Indian corn meal 
parched, would gladly now have shared with me; 
but I being determined to go upon further discov- 
eries, refused to part with any of that which was 
to be my most necessary sustenance. The 5th of 
June my company and I parted good friends, they 
back again, and I, with one Susquehannah Indian 
only, named Jackzetavon, in pursuit of my first 
enterprise, changing my course from west to 
southwest and by south, to avoid the mountains. 
Major Harris, in parting, gave me a gnu, believ- 
ing me a lost man, and given up as a prey to In- 
dians or savage beasts, which made him the bolder 
to report strange things in his own praise and my 
disparagement, presuming I would never appear 
to disprove him. This, I suppose, and no other, 
was the cause that he did with so much industry 
procure me discredit and odium; but I have lost 
nothing by it but what I never studied to gain, 
which is popular applause." 

Lederer had several narrow escapes among the 


Indians; often was he in danger of losing his life, 
or of being taken captive; bnt at other times he 
was kindly treated by tliem, and, on one occasion, 
the daughter of one of their Indian kings was 
oflered to him in marriage, which courtes}', how- 
ever, he declined, and pursued his exploring jour- 
ney to the close, ending it at Lake Ushery. This 
lake is supposed to be nothing more than a por- 
tion of the waters of Santee River in South Caro- 
lina, as we learn from the narrative of Col. Byrd, 
that the Indians who were living along the Santee 
River were called Usheries. Besides, if we presume 
that Lederer was in possession of the instruments 
necessary to make correct calculations of degrees 
of latitude, we are tiien warranted to conclude, 
from the fac-simile of his map, where the degrees 
of latitude are noted on the margin, that his travels 
extended as far south as 33J degrees, north lati- 
tude, which would likewise fix the terminus of his 
journey on or near the banks of the Santee River, 
and the lake of which he speaks must have been 
one of those immense swamps with which this 
river abounds. 

On his homeward journey he took another route, 
and arrived safely in Virginia, where he was re- 
proached and insulted in such a manner that he 
went to Maryland, where he finall}- succeeded in 
obtaining a hearing from the Governor, Sir Wil- 
liam Talbot, and in submitting his papers to him. 
The Governor, though at first much prejudiced 
against the man bj^ the stories he had heard, yet 
found him, as he says, "a modest, ingenious per- 


son, and a pretty scholar;" and Lederer vindicated 
himself "with so convincing reason and circum- 
stance," as Governor Talbot says, that he quite 
removed all unfavorable impressions, and the 
governor himself took the trouble to translate his 
journal from the Latin, and published Lederer's 
account of his explorations. 

The influence that this German explorer exerted 
by his account of the country he visited must have 
had its effect in the speed}' settling of the Carolinas, 
inducing many of our forefathers to emigrate to 
this country, and seek their fortunes in the wilds 
of America; it is certain that, but ten years later, 
in 1680, the tide of German emigration to America 
commenced its flow; doubtless such men as John 
Lederer, and later, Louis Mitchell, whose journals 
of explorations were published, contributed greatly 
towards producing this happy result, and in mak- 
ing America wealtliy in the development of her 
agricultural resources, when the thrifty farmers of 
Germany tilled her virgin soil. 

Section 6. Tlie Dutch colony of Lutherans on James 
Island^ South Carolina^ A.D. 167^. 

The only settlement in South Carolina at this 
period was Old Charlestown, located on the 
Ashley River, several miles distant from where 
the present Charleston now stands. The settlers, 
who had been located there but little over three 
years, struggled for a name and existence against 
famine and other adverse circumstances, when, 


fortunately, "during tlie time Sir John Yeamans 
was governor of Carolina, the colony received 
a great addition to its strength from the Dutch 
settlement of Nova Belgia," now New York, 
which province surrendered, as is well known, 
without any resistance, to the armament com- 
manded by Sir Robert Carr, and became subject 
to the British crown. 

" Charles II donated Nova Belgia to his brother, 
the I)uke of York," after whom its name was 
changed to New York, "who governed it with 
the same arbitrary principles which afterwards 
rendered him so obnoxious to the English nation. 
After the conquest many of the Dutch colonists 
who were discontented with their situation, had 
formed resolutions of moving to other provinces. 
The proprietors of Carolina ofiered them lands and 
encouragement in their Palatinate, and sent their 
ships. Blessing and Phoenix, which brought a 
number of Dutch families to Charlestown. 

"Stephen Bull, surveyor-general of the colony, 
had instruction to mark out lands on the south- 
west side of Ashley River, viz., on James Island, 
for their accommodation. There each of the 
Dutch emigrants drew lots for their property, and 
founded a town, which was called Jamestown. 
This was the first colony of Dutch who settled 
in Carolina, whose industry surmounted incredible 
hardships, and whose success induced many from 
ancient Belgia afterwards to follow them to the 
Western world." {Hewatt's Hist, of S. C. and Geo., 
vol. i, p. 73.) 



Whether these Dutch settlers had their pastor 
or not, liistory does not inform ns; it is known, 
however, that they constituted a distinct class 
among tliose numerous dissenters, who protested 
against that unjust legislation of A.D. 1704, which 
established the Church of England in the two 
Caroliuas as the Church of the State, and sup- 
ported by the public treasury. A full account of 
this transaction may not be uninteresting, and ap- 
pears to be necessary for the better understanding 
of all the facts and circumstances in the case; the 
following narrative is gathered from various his- 
torical w^orks. 

The two first acts of the Legislature, which have 
been found in the records of the Secretary's office, 
were but right and proper. Tliej^ enjoined the 
observance of the Lord's day, commonly called 
Sunday, and prohibited sundry gross immoralities, 
particularly "idleness, drunkenness, and swear- 
ing;" thus far the Government aided religion in 
the colony. [Baivsai/s Hist, of S. C, vol. ii, p. 2 ) 

"Both parts of Carolina were in a deplorable 
state as to religion. Such of the inhabitants as 
were born, or had grown up to manhood, in Caro- 
lina, were almost utter strangers to any public 
worship of the Deit}'. Among the first emigrants 
some sense of religion had been, for a while, pre- 
served; but the next generation, reared in a wil- 
derness in which divine service was hardly ever 
performed, and where private devotions cannot be 
supposed to have been much attended to, were 
rather remarkable for loose, licentious principles, 


and the fundamental doctrines of the Christian 
religion were often treated with the ridicule of 
professed iniidelit}'. The population of the colony 
was composed of individuals of different nations, 
and consequently of various sects: Scotch Presb}'- 
terians, Dutch Lutherans, French Calvinists, Irish 
Catholics, English Churchmen, Quakers, and Dis- 
senters, emigrants from Bermuda and the West 
Indies, which, from their late settlements, could 
not be places remarkable for the education of 
young people in Christianity and morality." [Mar- 
iin's Bist. of N. C, vol. i, p. 218.) 

"In the year 1698, one step farther was taken 
by an act of the Legislature ' to settle a mainte- 
nance on a minister of the Church of England in 
Charleston.' This excited neither suspicion nor 
alarm among the Dissenters, for the minister in 
whose favor the law operated Avas a worthy, good 
man ; and the small sum allowed him was inade- 
quate to his services. However, the precedent 
thus set by the Legislature, being acquiesced in 
by the people, paved the way for an ecclesiastical 
establishment. In the year 1704, when the white 
population of South Carolina was between five 
and six thousand, when the Episcopalians had 
only one church in the province, and the Dis- 
senters had three in Charleston, and one in the 
countr}', the former were so far favored as to ob- 
tain a legal establisliment. Most of the proprietors 
and jniblic officers of the province, and particu- 
larly the Governor, Sir Nathaniel Johnson, were 
zealouslv attached to the Church of Eno-land. 


Believing in the current creed of the times, that 
an established religion was essential to the sup- 
port of civil government, they concerted measures 
for endowing the church of the mother country, 
and advancing it in Carolina to a legal pre-emi- 
nence." [Ramsay, vol. ii, p. 2.) 

"Preparatory thereto Governor Johnson, as- 
sisted by the principal officers of the southern 
part of the province, exerted his influence with 
so much success, as to procure the election of a 
sufficient number of Episcopalians, who were dis- 
posed to forward his views. Notwithstanding the 
great opposition which the bill received, it passed 
into law. The southern part of Carolina was di- 
vided into ten parishes, and provision was made 
for the support of ministers, the erection of 
churches and glebes; and an act was passed re- 
quiring members of Assembly to conform to the 
religious worship in the province, according to 
the Church of England, and to receive the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper according to the rites 
and usages of that Church." {Martin, vol. i, pp. 
218, 219.) 

" This act passed the lower house by a majority 
of only one vote. It virtually excluded from a 
seat in the Legislature all who were Dissenters, 
erected an aristocracy, and gave a monopoly of 
power to one sect, though far from being a ma- 
jority of the inhabitants. Li this way did Gran- 
ville, one of the Lords-Proprietors, who had thus 
instructed the governors of Carolina, expect to 
effect his pui-poses of impious bigotry ; he, how- 


ever, found it very Lard work in which he was 
engaged, to fuse by one act of human legishitiou 
all the various dissenting denominations into one 
lump of piety and orthodoxy. The usual conse- 
quences followed. Animosities took place and 
spread in every direction. Moderate men of the 
favored church considered the law impolitic and 
hostile to the prosperity of the province. Dis- 
senters of all denominations, both in North and 
South Carolina, made a common cause in endeav- 
oring to obtain its repeal. The inhabitants of 
Colleton, which was chiefly settled by Dissenters, 
drew up a statement of their sufferings by this 
oppressive act, which they transmitted by John 
Ashe, an influential character among them, to lay 
their grievances before the Lords-Proprietors. 

" The Governor succeeded in preventing this 
gentleman's obtaining a passage to England in any 
of the ships in Charleston ; he was therefore com- 
pelled to travel by land to Virginia, where he em- 
barked. On his way he stopped in the county of 
Albemarle, where he was received with great re- 
spect and cordiality, and the people, feeling the 
same interest as his constituents in the object of 
his mission, prevailed on Edmund Porter to ac- 
company him, in order to aid, by the representa- 
tions of the people of the northern part of the 
province, the object which the people of Carolina 
had much at heart." {Ramsay, vol. ii, p. 3.) 

When these commissioners from N^orth and 
South Carolina arrived in England, the Palatine 


received them as "the emissaries of their lord- 
ships' vassals," with considerable coldness. 

Mr. Ashe, unable to efiect the object of his mis- 
sion by his representations to the Lords-Proprie- 
tors, and finding the public sentiment in his favor, 
determined on raising it into action, by a candid 
representation of the grievances of his constituents; 
but death prevented the intended appeal. His 
papers fell into the hands of those who had an in- 
terest to suppress the expression of his sentiments. 
Thus was this first efibrt of the people to throw off 
a galling ecclesiastical 3- oke frustrated ; it proved 
a failure for that time. 

Sir Nathaniel Johnson, governor of Carolina, 
Intent upon carrying the Palatine's views into exe- 
cution, overcame every obstacle in his way. A cor- 
poration, composed of twenty individuals, w^as in- 
stituted, with power to exercise high ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction. Authority w^as given it to deprive 
ministers of their livings, and the acts of the Leo^is- 
lature, of which John Ashe had gone to procure 
the repeal, were executed with great zeal and 
rigor. Thus did Lord Granville, a bigoted mem- 
ber of the Church of England, who had instructed 
Governor Johnson to establish that church by 
legal enactment, effect his purpose. 

The Dissenters of all denominations were exas- 
perated ; a migration to Pennsylvania was spoken 
of, but it was at last determined to send Joseph 
Boon to England, with a petition to the House of 
Lords. On the introduction to this petition, the 
House, on motion of Lord Granville, the Palatine 


of Carolina, heard counsel at its bar, in behalf of 
the Lords-Proprietors, and, after some debate, 
came to a resolution, " that the laws complained 
of were founded on falsity in matter of fact, re- 
pugnant to the laws of England, contrary to the 
charter of the Lords-Proprietors, an encourage- 
ment to atheism and irreligion, destructive to 
trade, and tended to the ruin and depopulation of 
the province." 

The Lords next addressed the Queen, beseeching 
her to use the most effectual means to deliver the 
Province of Carolina from the "arbitrary oppres- 
sion under which it lay, and to order the pro- 
prietors of it to be prosecuted according to law." 
The subject was referred to the Lords-Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations, who reported 
that the tacts stated in the petition were true; 
that the powers granted by the charter had been 
abused; that the grantees had incurred a forfeiture 
of it; and recommended that process might be 
ordered to issue accordingly against their lord- 

The Queen's law servants were thereupon di- 
rected to procure a writ of quo warranto, and to 
report what might more effectually be done, in 
order that the Queen might take the government 
of Carolina into her own hands. The matter was, 
however, abandoned, and no step was taken to 
annul the charter, or to relieve the people. {Ram- 
say, vol. ii, p. 3.) 

From this narrative we learn that our Lutheran 
brethren, the Dutch colonists of South Carolina 


on James Island, likewise suffered severely by this 
impious act of human legislation, and that they 
were not attached to the principles and usages of 
the Church of England, otherwise they never 
would have been classed by all historians of the 
two Carolinas among the number of those who 
dissented from that Church, and protested against 
its establishment b}- law. 

It may be asked, what reasons we have to con- 
clude that the Dutch settlers on James Island were 
members of the Lutheran Church? To which we 
reply, that they are so denominated by all histo- 
rians who have given us an account of the oppres- 
sive act instigated by Lord Granville, and carried 
into effect by Governor N. Johnson; consequently 
we conclude that these settlers from Nova Belgia 
(now New York) were mostly, if not all, Lu- 
therans. However, should this doubt arise, that 
Englishmen were in the habit of denominating 
Germans as Dutch, thus confounding them with 
Hollanders, and that thus this mistake might very 
easily arise, we can safely meet this doubt with 
the fact, that at this early period, A. D. 1704, there 
were no other Lutheran Protestants, of either Ger- 
man or Swiss origin, in all the territory of the two 
Carolinas; the first German emigrants to these 
provinces were the Palatines, and they did not 
arrive at Newbern, K C, until 1709, and in South 
Carolina about the same time. Every history of 
the two provinces, as w^ell as the records in the 
office of the Secretary of the State, have been 
thoroughly examined, and no trace of any other 


Lutheran colony could be found for this early 
period. The conclusion is, therefore, correct, that 
the Dutch Lutherans mentioned are none other 
than the Dutch settlers of James Island. 

This opinion is eontirmed by examining Rev. 
Dr. Schaeffer's Early History of the Lutheran 
Church in America, in which it will be seen, 
that in Holland there were Dutch Lutherans as 
well as Dutch Reformed, at this period, and that 
a great many of the Dutch settlers of Nova Beigia 
(now ISTew York) were of the Lutheran faith, and 
were, on that very account, sorely persecuted by 
Governor Stuyvesant. Dr. Scliaetfer states, p. G4: 
" The Lutherans had long been accustomed to 
meet in their own dwellings for purposes of social 
devotion. Against these meetings, called 'con- 
venticles' in contempt, Stuyvesant published a 
fiery proclamation, showed that the Lutherans 
could expect no indulgence from him, encouraged 
the Dutch Reformed clergy in enforcing their bap- 
tismal formular}^, so obnoxious to the Lutherans, 
and continued to punish by fines and imprison- 
ment those wdio refused submission." Their first 
minister, tlie Rev. John Ernest Goetwater, who 
was sent to them by the Lutheran Consistory of 
Amsterdam, Holland, upon his arrival at jS^ew 
Amsterdam (New York), " was cited to appear 
before the civil tribunal, and forbidden to preach, 
or to hold any Lutheran 'conventicles;' in short, 
he was forthwith banished from New Amsterdam ; 
and having spent some few weeks in sickness in 
the suburbs of the city, he embarked, in the mouth 


of October, and returned to Holland." (Schacfcr, 
p. 65.) Besides, if Rev. Dr. Howe is correct in 
dating the arrival of the Dutch settlers on James 
Island, S. C, as far back as December, 1671, then 
certainly these Dutch settlers must all, or nearly 
all, have been Lutherans, for that Avas the period 
when they suffered such fierce persecutions from 
Governor Stuyvesant, before the reins of his gov- 
ernment had yet passed into the hands of the 
Enghsh, and the Dutch Lutherans were doubtless 
greatly rejoiced to have an opportunity of escap- 
ing religious intolerance, by removing to South 
Carolina in the proprietary government's ships, 
Blessing and Phoenix; all of which must of neces- 
sity stand opposed to the statement found in Dr. 
Howe's History of the Presbyterian Church in 
South Carolina, p. 86: "The Dutch settlers were 
of the Presbyterian Church of Holland." 

History also informs us of the final fate of this 
Dutch colony as follows : " The Dutch inhabitants 
of Jamestown, on James Island, afterwards find- 
ing their situation too narrow and circumscribed, 
in process of time spread themselves through the 
country, where they soon lost their individuality 
by marriage with the other settlers, and their 
town was totally deserted." {liewatl, vol. i, p. 73.) 

We sometimes meet with traces of Dutch set- 
tlers in the Carolinas and Georgia at the present 
day; they may be supposed to be the descendants 
of this early Dutch colony on James Island; they 
themselves, as well as their surnames, inform us 
that they are descendants of Dutch ancestry, but 


llio}' remember no longer tlieir own colonial liis- 
torj, it being so remote tbat even tradition has 
left them no traces of the same. Many of these 
are still in full connection with the Lutheran 
Church, and retain a strong attachment to her 
doctrines and usac-es. 

Section 7. The colony of Palatinate and Swiss Ger- 
mans in New-Berne^ North Carolina^ A.D. 1710. 

That lovely and picturesque portion of Ger- 
many, situated on both sides of the river Rhine, 
attached now to Bavaria and Baden, formed at 
one time the country' known in history as " The 
Palatinate.'' Its inhabitants were mostly Protest- 
ants, having early embraced the principles of the 
Reformation, but were compelled to suffer grievous 
persecutions on account of their religion. In 1622, 
Heidelberg, the principal city of the Palatinate, 
was laid in a heap of smouldering ruins by General 
Tilly, the leader of the Spanish army, during the 
thirty years' war between the Romanists and the 
Protestants. In the destruction of this cit}-, the 
University of Heidelberg was plundered of its 
immense library, and presented to Pope Gregory 
XY. The city was afterwards rebuilt, and re- 
mained in peace for some time, though deprived 
of much of its former greatness, until a new 
source of tribulation arose, at the time when the 
Protestant Electoral house became extinct, and a 
bloody war with France ensued, which, in 1689, 


again reduced almost the entire cit}', with its 
beautiful palace and gardens, into a heap of ruins. 

But the cup of calamit}^ and sorrow was not yet 
full for the inhabitants of this unfortunate countr^^ 
During the War of the Spanish Succession, a de- 
scription of which is given in Section 3d, page 37, 
of this history, a large number of the inhabitants 
of the Palatinate, without shelter or home, were 
driven from their fatherland to seek an asylum 
in foreign countries. A knowledge of their sad 
condition reached England, and attracted the no- 
tice of that magnanimous and tender-hearted sov- 
ereign. Queen Anne, who invited thousands of 
these unfortunate people to the hospitable shores 
of her realm, where every provision which hu- 
manity could devise was made for their welfare. 
" Great sympathy," says Dr. Hawks, in his His- 
tory of North Carolina, " was felt for these poor 
creatures, whose sin was Protestantism merely; 
the Queen of England, pitying their condition, by 
her proclamation in 1708, ofiered them protection 
in her dominions, and about twelve thousand of 
them went to England." 

Numbers of these exiles, about four thousand 
at one time, were afterwards sent, with most 
liberal provisions, to the Province of New York, 
where the benevolent Queen made them largo 
o-rants of land on the banks of the Hudson River, 


where the towns of Newburg and New A¥indsor 
now stand. Other grants were made, through the 
instrumentality of Queen Anne, by the Proprie- 
tary government, along the banks of the Con- 
garee River, in South Carolina. 


However, there were still manj of these German 
Protestants remaining in England, too poor to help 
themselves, and living npon the charities of the 
Queen and her benevolent subjects, for whom 
there had as yet no provision been made for their 
emigration to America, when Providence opened 
another and a new way before them. 

Baron Christopher deGraiFenreid, a Swiss noble- 
man from Berne, induced a large number of 
his countrj-men, about lifteen hundred souls, to 
migrate with him to America. They first landed 
in England, and whilst there the Baron met with 
Louis Mitchell in the city of London, who had been 
to America, had spent a number of years on that 
continent, and was well acquainted with the coun- 
try; he had been sent over by the Canton of 
Berne as an exploring agent, in order to search 
for a large and vacant tract of land, suitable for 
a colony, either in Pennsylvania, Virginia, or 
Carolina. These two gentlemen, acting in .con- 
cert, determined to accept of the fair proposals of 
the Lords-Proprietors, and settle their colony in 
Carolina. They accordingly purchased ten thou- 
sand acres from their lordships, which they were 
permitted to locate in one body, on or between 
the I^euse and Cape Fear Rivers, or any of their 
tributaries. They paid twenty shillings sterling 
for each hundred acres, and bound themselves to 
a quit-rent of the sum of sixpence yearly for every 
hundred. It was also agreed that instruction 
should be given to the survej-or-general to lay off 
in addition one hundred thousand acres, to be re- 


served for them twelve years. De Graff'enreid 
was then made aiid declared a landgrave. 

It now occurred to the good Queen of England 
that this would be a favorable opportunity to plant 
another colony of her adopted German Palatines 
in her transatlantic dominions, which plan was 
so satisfactory that it met with favor on alt sides. 
On the one hand, the Queen was thereby relieving 
herself of the support of these poor Germans, for 
whom she had appointed commissioners to collect 
money, and thus provide speedily for their perma- 
nent settlement, besides increasing the strength of 
her American colonies. On the other hand, these 
Germans themselves, trained to habits of industry 
and economy, could but rejoice at the prospect of 
so soon occupying their own homes, and tilling 
their own fruitful lands, dependent no longer upon 
the charities of the benevolent. The Lords-Pro- 
prietors could, of course, make no objection, as it 
was their interest to have Carolina peopled with 
frugal and industrious citizens; and De Graft'en- 
reid and Mitchell were glad enough to obtain ten- 
ants for their lands, which could but enhance the 
value thereof; and, inasmuch as the Swiss emi- 
grants were also Germans, speaking the same lan- 
guage with the Palatines, there could be no con- 
flicting interests between them ; and this addition 
of settlers could only increase the safety and pros- 
perity of the new colony. 

A negotiation, therefore, was entered into be- 
tween the Queen's commissioners, the Swiss leaders 
of the colony, and the Lords-Proprietors. Their 


articles of agrceinent were soon written and signed, 
a copy of which may be seen in Hawks' Ilistorj-, 
from wliich we learn that the number of German 
Palatines who emigrated with De Graft'enreid and 
Mitchell amounted to six hundred and fifty, filling 
two vessels; and that the most liberal provisions 
were made for them by their English friends, who 
bound their leaders to the most far-sighted pledges 
in the contract for their comfort and prosperity. 
Two hundred and fifty acres of land were to be 
given them for five years without remunei'ation, 
after which they were to pay an annual rent of two- 
pence per acre; besides, implements for agriculture 
and building were to be furnished them gratui- 
tously by De Grafl:enreid and Mitchell ; to be also 
supplied with cattle, hogs and sheep, which were 
not to be paid for until seven years after receiving 
them ; and for twelve months after their arrival 
they w^ere to be supplied with necessary food for 
themselves and families, which, likewise, was not 
to be paid for until the end of the second year 
after their arrival. "The commissioners, on their 
part, agreed to give each colonist, 3'oung and old, 
twenty shillings sterling in clothes and mone\-, 
and to pay De Grafl:enreid and Mitchell £5 10s. 
sterling a head for transportation." 

In the month of December, 1710, these Swiss 
and Palatine settlers, with their leaders, landed 
safely at the confluence of the IsTeuse and Trent 
Rivers in Kortli Carolina, where they built a town, 
wdiich they named ISTew-Berne, after the capital 
city of Switzerland, of which De Grafienreid and 


Mitchell and the majority of the colonists were 
natives. The troubles of a long and tedious voy- 
age across the Atlantic were now over; these poor 
Germans had at last found a home, and here could 
they worship God according to the doctrines and 
usages of their own Protestant religion, thanking 
their Almighty Preserver that they were safely 
beyond the reach of all Roman Catholic sovereigns. 

In the year 1711, not many months after the ar- 
rival of the De Gratfenreid colony, a dreadful In- 
dian war broke out, brought on by the agency of 
two miserable white men, Carey and John Porter, 
whose turbulent ambition did not permit them to 
submit to the authorized and lawful government 
of Hyde ; Carey, having determined to take the 
rule out of the hands of Governor Hyde, and to 
act in that capacity himself, but being unsuccess- 
ful in his attempt, resorted with his friends to the 
base and fiendish measure of stirring up the Tus- 
carora Indians "to cut off all the inhabitants of 
that part of Carolina that adhered to Mr. Hyde." 
For this purpose Carey dispatched his friend, John 
Porter, to those Indians, numbering twelve hun- 
dred fencible men, promising them great rewards 
for the accomplishment of this bloody deed. 

The white settlers had all this while lived on 
the most friendly terms with the Indians, and if 
any case of disturbance among individuals occurred 
occasionally, it was soon amicably settled by the 
law, to which both parties had recourse, and was 
equitable enough on both sides. The Indians were 
frequently employed by the whites as domestics, 


without any suspicion or alarm, they having in- 
gress and egress to and from the dwellings of the 
whites. "At length the appointed day of slaughter 
came. Twelve hundred Tuscaroras, separated into 
numerous small divisions, entered on their secret 
march. No outward manifestations of hostility 
were to be seen ; individuals were sent among the 
whites to reconnoitre, and, as usual, entered the 
houses of their doomed victims as friends. As 
night approached, large numbers appeared, as if 
seeking provisions; but still not in such quantities 
did they show themselves as to beget alarm, 

"At the dawn of day they impatiently waited 
for sunrise, which was the preconcerted signal for 
the simultaneous butchery. As soon as it arrived, 
those in the houses of the whites, and scarce a 
habitation in any settlement of the province was 
at that moment without them, gave a whoop, 
which was instantly responded to by their com- 
panions lurking in the adjacent woods, and the 
frightful work of blood began. 

"The slaughter was indiscriminate, and the 
wonder is that any white person escaped. Gray- 
haired age, and vigorous manhood, and childhood's 
lielplessness, all fared alike. One hundred and 
thirty victims were butchered in the settlements 
on Roanoke. The Swiss and Palatines around New- 
bern, to the number of sixty or more, were murdered. 
The poor Huguenots of Bath and its vicinity, to 
what number we know not, fell under the knife 
or the tomahawk. Happy he who could hide him- 
self, or escape from the scene of horror. But soon 


the torch was applied to the dwelling and store- 
lionse alike, and the concealed were forced from 
their hiding-places. 

" The incarnate fiends, with loud j^ells, then 
marched in their several divisions through the 
forests to a common centre previously designated, 
and, infuriated now hy drunkenness, staggered on 
their bloody man-hunt for the few whites, who had 
escaped the desolation of their habitations. They 
formed new parties, and scoured the country north 
of Albemarle as far westward as the Chowan. The 
carnage lasted for three days, and terminated at 
last from the disability produced in the savage by 
the combined effect of drunkenness and fatigue. 
The few colonists who had escaped slaughter, avail- 
ing themselves of the forced suspension of whole- 
sale murder, gathered together as they could with 
their arms, and stunned by the blow they had re- 
ceived, attempted at first nothing more than to 
collect the women and children, and guard them 
night and day until time would enable them to 
concert other measures." (Hcavks' Hist, of N. C, 
vol. ii, pp. 530-532.) 

A few days previous to this general massacre. 
Baron Pe Graftenreid and the surveyor-general, 
Lawson, with a negro servant belonging to the 
Baron, ascended the river Neuse in a boat for the 
purpose of inspecting the lands and make further 
explorations. Not dreaming of Indian hostilities 
they expected to spend the first night at an Indian 
village named Corutra; but finding tliat several 
Indians whom they had met were armed, they did 


not like the appearance of these things, and de- 
termined to sail up the river; but as tliej made 
for their boat they were seized by the Indians, and 
were led the next day to a council purposely con- 
vened ; but might have been liberated, as the coun- 
cil was dissolved without any apparent decision, 
had not an Indian who understood a little English, 
and listened to their conversation, told a falsehood 
against them, which so exasperated the others 
that they at once executed the negro in a manner 
not known, and poor Lawson was inhumanly 
murdered by having sharp pine splinters inserted 
in his flesh, which were then set on Are, De 
Graffenreid escaped by stating he was King of 
the German Palatines, and demanded of them by 
what authority they could put a king to death, 
especially as he had committed no oftence towards 
them. His life was accordingly spared, though he 
was still kept in custody. 

This massacre, as a necessary consequence, led 
to a war with the Indians in ISTorth Carolina, in 
which the Palatines were obliged to remain neu- 
tral, as De Grafienreid had obtained his liberty 
by a treaty of neutrality with such of the savages 
w^ho were in arms. The principal terms of the 
treaty were, that he and his Palatines on the one 
hand, and the Tuscarora and Core Indians on the 
other, should preserve friendship towards each 
other; that in the existing war with the English 
the Palatines should remain neutral, and that the 
Baron should take up no land without the consent 
of the Indians. 


The Baron adhered strictly to the terms of this 
treaty, which was, of course, not agreeable to the 
whites ill general, but which was, nevertheless, of 
great advantage to the province, "as it aflbrded 
liim an opportunity, which he improved at the 
constant risk of his life, to discover and commu- 
nicate to the whites all the Indians' plans." " This 
neutrality alone probably saved the remnant of 
the settlement at what is now Newberne from 
utter extermination. The danger of discovery, 
however, was so constant and so great, that tlie 
Baron would gladly have removed with his Pala- 
tines to Virginia." {Hawks, vol. ii, p. 536.) 

Shortly afterwards the settlers received aid from 
South Carolina against these relentless savages. 
Colonel Barnwell, with a detachment of the mili- 
tia and friendly Yemassee Indians, was sent to 
attack these hostile savages, wdio were so much 
reduced by the loss in killed, w^ounded, and pris- 
oners, that they caused the whites but little trou- 
ble afterwards, and soon removed to other parts, 
when the colony began once more to flourish 
through the benign influence of peace. 

Baron Be Graft'enreid having had a bitter expe- 
rience of Indian treatment, in whicli his life was 
in constant jeopardy, resolved to return to his 
native country, Switzerland. He, however, left 
the German Palatines, who were already suffi- 
ciently impoverished by the Indian war, in a most 
destitute condition, by withholding their titles to 
their lands, and contrary to the stipulations of the 


contract made between himself and the London 
commissioners appointed by Queen Anne. 

Williamson, in bis Histor}' of North Carolina, 
states that these poor Germans were looked upon 
by the Swiss gentlemen as mere objects of specu- 
lation, and that De Graffenreid mortgaged their 
lands to Colonel Pollock in order to satisfy a debt 
which he had incurred. Dr. Hawks, however, 
frees Louis Mitchell from all blame in this matter, 
since the power of making titles was not vested 
in him. Whether the Baron ever returned to 
America, or permitted his family to remain here 
whilst he visited his native countr}-, or whether 
after all his family liad departed from America, 
some again sought a home in Carolina, is not re- 
lated; but it is well known that his descendants 
are still residing in difierent portions of Carolina. 

The last resource left to these German Palatines 
"was to send a petition to the council, dated ]!^ovem- 
ber 6th, 1714, in which they stated that they were 
"disappointed of their lands," &c., which were to 
be provided for them, and petitioned that each 
family might have permission to take up four 
hundred acres of land, and have two years' time 
of payment allowed them. The council granted 
their petition, and represented their case to the 
Lords-Proprietors, from whom they doubtless re- 
ceived every aid and encouragement which could 
be afforded them. 

It would require yevy patient and toilsome re- 
search among the unpublished archives of Europe 
in order to answer the question positively, to what 


religious denomination these Swiss and Palatinate Ger- 
mans at Newberne professed themseloes. All the 
ListoHans of North Carolina are silent on this 
subject. However, let us not overlook such au- 
thorities which are within our reach even in this 

The present, as well as the former religious con- 
dition of Switzerland is well known. The popu- 
lation is divided into the Roman Catholic, the Re- 
formed, and the Lutheran Churches. The emi- 
grants from that country to Newberne were 
doubtless all Protestants, inasmuch as they were 
brought over by Protestant leaders, and soon after 
their arrival in North Carolina connected them- 
selves with a Protestant Church. The majority of 
them were most likely members of the Reformed 
Church, so supposed, because the Reformed Church 
is the strongest Protestant denomination in Swit- 

The German Palatines were all Protestants, inas- 
much as, on account of this "-sm," as Dr. Hawks 
ironically expresses it, they suffered such grievous 
persecutions, and Avere forced to flee from their 
native country to seek an asylum in England. 
That the greater number of Palatines were Lu- 
therans may safely be presumed ; from the exten- 
sive history of Lutheranism by Seckeudorfl", we 
learn that Lutheranism made rapid progress in the 
Palatinate at the time of the Reformation, and 
that it had greatly prevailed in that country dur- 
ing the seventeenth century, which was the time 
immediatelj'^ preceding the departure of these 


settlers from their native country. Seckendorff 
wrote his history but twenty-four years previous 
to the hist Protestant exodus from the Pahitiiiate. 

In connection witli tliis fact we have the addi- 
tional proof, that the most of those twelve thousand 
Palatine Germans, who fled to England to enjoy 
Queen Anne's protection, and who settled in New 
York and other provinces, were members of the 
Lutheran Church, and it is but reasonable to con- 
clude that their brethren in North Carolina were 
of the same faith with themselves. 

The story of their religion in their newly adopted 
country is soon told, which may be gathered from 
the correspondence between De Gratfenreid and 
the Bishop of London, published in Hawks' His- 
tory, and reads as follows : 

"My Good and Excellent Lord: 

"Tbe misfortune I met with in all being unexpect- 
edly hurried away from London to New Castle to 
meet m}^ Swissers, in order to transport them into 
North Carolina after those six hundred and fifty 
Palatines I had sent before, which unlooked-for arri- 
val of them so far north, gave me notice to pay my 
duty to your lordship, whom then, I was told, was 
neither in London nor at Fulham. I can assure your 
lordship no person of any rank is unacquainted with 
that great and good character your lordship has and 
merits. So I can make no excuse on that behalf, but 
heartily beg pardon, and at the same time humbly 
request your lordship to accept of me and my people, 
and receive us into your Church under your lordship^s 
patronage, and we shall esteem ourselves happy sons 


of a better stock, and, I hope, shall always behave 
ourselves as becomes members of the Church of Eng- 
land, and dutiful children of so pious and indulgent a 
father as your lordship is to all under j^our care, in 
all obedience. Craving your lordship's blessing to tne 
and my countrymen here, I make bold to subscribe, 
"My lord, yours, &c., 

''C. DE Graffenreid." 

The answer of the Bishop of London to this 
epistle is contained in a letter to the Secretary, an 
extract of which is furnished ns by Dr. Hawks. 

"FuLHAM, 12th January, 1711-12. 

"As to the letter of Baron Graffenreid, Avhereby 
you may perceive that they are all ready to conform 
to the Church of England: if the Society will be 
pleased to allow a stipend for a chaplain to read 
Common Prayers in High Dutch (German), I will 
endeavor to provide one so soon as I have their reso- 
lution, Avhich I would willingly hear so soon as pos- 
sible, that I may send him over with Mr. Eainsford. 
"I am, sir, yours, &c., 

" H. London." 

It is presumed that the bishop w^as successful 
in sending to this German and Swiss colony a 
clergyman of the English Church, who could 
minister to them in their native language, and 
thus these German Protestants glided gradually 
into the Episcopal Church. They may iiave been 
induced to take this step from the following mo- 
tives: they had no pastor of their own faith, and 


thns were destitute of the means of ^race ; they 
had been kindly treated by tlie English sovereign 
and her people, and a feeling of gratitude for 
tlieir benefactors led them to think very favorably 
of the religious faith of the English people; and 
furthermore, the Church of England was the 
established religion in the Carolinas. 

Some of the names of these Germans are still 
on record; in tlie list of jurymen, in Craven pre- 
cinct, dated 1723, we Und, among others, the follow- 
ing undoubted German names: Christian Eslar, 
Christian Slaver, John Lecher Aliller, Jacob Miller, 
Matthew Rasenober, John Dipp, John Simons, 
Henry Perk, Henry Perlerbo, John Wixedell, 
Michael Resabel, and Martin Eranke. ''An old 
document, signed by the Palatines," says Dr. 
Hawks, "gives us the following German names, 
yet familiar in Craven and the adjacent counties: 
Eslar (now Isler), Grum (Croom), Rennege, Mohr 
(Moore), Eibach (Hypock), Morris," and a number 
of others. " Of the Swiss, we find Coxdaille (Cog- 
dell), from whom, on the maternal side, descend 
the I^Torth Carolina branch of the families of Stanly 
and Badger." 

Section 8. The German settlers in Charleston, S. C. 

We will now direct our attention to one more 
German settlement along the seacoast, whose 
history must not be omitted, and then we will 
turn our faces inland. James Island, S. C, oppo- 
site Charleston, has had our attention ; New- 


benie, IN". C, came next; no settlement of any 
note was as yet established along the Cape Fear 
River, and Wilmington, IST. C, had no existence 
at that earl}' date; but Charleston^ the principal 
seaport of the Carolinas, was a flourishing town, 
and commanded a considerable share of the emi- 
gration to America ; and the Germans, who sought 
and found a habitation in so many parts of Amer- 
ica, during the commencement of the eighteenth 
century, also found a home in this locality. We 
have a few facts upon which we can build a very 
safe conclusion as to the probable date of the ar- 
rival of German settlers in Charleston, but no 
direct testimony has as yet been discovered, in 
which the year and day of their landing is men- 

Queen Anne of England caused lands to be do- 
nated in the Province of South Carolina to the 
German refugees from the Palatinate, as Dr. Haze- 
lius informs us in his History, p. 25 ; this must 
liave been done before the 31st of July, 1714, 
when her majesty departed this life. And we ask, 
would this grant have been made if there were 
no German Palatines remaining in her realm, or 
expected soon to arrive, for whom this location 
was provided ? Or, is it likely that none of these 
Palatine Germans came to the port of Charles- 
ton, when they were landed at the seaports of 
other provinces in America, especially as an abun- 
dance of land in the Province of South Carolina 
was provided for them, and in order to reach the 
locality of that grant they had to be landed in 


Charleston, even thouo;!! tliey did not occupy, at 
that time, the lands of that grant, as we are in- 
formed by Dr. Hazelius? 

The colony of the ],)iou8 Salzhurgers, with tlieir 
pastors, Bolzius and Gronau, landed first at Char- 
leston in the early part of March, 1734, before 
their arrival at Ei^enezer, Georgia; and in Rev. 
Bolzius' journal, found in Force's Collection of 
Historical Tracts, we have the following state- 
ment, dated " Charleston, March 7th, 1734:" " We 
found here some Germans, who were very glad 
of our arrival, and will come to us, iu order to 
receive the sacrament." 

Next comes the statement of Strobel's History 
of the Salzburgers, p. 59 : " Remaining in Charles- 
ton a few days, the Salzburgers re-embarked on 
the 9th day of March." 

In Urlsperger's ISTachrichten, Rev. Bolzius gives 
us a lengthy account of his visit to Charleston, iu 
company with Baron Von Reck, in the following 
May; he arrived there on the 23d of May, 1734, 
and left again for his home in Ebenezer, May 26th. 
Here we have the following record : " A certain 
glazier and his wife, who are from the Palatinate, 
went with us to the Holy Supper, and manifested 
great attention and earnestness; their love for the 
word of God and the holy sacraments is so great, 
that they are determined to remain no longer in 
Charleston, and have concluded to remove to 
Ebenezer as soon as possible. The}- have many 
children, which will enlaroe our small school. 


Both these parents will be very useful to us in our 
house arrangements." 

The above records settle the matter conclu- 
sively, that there were Germans residing in Char- 
leston previous to the early part of 1734; that 
they were then sufficiently numerous to have the 
word of God preached to them, and to enjoy a 
communion season ; and that some of them were 
from the Palatinate. 

But how far back we are to date their arrival 
in Charleston is uncertain ; they could not have 
settled there before 1708, as the exodus of Palat- 
inate refugees into England did not take place 
until that time, and after the Queen's proclama- 
tion, inviting them to the hospitalities of her 
realm; and they certainly were living there in 

These Germans did not occupy the lands granted 
them along the Congaree River, and for a very 
good reason ; those lands were located too far in- 
land for that period of time, being about one hun- 
dred miles remote from Charleston ; that location 
would have been an unsafe dwelling-place at the 
time, for even Orangeburg County was not much 
settled until 1735, and that locality is much nearer 
the seaboard than the Saxe-Gotha grant-on the 
Congaree River. The presumption then is, that 
when the Palatine Germans arrived at Charleston, 
they remained there and in the vicinity. 

A number of Germans having thus located them- 
selves in Charleston, and their wants having be- 
come known to the pastors of the Salzburg colony 


as they passed through to Ebenezer, these holy 
men resolved to do something for the spiritual 
welfare of their beloved brethren of the same faith 
in this town. Accordingly, on the 23d of Maj-, 
1734, Rev. Bolzius accompanied Baron Von Reck, 
Lord Commissary of the Ebenezer colony, as far 
as Charleston, on his return to Europe, where they 
remained a few days; and from Rev. Bolzius' 
journal we quote the following account of the first 
communion administered there among the Ger- 

'■'-May 23^ 173If,. — We were informed in Savannah 
where we could best lodge in Charleston, and we 
likewise found very friendly people in the hotel, 
with many accommodations there for reasonable 
charges. Several Germans of our Evangelical 
Confession mentioned to me and our Commissary 
their desire to commune at the Lord's table, for 
which they have had a great longing for a long 
time. I therefore determined to remain here over 
Sunday, and prepare the people from the word of 
God for this solemn exercise. 

'•^May '25. — Many persons of distinction in this 
place showed us great attention, and constrained 
us to dine and sup with them, which we would 
rather decline, as in so doing we would be sub- 
jected to many dissipations of mind and heart. 
To-day those persons came to me, who had noti- 
lied their intention to commune, in order that I 
might hold some scriptural conversation with 
them ; as far as time and opportunity permitted, 
I discoursed with them on the importance and 


benefit of the IIol}- Supper, as well as the require- 
ments of true Christianity. We deemed it advis- 
able that, as those persons would hear us but once 
or twice, to press home upon their hearts the most 
needful truths, and to instil upon their memory 
'the order of salvation,' together with several im- 
portant Scripture passages. 

^^Maij S6. — This day a fine opportunity presented 
itself for me to return, and arrive at Ebenezer in 
a few days, consequently, I was compelled to leave 
Charleston to-day. I therefore assembled the com- 
municants early, at 5 a.m., when we all sang sev- 
eral hymns, and I discoursed upon some of the 
important and practical truths from the gospel of 
to-day. After sermon we all fell upon our knees, 
and the Lord Commissary prayed very fervently 
to God in the name of the whole congregation. 
After the absolution and the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper, I prepared myself for the home- 
ward journey. It v.-as very remarkable to me, 
that a certain German shoemaker had also noti- 
fied himself as being desirous to commune, but he 
came to ray room after the services were ended, 
because, as he remarked, the house where I lodged 
had been locked. Afterwards I learned that this 
very man was a drinking character, who associ- 
ated himself with low company, but which I could 
neither discover in his outward appearance, nor 
from his conversation, and had presumed something 
good of him in my short intercourse with him; I 
was, therefore, rejoiced that he was prevented 
from coming to the table of the Lord. A certain 


glazier and his wife, who are from the Palatinate, 
went with us to the Holy Supper, and manifested 
great attention and earnestness; tlieir love for the 
word of God and the holy sacraments is so great 
that they are determined to remain no longer in 
Charleston, and have concluded to remove to 
Ebenezer as soon as possible. They have many 
children, which will enlarge our small school. 
Both these persons will be very useful to us in our 
house arrangements." 

In 1742 the Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, 
D.D., visited Charleston ; he had been sent from 
th^ Mission Society of Halle, in Germany, to labor 
in Pennsylvania, but it was made his duty lirst to 
visit the colony at Ebenezer, Georgia, and landed 
at Charleston on 21st of September, where he re- 
mained but three days, and then proceeded to 

Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg did not remain long with 
the pastors of the Salzburg colony, and, as soon as 
he had somewhat refreshed and strengthened him- 
self from the eft'ects of his perilous and wearisome 
■s^oyage to America, he, returned to Charleston in 
company with Rev. Bolzius, who had intended to 
accompany him to Philadelphia, and there induct 
him into his office; however, as no vessel was ex- 
pected to sail from Charleston to Philadelpha for 
several moiiths. Rev. Bolzius, after having remained 
a few days, returned to his own field of labor in 

Rev. Muhlenberg was a man of no idle habits, 
and, from the time of this, his second arrival in 


Charleston, October 20th, 1742, whilst waiting for 
iin opportunity to reach his destined field of labor, 
to JSTovember 12th of the same year, when he set 
sail in a very small and frail vessel for Philadel- 
phia, he em[)loyed himself in laboring for the 
spiritual welfare of the Germans in Charleston. 
During his stay he made his home in the family 
of a painter, named Theus, the brother of a Ger- 
man Reformed minister, who labored in Saxe- 
Gotlia, South Carolina, along the Congaree River. 
On Sundays Dr. Muhlenberg preached to several 
German families that had congregated themselves 
in Mr. Theus' house, and during the other days 
of the w^eek he catechized their children, who were 
thus instructed in all the principles of the Christian 
religion, accoi'ding to this excellent and ancient 

Eleven years later, A.D. 1753, the Revs. Chris- 
tian Rabenhorst and M. Gerock, A.M., arrived at 
Charleston, upon the same vessel, from Germany, 
on their way to their respective fields of labor; 
the former having been appointed by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge in Foreign 
Parts as the third pastor at Ebenezer, and the 
latter, as the Lutheran pastor in Lancaster, Penna. ; 
both of these ministers labored a short time in 
Charleston whilst they tarried there. 

Section 9. The Stoiss colons/ at Paryshurg ^ S. C, 
A.D. 1732. 

In Beaufort County, S. C, some thirty miles 
inland from the seacoast, and situated on the east 


bank of the Savannah River, there was once a 
flourishing German town and colonj^, named 
Piirjsburg. The inhabitants came from Switzer- 
land, and under circumstances verj' similar to 
those of the settlers of jtSTewberue, N. C. ; for, 
what De Grafienrcid and Mitchell were to the 
colony on the confluence of the iNeuse and Trent 
Eivers, that Purry, Richard, Meuron, and Ray- 
mond were to the Swiss settlers on the east side 
of the Savannah River. 

In the year 1731, "John Peter Purry, of ISTeuf- 
chatel, in Switzerland, formerlj^ a Director-Gen- 
eral of the French East-India Company, having 
formed the design of leaving his native country, 
paid a visit to Carolina in order to inform himself 
of the circumstances and situation of that province. 
After viewing the lands," and satisfying his own 
mind, by means of personal observation, of the 
fertility of the soil, eligibility as to climate and 
situation for a settlement of his countrymen, "he 
returned to Britain. The government there en- 
tered into a contract with him, and agreed to give 
him lands, and four hundred pounds sterling for 
every hundred effective men he could transport 
from Switzerland to Carolina." {31iUs' Statistics of 
South Carolina, page 369.) 

Whilst Mr. Purry was in Charleston, he drew up 
the following flattering account of the soil and cli- 
mate of South Carolina, and of the excellency and 
freedom of the provincial government, and on his 
return to Switzerland published it among the 
people. It reads as follows : 



"Proposals by Mr. Peter Purry, of Neufchatel, for the 
encouragement of such swiss protestants as should 
agree to accompany him to carolina, to settle a 
new colony. 

"There are only two methods, viz.: one for 
persons to go as servants, the other to settle on 
their own account. 

" 1. Those who are desirous to go as servants 
must be carpenters, vine-planters, husbandmen, or 
good laborers. 

" 2. They must be such as are not very poor, 
but in a condition to cany with them what is suf- 
ficient to support their common necessit3^ 

"3. They must have at least three or four good 
shirts, and a suit of clothes each. 

"4. They are to have each for their wages one 
hundred livres yearly, which make fifty crowns of 
the money of Neufchatel, in Switzerland, but their 
wages are not to commence till the day of their 
arrival in Carolina. 

"5. Expert carpenters shall have suitable en- 

"6. The time of their contract shall be three 
years, reckoning from the day of their arrival in 
that country. 

"7. They shall be supplied in part of their 
wages with money to come from Switzerland, till 
they embark for Carolina. 

"8. Their wages shall be paid them regularly 
at the end of every year ; for security whereof they 
shall have the fruits of their labor, and generally 


all that can be procured for them, whether mova- 
bles or immovables. 

"9. Victuals and lodgings from the day of their 
embarkation shall not be put to tljeir account, nor 
their passage by sea. 

"10. They shall have what money they want 
advanced during the term of their service in part 
of their wages to buy linen, clothes, and all other 

"11. If they happen to fall sick, they shall be 
lodged and nourished gratis, but their wages shall 
not go on during their illness, or that they are not 
able to work. 

"12. They shall serve, after recovery, tlie time 
they had lost during their sickness. 

"13. What goes to pay physicians or surgeons 
shall be put to their account. 

"As to those who go to settle on their own ac- 
count, they must have at least fifty crowns each, 
because their passage by sea and victuals will cost 
them twenty to twenty -iive crowns, and the rest 
of the money shall go to procure divers things 
which will be absolutely necessary for the voj'age." 
(CarroWs Collections, vol. ii, pp. 121, et seq.) 

Here follows also, from the same author : 

"A Description of the Province or South Carolina. 
Drawn up at Charles-town, in September, 1731. 

"The King of Great Britain having about three 
years ago purchased this province of the Lords- 
Proprietors thereof, has since studied to make 


agricultnre, commerce, and navigation flourish in 
it. His Majesty immediatel}' nominated Colonel 
Johnson, a worthy gentleman, to be Governor 
thereof; who, at his departure for Carolina, re- 
ceived divers orders and instructions, &c. His 
Majesty further grants to every European servant, 
whether man or woman, fifty acres of land free of 
all rents for ten years, which shall be distributed 
to them after having served their master for the 
time agreed on. 

"In consequence of these instructions, Mr. Purry 
was permitted to go and choose on the borders of 
the river Savannah land proper to build the town 
of Purysburg upon; and having found it such as 
he wished, the government made him a grant 
thereof under the great seal of the^Province, dated 
Ist September, 1731, and at the same time pub- 
lished throughout the whole country a prohibition 
to all sorts of persons to go and settle on the said 
land, which is already called the Swiss Quarter. 

"In order to facilitate the execution of this 
undertaking in the best manner, the Assembly 
granted to the said Mr. Purry four hundred pounds 
sterling, and provisions suflicient for the mainte- 
nance of three hundred persons for one year, pro- 
vided they be all persons of good repute and Swiss 
Protestants, and that they come to Carolina within 
the space of two years. 

" The river Savannah is one of the finest in all 
Carolina, the water good, and stored with excellent 
fish. It is about the largeness of the Rhine, and 


there are two forts already built upon it, wliicli 
the Indians have never dared to attack. 

"The town of Purysburg will be situated thirty 
miles from the sea, and about seven miles from 
the highest tide. The land about it is a most de- 
lightful plain, and the greatest part very good 
soil, especially for pasturage, and the rest proper 
enough for some productions. It was formerly 
called the great Yemassee Port, and is esteemed 
by the inhabitants of the Province the best place 
in all Carolina, although never yet possessed but 
by the Indians, who were driven from thence by 
the English several years ago, and have never 
dared to return thither. All sorts of trees and 
plants will grow there as well as can be wished, 
particularly vines, wheat, barley, oats, pease, beans, 
hemp, flax, cotton, tobacco, indigo, olives, orange 
trees, and citron trees, as also white mulberry 
trees for feeding of silk-worms. 

" The lands will not be diiKcult to clear, because 
there is neither stones nor brambles, but only 
great trees, which do not grow very thick, so that 
more land may be cleared there in one week than 
could be done in Switzerland in a month. The 
custom of the country' is, that after having cut 
down these great trees, they leave the stumps for 
four or five years to rot, and afterwards easily root 
them up in order to manure the land." 

The remainder of Mr. Purry's description of 
South Carolina is of so general a character that it 
would add nothing to the interest of this sketch. 
He gave such a flattering account of the country 


that many Switzers were induced to emigrate with 
him to Carolina. This document puhHshed in 
pamphlet form was then signed by four gentle- 
men, and extensively distributed. The conclusion 
reads as follows : 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, 
do attest that all which is contained in this account 
of South Carolina is the real truth, having been 
eye-witnesses of the most part of the particulars 
therein mentioned. 

" Done at Charlestown the 23d of September, 

"John Peter Purry, of Neufchatel, 
"James Richard, of Geneva, 
"Abraham Meuron, of St. Sulpy, in the 

county of Neufchatel, 
"Henry Raymond, of St. Sulpy." 

After Mr. Purry's return to Switzerland, and his 
proposals having become generally known, the 
people flocked to him without delay, and he soon 
made every preparation necessary for the safety 
and comfort of the colonists, who placed themselves 
under his charge. Mills, in his Statistics of South 
Carolina, page 369, states : "Immediately one hun- 
dred and seventy Switzers agreed to follow him, 
to be transported to the fertile and delightful prov- 
ince, as he described it," so that in a few months 
they were ready to enter upon their long voyage, 
which was doubtless a prosperous one; for they 
left England about the 1st of August, 1732, and 
arrived in Charleston during the following Novem- 


The Governor of South Carolina, agreeably to 
instructions, allowed them forty thousand acres of 
land for their settlement, which was surveyed and 
located on the east side of the Savannah River, 
where a town was laid out for their accommoda- 
tion, and named Purysburg, after the founder of 
the colony and the promoter of its settlement. The 
interest in favor of this new enterprise continued 
in Switzerland for some time. IsTot long after- 
guards some two hundred more settlers were added 
to the new colon}-, who likewise arrived safely in 

It was the intention of the Swiss settlers, in con- 
nection with tlie other more necessary articles of 
husbandry, to plant the vine, and also to give their 
attention to the rearing and manufacturing of silk, 
for which this Province appeared to be admirably 
adapted, as the climate was warm, and the soil 
very productive for the growing of a variety of 
grapes, and the planting of the white mulberry 
tree, on wliich the tender silk-worm feeds. The 
Governor and Council likewise were happy in the 
acquisition of such a force, who, by their knowl- 
edge of these various branches of industry, gave 
promise of great service to the Province. " They 
allotted to each of them a separate tract of land, 
and gave every encouragement in their power to 
the people. The Swiss emigrants began their 
labors of raising silk and planting the vine with 
uncommon zeal and energy, highly elevated with 
the idea of possessing landed estates." {31Uls, p 


Rev. Bolzius visited Purysburg on his way to 
Cliarleston, in May, 1734, not two years after its 
settlement, and speaks highly of it in his journal 
as follows: "This town is built upon the more 
elevated banks of the river, and, as many wealth}' 
people reside here, it is hoped that in a short time 
it will become a considerable town. The inhabi- 
tants labor industriously in their gardens and 
fields, and persons can already procure here fresh 
meats, eggs, garden vegetables, even more than in 
Savannah. We were shown all kindness, and sev- 
eral of the inhabitants besought us to i-eturn soon 
again, and administer the communion." 

The majorit}' of these settlers were, doubtless, 
members of the Reformed Church of Switzerland 
before they came to America; they were all Prot- 
estants, as this faith was made one of the condi- 
tions for their becoming settlers of this colony; 
a few families were connected with the Lutheran 
Church, as Rev. Bolzius' journal informs ns. The 
colony brought their own pastor with tliem, the 
Rev. Joseph Biignion, "a Swiss minister," who, 
when he arrived in England, on his way to Caro- 
lina, was induced to have Episcopal ordination laid 
upon him by the Rev. Dr. Clagett, Bishop of St. 
David's. His motives were doubtless pure, think- 
ing that the Church of England was the established 
religion in Carolina, and that he might accomplish 
as much good, with less opposition, "as a stranger 
in a strange land," if he would conform to the 
rules and worship of that Church. Whether the 
majority of the Swiss Protestants coincided with 


liim is not stated; probably many of them did so, 
but others connected themselves with the Lutheran 
Church at Ebenezer, Georgia. Rev. Mr. Biignion 
did not remain a great while among his countrj-- 
mcn at Purysburg; about the commencement of 
the year 1735 he removed to St. James, Santee. 

"In 1744 the Rev. Henry Chiftelle arrived in the 
Province as the first missionary from ' The Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts' 
to this parish. He was a native of Switzerland, 
and was ordained," as a minister of the Church 
of England, "by Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London, 
July 14th and 21st, 1734." During his time of 
service in this charge, in February, 1746, this set- 
tlement was established as a separate parish by an 
act of the legishiture, under the name and title of 
St. Peter's Parish. " The Act directed that the 
Church or Chapel, and the dwelling-house wherein 
the Rev. Mr. ChifFelle had preached and dwelt, 
should be the Parish Church and Parsonage-house 
of St. Peter's Parish. The Rector or minister was 
to be elected as in other parishes, and to receive 
a salary of £100. Proc. money. Mr. ChifFelle con- 
tinued in this mission until his death in 1758, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Abraham Imer, who 
arrived in the Province in 1760, and died in 1766." 
[Dalcho's History of the Prot. Epis. Church in South 
Carolina, pp. 385 and 386.) 

Li regard to the Lutheran element of this colony, 
we may add, that they appear to have always had 
a warm attachment to their own faith. Their con- 
tiguity to their Lutheran brethren of the Ebenezer 


colony on the other side of the Savannah River, 
as well as the zeal of the Salzburg pastors, who 
occasionally visited them, had the effect of keeping 
up the interest in their own Church for a long 
time. The following extract from the journal of 
Rev. Bolzius, as found in Force's Collection of 
Historical Tracts, abundantly proves this : " March 
19th, Mr. Oglethorpe, going to Purysburg, took 
with him one of us. Rev. Mr. Gronau, and recom- 
mended him to preach to the Germans there, which 
he accordingly did. There are three families of 
our Lutheran confession in that place. Rev. Gro- 
nau having preached for them from Gal. 2 : 20, 
they were very glad, and resolved to come con- 
stantly to our settlement, which is but a few, three 
German, miles from Purysburg to hear the word 
of God, and to receive the sacrament. They reckon 
the Salzburgers very happy in having their own 
ministers, for at Purysburg they are now without 
a minister." 

As far as can be ascertained, no Lutheran con- 
gregation was ever established in this place, as 
there were but few families of that faith in the 
colony, and these could occasionally attend divine 
worship at Ebenezer. Of the Episcopal Church 
established there, Dalcho further states : " There 
has been no incumbent since the Revolution. 
Divine service has occasionally been performed 
by visiting clergymen. No organized Episcopal 
congregation exists here at present." A.D. 1820. 

The final history of the colony is hinted at by 
Mills, page 370, from which we can draw our own 


conclusions. He states that " in a short time they 
felt the many inconveniences attending a cliange 
of climate. Several of them sickened and died, 
and others found the hardships of the first state of 
colonization much greater than they expected. 
They hecame discontented. Smarting under the 
pressure of indigence and disappointment they not 
only blamed Purry fordeceivingthem, but repented 
leaving their native country." The colony lingered 
up to the period of the Revolutionary war. Mills 
informs us that " Purysburg was the first headquar- 
ters of the American army under Lincoln in the 
Revolution. It afterwards was in possession of 
the British under Prevost." 

A large number of these Swiss settlers sought 
and found homes in other parts of Carolina, both 
before and after the Revolution, which left to 
Purysburg very little more than a name in his- 

Section 10. The German and Swiss Colonists of 
Orangeburg^ S. C, A.D. 1735. 

The story of the settling of Orangeburg, South 
Carolina is a page in the history of that State which 
has never been fully written. The cause of this 
omission can scarcely be accounted for, as ample 
materials were within the reach of former histo- 
rians. Certain outlines have been given, but noth- 
ing very satisfactory has been furnished. 

"The first white inhabitant who settled in this 
section of country was named Henry Sterling; his 


occupation, it is supposed, was that of a trader. 
He located liiraself on Lyon's Creek in the year 
1704, and obtained a grant of a tract of land, at 
present in the possession of Colonel Russel P, 
McCord." {Mills, p. 656.) 

"The next settlers were some three or four indi- 
viduals, who located themselves at the Cowpens, 
northwesterly of the low country white settle- 
ments; these, and the Cherokee and Catawba 
Indians were all the inhabitants who had pre- 
ceded the Germans." {Mills, p. 657.) 

The colonists of Orangeburg County and town 
were mostly German and Swiss, who came over 
from Europe in a large body, occupying several 
vessels, and even to the present day their descen- 
dants are easily recognized by their unmistakable 
German names, and are found to be the principal 
owners and occupants of the soil in this portion of 
South Carolina. 

The principal facts concerning the early history 
of these colonists are mainly derived from the 
Journals of Council of the Province of South 
Carolina, as found in manuscript form in the 
office of the Secretary of State, as well as from the 
Church record-book, kept by their first pastors, 
the two Giessendanners, uncle and nephew, written 
in the German and English languages, which is 
still extant, and has been thoroughly examined by 
the writer; and as these additional facts are now 
presented for the first time, it is hoped that they 
may open new avenues, which will afford future 


liistorians of the State additional sources of research 
and information. 

That the German element of the Orangeburg 
colonists came partly from Switzerland, we learn 
from the records of the Giessendauners' church- 
book, as it was the custom of the younger Giessen- 
danner to mention the place of nativity of all the 
deceased, in his records of eacli funeral of the 
early settlers ; and as this emigration from that 
country to Orangeburg occurred only two or three 
years subsequent to the emigration of a former 
Swiss colony to Purysburg, S. C, it certainly re- 
quires no great stretch of the imagination to ex- 
plain the causes which induced such a large num- 
ber of emigrants from that country to locate them- 
selves upon the fertile lands of South Carolina, 
which were described so glowingly by John Peter 
Purry and his associates. 

Let au}' one examine the pamphlets, as found in 
vol. ii of Carroll's Collections, which Mr. Purry 
published in reference to the Province of South 
Carolina, and which he freely distributed in his 
native country, in which the fertility of the soil, 
salubrity of the climate, excellency of government, 
safety of the colonists, opportunities of becoming 
wealthy, &c., &c., are so highly extolled, and cor- 
roborated by the testimony of so many witnesses, 
and he will easily comprehend what the Switzers 
must have fancied that province to be, viz. : the 
El Dorado of America, — the second Palestine of 
the world. 

Mr. Purry's account of the excellency of South 


Carolina for safe and remunerative settlement 
went round, from mouth to mouth, in many a 
handet and cottage of the little mountain-girt 
country, losing nothing by being told from one 
family to another; which, with the additional 
fact, that many had relatives and friends living in 
both the Carolinas, whom they possibly might 
meet again, soon fastened their affections upon 
that province, and induced them to leave the 
Fatherland, and make their future homes with 
some of their countrymen in America. Their 
little all of earthly goods or patrimony was soon 
disposed of; preparations for along journey were 
quickly made, as advised by Mr. Purry in his 
pamphlet; the journey through North Germany 
towards some seaport was then undertaken; and, 
with other Germans added to their number, who 
joined their fortunes with them whilst passing 
through their country, they were soon rocked upon 
the bosom of the ocean, heading towards America, 
with the compass pointed to their expected haven, 
Charleston, South Carolina. 

Tliese German and Swiss settlers did not all 
arrive in Orangeburg at the same time; the first 
colony came during the year 1735 ; another com- 
pany arrived a year later, and it was not until 1737 
that their first pastor, Rev. John Ulrich Giessen- 
danner. Senior, came among them with another 
reinforcement of settlers; whilst Mills informs us 
that emigrants from Germany arrived in Orange- 
burg District as late as 1769, only a few j^ears be- 
fore the Revolution. 


Like most of the early German settlers of Amer- 
ica, these colonists came to Carolina not as "gen- 
tlemen or traders," but as tillers of the soil, with 
the honest intention "to earn their bread l\y the 
sweat of the brow," and their lands soon gave evi- 
dence of thrift and plenty, and they, by their in- 
dustry and frugality, not only secured a compe- 
tency and independence for themselves and their 
children in this fertile portion of South Carolina, 
but many of them became blessed with abundance 
and wealth. 

From the records of Rev, Giessendanner we 
learn that there were also a considerable number 
of mechanics, as well as planters and farmers, 
among these colonists ; and the results of this Ger- 
man colonization were extremely favorable to 
Orangeburg District, inasmuch as they remained 
there as permanent settlers, whilst many of their 
countrymen in other localities, such as Purj^sburg, 
&c., were compelled to leave their 'first-selected 
homes, on account of the want of health and of 
that great success which they had at first expected, 
but the Orangeburg settlers became a well-estab- 
lished and successful colony. 

It has been asserted that the German congrega- 
tion established in Orangeburg among these settlers 
was Reformed, which is evidently a mistake, as 
any one may perceive from the following facts. 
On the one hand, it must be admitted that the 
Switzers came from the land where John Calvin 
labored, and where the Reformed religion prevails, 
but where there are also many Lutheran churches 


established. It is also admitted that the Giessen- 
danners were natives of Switzerland, but it would 
be unsafe to conclude from these facts that the 
German congregation at Orangeburg, with all, or 
nearly all, of its members, and with their pastors, 
were Swiss Reformed or Calvinistic in their faith. 
On the other hand, although nothing positive is 
mentioned in the Record-book of the Church, con- 
cerning their distinctive religious belief, yet the 
presumptive evidence, even from this source of 
information, is sufficiently strong to conclude that 
this first religious society in Orangeburg was a 
Lutheran Church. The fiicts from -which our con- 
clusions are drawn are : 

Firstly. — Because a very strong element from 
Germany was mixed with their Swiss brethren in 
the early settling of this county, which, by still 
later accession of German colonists, appears to 
have become the predominating population, who 
were mostly Lutherans, and the presumption be- 
comes strong that their church-organization was 
likewise Lutheran. 

Secondly. — It seems to have been a commonly 
admitted fact and the prevailing general impres- 
sion of that time, when their second pastor had 
become an ordained minister of the Church of 

Thirdly. — In examining their church records 
one will discover, through its entire pages, a rec- 
ognition of the festivals of the Lutheran Church, 
as were commonly observed by the early Lutheran 


Fourthly. — In Dalclio's History of theProt. Epis. 
Chnrcli in S. C, published in 1820, ut the time 
when tlie son of the younger Giessendanner was 
still living {see Mills' Statistics, p. 657, published as 
late as 1826), it is most positively stated concern- 
ing his father, that "he was a minister of the Lu- 
theran Cljurch." {Dale ho, Y). SSS, fooi7iote.) How 
could Dr. Dalcho have been mistaken when he had 
the records of the Episcopal Church in South Caro- 
lina before him; and in that denomination this 
was the prevailing impression, as was, doubtless, 
so created from Giessendanner's own statements 
in the bosom of which Church he passed the latter 
days of his life. 

Fifthly. — One of the churches which Giessen- 
danner served before he became an Episcopal 
clergyman, located in Amelia Township, called St. 
Matthews, has never been any other than a Lu- 
theran Cliurch, and is still in connection with the 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod of South Carolina. 

Sixthly. — The Orangeburg colonists, after their 
pastor departed from their faith, were served with 
Lutheran pastors entirely, numbering in all about 
seventeen ministers, and only for a short time a 
Reformed minister, Eev. Dr. Zlibly, once labored 
there as a temporary supply. 

Seventhly. — Li Dr. Hazelius' History of the 
American Lutheran Church, p. 64, we have the 
following testimony, gathered from the journal of 
the Ebenezer pastors, Bolzius and Gronau, found 
in Urlsperger's ^N^achrichten : " Their journal of 
that time menlions among other things, that many 


Luthenuis were settled in and about Orangeburg 
in South Carolina, and that their preacher resided 
in the village of Orangeburg." 

It is to be hoped that all this testomonj' is satis- 
factory to every candid inquirer, that the first es- 
tablished Church of Orangeburg, S. C, which was 
likewise the first organized Lutheran Church in 
both the Carolinas, was none other than a Lutheran 
Church; that those early settlers from Germany 
and Switzerland were mostly, if not all, of the 
same denomination, and that Dr. Dalcho has pub- 
lished no falsehood by asserting that "their pastor 
was a minister of the Lutheran Church." 

The first colony of German and Swiss emigrants 
who settled in Orangeburg village and its vicinity 
in 1735, as well as those who selected their homes 
in Amelia Township along Four-hole swamp and 
creek, did not bring their pastor with them ; the 
Rev. John Ulrich Giessendanner did not arrive 
until the year 1737; he was an ordained minister 
and a native of Switzerland, and was the first and, 
at the time, the only minister of the gospel in the 
village and District of Orangeburg; we infer this 
from Mills' Statistics, p. 657, stating that there 
were but four or five English settlers residing in 
the District before the Germans arrived, and these 
few would not likely have an English minister of 
their own to labor among them. We infer this, 
moreover, from the record of Giessendanner's 
marriages; the ceremony of one was performed 
in the English language during the first year of 
his ministry, with the following remark accompa- 


nying it : "Major Motte having read the ceremony 
in the English language," from which we conclnde 
that at the time, October 24th, 1737, Rev. Giessen- 
danner was still unacquainted with the English 
language, and that on this account he solicited the 
aid of Major Motte in the performance of a clerical 
dut3^ That there could have been no other min- 
ister of the gospel within reach of the parties, who 
did not reside in the village, otherwise they would 
not have employed Rev. G. to perform a ceremony 
under such embarrassing circumstances. 

Rev. J. U. Giessendanner came to this country 
with the third transportation of German aud Swiss 
settlers for this fertile portion of South Carolina. 
In the same vessel also journeyed his future part- 
ner in life, who had resided at his home in Europe 
as housekeeper for twenty-six years, and to whom, 
on the 15tli of ITovember, 1737, he was " quietly 
married, in the presence of many witnesses, by 
Major Motte;" doubtless by him, as no minister 
of the gospel was within their reach, to which rec- 
ord he piously adds : "May Jesus unite us closely 
in love, as well as all fsiithful married people, and 
cleanse and unite us with himself. Amen." By 
this union he had no children, since both himself 
and his partner were "well stricken in years." 

The elder Giessendanner did not labor long 
among this people. Death soon ended his minis- 
trations in Orangeburg, and we infer that he must 
have died about the close of the year 1738, since 
the records of his ministerial acts extend to the 
summer of that year, whilst those of his ]iephevv 


commence with the close of the year 1739. Allow- 
ing the congregation time to make the necessary 
arrangement with the nephew, and he to have 
time to seek and obtain ordination, as we shall see 
hereafter, besides the inference drawn from tlie 
language of a certain petition, &c., we learn that 
during the fall of 1738, the Rev. John Ulrich Gies- 
sendanner, Sr., was called to his rest, and thus 
closed his earthly career. 

The congregations in Orangeburg village and 
District now looked about them for another servant 
of the Lord to labor among them in holy things, 
but the prospect of being soon supplied was not 
very encouraging. The Ebenezer pastors were 
the onl}^ Lutheran ministers in the South at that 
time, and they could not be spared from their 
arduous work in Georgia, and to expect a pastor 
to be sent them again from the Fatherland was at- 
tended with many difficulties. Another plan pre- 
sented itself to them. The nephew of their first 
pastor, who had prepared himself for the ministry, 
was induced to seek ordination at the hands of 
some Protestant denomination, and take upon him- 
self the charge of these vacant congregations in 
the place of his departed uncle. 

From the records of the Orangeburg Church 
we learn that their second pastor was also named 
John Ulrich Giessendanner,but he soon afterwards 
dropped his middle name, probably to distinguish 
him from liis uncle, and so is he named in all the 
histories of South Carolina, which give any ac- 
count of him. 


Difficulties and sore trials soon attended Rev. 
John Giessendanner's ministry; the LJrlsperger 
Reports state, in vol. iii, p. 1079, that the town of 
Orangeburg was then, A.D. 1741, in a worse con- 
dition than Purysburg ; that the people were lead- 
ing very sinful lives, manifesting no traces of 
piety, and that between pastor and hearers there 
were constant misunderstandings. It is also stated 
that their lands were fertile, but, as they were far 
removed from Charleston, and had no communi- 
cation with that city by water, they could not con- 
vert their produce into money, and on this account 
very little or no money was found among them. 
Dr. Hazelius likewise gives an unfavorable account 
of the state of religion in that communit3\ On p. 
64, he remarks: "From one circumstance men- 
tioned with particular reference to that congrega- 
tion, we have to infer that the spiritual state of 
that church was by no means pleasing. A Mr. 
Kieffer, a Salzburg emigrant and member of the 
Ebenezer congregation, was living on the Carolina 
side of the Savannah River, whose mother-in-law 
resided at Orangeburg, whom he occasionally 
visited. On one occasion he remarked, after his 
return, to his minister. Pastor Bolzius, that the 
people at Orangeburg were manifesting no hunger 
and thirst after the word of God ; he was therefore 
anxious that his mother-in-law should remove to 
his plantation, so that she might enjoy the oppor- 
tunity of attending to the preaching of the word 
of God, which she greatly desired." All this tes- 
timony, though in the main correct, needs, how- 


ever, some explanation, and bj referring to the 
Journals of Council for this province, in the ofRce 
of the Secretary of State, we will soon discover 
the cause of such a state of things. The people 
had been but sparinglj^ supplied with the preached 
word, the discipline of the Church had not been 
properly administered, and when the younger 
Giessendanner took charge of these congregations, 
and attempted to regulate matters a little, whilst 
the majority of the people sustained him in his 
eiforts, a minority, who were rude and godless, 
became his bitter enemies, and were constantly 
at variance with him. 

This condition of Church affairs opened the way 
for the Zauberbiihler difficulties, which are very 
minutely described in the Journals of Council of 
the Province of South Carolina, vol. 10, page 395, 
et seq. ; the main facts of this troublesome affiiir 
were the following : 

During the year 1743, a Swiss minister of the 
gospel, formerly located along the Savannah River, 
at ]^ew Windsor, Purysburg, and other places, 
named Bartholomew Zauberbiihler, very adroitly 
attempted to displace the Rev. John Giessendanner 
from his charge in Orangeburg, and make him- 
self the pastor of those churches. He supposed 
that by becoming an ordained minister of the 
Episcopal Church, at that time the established 
church in the Province, he would have rights supe- 
rior to the humble Lutheran pastor in charge at 
Orangeburg, and, as he supposed, have the law on 
his side in thus becoming the pastor himself. The 


records of his evil designs, whicli have long slum- 
bered in oblivion in manuscript form on the shelves 
of the Statehouse at Columbia, are now brought 
to view, and read as follows : 

"Nov. 9th, 1742. Eead the petition of Rev. B. , 
Zauberbiihler, showing that as there were a great 
many Germans at Orangeburg, Santee, and there- 
abouts, who are very desirous of having the word 
of God preached to them and their children, and 
who desire to be instructed in the true religion, 
humbly prays : That he may be sent to serve them 
and to be supported with a competent salary until 
he shall be able to take a voyage to England to be 
ordained by the Bishop of London, and at the same 
time proposes to bring over with him a number of 
Germans, which he thinks may be as great a num- 
ber as ever were brought at any time into this 
province, it being a great encouragement to them 
when they find that they may have the Gospel, 
not only on their voyage, but also after their ar- 
rival in this province, preached to them, &c. 

"Upon reading the said petition, it was the 
opinion of His Majesty's Council, that providing 
the petitioner do produce a certificate from the 
inhabitants of Orangeburg, as also a certificate 
from ye Ecclesiastical Commissary, Mr. Garden, 
of his qualifications to receive orders in the Church 
of England, and his engaging to go home to Lon- 
don to receive ordination, and after that to go to 
Germany to procure others of his countrymen to 
come over to settle in this province, that the sum 
of five hundred pounds currency be advanced him 


out of the township fund, in order to enable him 
to perform the same." 

Journals of Council, vol. xi, pp. 74-76. Under 
date of Feb. 13th, 1743-44: "Reconsidered the 
petition of Rev. Mr. Zauberbiihler, which had 
been exhibited at this Board on the 10th day of 
^November, 1743, pra^dng that in consideration of 
the earnest desire of the inhabitants of Orangeburg, 
Santee, to have a person to preach the gospel to 
them in their own language, he is willing to per- 
form that pastoral duty, but being as yet unor- 
dained, desires to be supported with a competent 
salary until he shall be able to take a voyage to 
England to be ordained, at which time he proposes 
to bring over a number of foreign Protestants to 
settle in this province, who are unwilling to come 
over for want of having the gospel preached to 
them in their voyage here. Whereupon it ap- 
pearing by a former minute of Council, of the 10th 
of November last, that provided the petitioner shall 
produce a certificate from the inhabitants of Orange- 
burg of their desire to receive him as a preaclier 
amongst them, and also a certificate from the Rev. 
Mr. Garden of his qualifications to receive orders, 
that then the sum of £500 current money be ad- 
vanced him out of the township fund, in order to 
enable him to perform his voyage, and bring on 
the Protestants to settle here as he mentions. 
Whereupon the petitioner produced the following 
certificate from the Rev. Mr. Commissary Garden: 


"South Carolina. 
"These arc to certify whom it may concern, and 
in particLihir tlie Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don, that the bearer, Barthoh^mew Zauberbuhler, 
a native of Appenzell in Switzerhind, appears to 
nie on creditable testimonj- to have resided in this 
Province for the space of seven yeai-s hist past, and 
daring- that time to have been of good life and be- 
havior as becometh a candidate for holy orders, 
Sec, &c., 

"Signed, Alexander Garden. 

"Ftbruary 13th, 1743." 

"On producing the said certificate bis Excel- 
lency signed an order on the public Treasurer for 
the sum of £500, to be paid him on condition that 
the Treasurer take his written obligation to repay 
the said moue}' upon his returning and settling in 
the Province, in case he does not bring over the 
Protestants he mentions." 

The following counter-petition against Mr. Zau- 
berbiihler from the Orangeburg settlers is found 
in vol. xi of Journals of Council, pp. 139-143, 
and dated March 6tb, 1713 : 

"Read the humble petition of the German and 
English inliabitants of Oi'angeburg and the adjoin- 
ing plantations, showing to his Excellency, to whom 
it is directed, that the petitioners heartily congratu- 
late his Excellency on liis auspicious ascension to 
the government of this Province, hoping that by 
his judicious care and power not only their pres- 
ent grievances, but likewise all other misfortunes 


may evaporate and vanish. And ye said petition- 
ers humbly beg leave to acquaint ye Excellency, 
that above five years ago, the German minister hap- 
pening to die, Mr. John Giessendanuer, by the con- 
sent and approbation ofyour said German petition- 
ers, Avent to Charlestown with the intention to make 
his application to the Rev. Mr. Alexander Gar- 
den, Commissary, to admit him into holy orders, 
to preach in German in this township; and when 
the said Mr. John Giessendanuer came to Charles- 
town aforesaid, he accidentally met with one Major 
Christian Motte, who acquainted him that he 
ought not to trouble the said Rev. Alexander Gar- 
den with the affair, but to go with him to some 
certain gentlemen, who, if they found him suffi- 
cient, would directly give him orders according to 
his desire; upon which the said Mr. John Giessen- 
danuer, being then a stranger to the English 
method of proceeding in such cases, accompanied 
the said j\Iajor Christian Motte, and was by him 
introduced to an assembly of the Presbytery, who, 
after examination, presented him with orders to 
preach, which he has since done in German con- 
stantly for the space of five years to the inexpressi- 
ble satisfaction of the congregation at Orangeburg; 
and about two years ago your said English peti- 
tioners, being fully sixty miles from any other 
place of divine Avorship, some of whom had not 
been favored with an opportunity of hearing a 
sermon in the space of seven years, observing the 
said Mr. John Giessendanuer to be a man of learn- 
ing, piety, and knowledge in the Holy Scriptures, 


prevailed with him to officiate in preaching once 
every fortnight in English, which he hath since 
performed very articulate and intelligihle to the 
entire satisfaction of ye said English petitioners, 
and always behaves himself with sobriety, honesty, 
and justice, encouraging virtue and reproving vice, 
"And the said Mr. John Giessendanner lately 
observing great irregularities and disorders being 
committed almost every Sabbath day by some 
wicked persons in one part of the township, pub- 
licly reprimanded them for the same, which re- 
proof so exasperated them that they threatened to 
kick the said Mr. John Giessendanner o.ut of the 
church if he offered to preach there any more, and 
have lately sent for one Bartholemew Zauberbiih- 
ler, a man who not long ago pretended to preach 
at Savannah town, but, as your said petitioners 
are informed, was soon obliged to leave that place 
and a very indecent character behind him. The 
last week he arrived at Orangeburg, and upon the 
last Sabbath, he, the said Bartholomew Zauber- 
biihler and his wicked adherents associated to- 
gether, and pretended .that the said Bartholomew 
Zauberbiihler had brought with him a power from 
the Hon. William Bull, Esq., late Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of this Province, his Majesty's Hon. Coun- 
cil, and the Rev. Mr. Alexander Garden, Commis- 
sary, an order to expel the said Mr. John Giessen- 
danner from the church, and to preach there him- 
self, and some of ye said petitioners demanded a 
sight of his said authority, but he refused to pro- 
duce it, which occasioned great animosities and 


disorders in the coiigregaticMi, and when the said 
Bartholomew Zauberbiihler makes his second ap- 
pearance at or near Orangeburg, which he declares 
shall be at ye expiration of three weeks, there will 
certainly be more disturbance and confusion than 
before, unless some powerful means be used to 
obstruct it. 

"Whereupon your said petitioners most humbly 
beg that your Excellency will be pleased to inter- 
pose with your authority, and direct the said Mr. 
Alexander Garden, if he hath given or granted 
any such orders, to countermand them, and to per- 
mit tlie said Mr. John Giessendanner still to offi- 
ciate for them in diviMe service, free from any 
further disturbance or molestation, &c. 

"Signed by John Ilarn, and above fourscore 
more subscribers. 

" Ordei-ed by Council that the consideration of 
this affair, and of the above petition, and those of 
Mr. Zauberbiihler, be deferred until Mr. Zauber- 
biihler's return from England, and that ye Clerk 
acquaint them therewith in writing." 

Fortunately, liowever, Mr. Zauberbiihler had 
not yet departed on his journej- to England as the 
Council had supposed, but had been lurking for 
awhile in Orangeburg District, and as soon as he 
returned to Charleston he once more made his 
appearance upon the floor of the Council chamber. 

Journals of Council, Vol. XI, p. 143: "Bar- 
tholomew Zauberbiihler, being returned from 
Orangeburg Township, attended his Excellency 
in Council, and laid before him two written cer- 


tificates from justices of ye peace there in his favor, 
and which wave read, representing bia sobriety 
and good behavior, whereu[»on Mr. Zauberblililer 
was by his Excellency directed to wait again on 
liev. Mr. Garden, and to learn if he has any objec- 
tions to his receiving orders iu England, and to 
report the same." 

Journals of Council, Vol. XI, p. 152: "Bar- 
tholomew Zauberbiilder attended his Excellency, 
the Governor, in Council, according to order, 
whom the Governor gave to understand that he 
liad not acted well in the exhibiting a certificate 
fi'om the Township of Orangeburg, read at this 
Board on November loth, 1742, seeing that under 
the notion of having an invitation to the ministry 
by the majority of that Township, there was, on 
the contrary, a later memorial laid before the 
Board, signed by near ninety of the inhabitants, 
and by far the majority of the Township, praying 
that Mr. Giessendanner, their present minister, 
might be continued to preach among them, and 
that Mr. Zauberbiihler's going to preach in the 
said .Townshij), and his design to be settled there 
as a minister, was not by their desire, on the con- 
tvary, had occasioned no small disturbance in the 
said Townshi[). That his proceedings with the 
Lieutenant-Governor and Council in ye said affair 
had not been with that candor that might have 
been expected from one who designed to take on 
him holy orders, and that, therefore, he ought to 
be contented with at least one-half of what had 
been paid him by ye Treasurer, and return the 


other £250, or, at any rate, to procure a joiut se- 
curity of one residing in Charlestown that he 
would return the money in case he did not bring 
over the foreign Protestants mentioned, but that 
if he did bring them over the whole £500 should 
be allowed him ; whereupon Mr. Zauberbiililer 

After this action of the Governor and Council 
we read nothing more of Mr. Zauberbiihler in the 
Journals of Council, and the Rev. John Giessen- 
danner was permitted to continue his labor as 
pastor in Orangeburg without further molestation. 
The historical facts deduced from the above 
State papers are the following: 

That the Rev. John Ulrich Giessendaniier, Sr., 
who was the first pastor at Orangeburg, departed 
this life during the close of the year 1738, having 
labored there but little more than one year. 

That his nephew, the Rev. John Giesendanner, 
became his successor some time during the year 
1739, and that he was "a man of learning, piety, 
and knowledge in the Holy Scriptures;" he was 
probably educated for the ministry, but left Europe 
before he had been ordained; that, although a 
Lutheran in his religious persuasion, as we learn 
from other documents, he applied for ordination 
at the hands of any Protestant ministry who were 
empowered to impart the desired authority, there 
being at that time no Lutheran Synod in all the 
American colonies. That he was ordained by the 
Charleston Presbytery is certain, but that he was 
not a Presbyterian in faith is evident also, else he 


would not have endeavored first to obtain ordina- 
tion at the hands of the Protestant Episcopal au- 
tliority, and onl^' changed his pur[)oso of becoming 
Episcopally ordained at the suggestions of Major 
Christian Motte, and doubtless also to avoid an 
expensive and wearisome vo^^age to Europe, which 
he would have been obliged to undertake had he 
insisted upon obtaining the requisite authority to 
preach the gospel and administer the sacraments 
either in the Lutheran or Episcopal Church, 

That the first Orangeburg Church must have 
been built some time before the above-mentioned 
petition was written, A.D. 1743, as it is therein 
spoken of, as being then in existence. 

That Rev. John Giessendanner labored faith- 
fully as a good servant of his Master, even briug- 
ing enmity upon himself for reproving vice; like- 
wise, that he preached in the German and English 

That the country in the vicinity of Orangeburg 
must have been sadly deficient at that time in the 
enjoyment of the usual means of grace, as many 
persons were living sixty miles from any other 
church, some having not heard a sermon preached 
for seven years; need we wonder at the irregulari- 
ties in faith and conduct manifested in those days. 

That Eev. Giessendanner must have had a con- 
siderable congregation, inasmuch as the petition 
drawn up in his defence was signed by nearly 
ninety male persons, who were either all members 
of his congregation, or mostly so, and the remain- 
der his friends and adherents. 


That Rev. Bartholomew Zauberbiihler must 
liave sadly degenerated in the latter period of his 
ministerial life, as the Ebenezer pastors give us a 
very favorable account of him several years pre- 
vious in the Urlsperger Reports, when he first 
came to this country. 

Rev. Giessendanner was affectionately remem- 
bered by the Church iu Europe. Rev. Bolzius, 
in the Urlsperger Reports, Vol. Ill, p. 875, states : 
"I also wrote a letter to-day to young Mr. Gies- 
sendanner, the present minister in Orangeburg, 
informing him that a donation of about nine 
guilders had been collected for him in Switzer- 
land, of which a respectable merchant in Zurich 
writes, that as old Mr. Giessendanner had died, 
this amount should be paid over to his nephew. 
Also, that we will send him, as soon as possible, 
those books collected for him in Switzerland, 
which are sent in the chest for us, and which has 
not yet arrived. 

"I would have been pleased to have sent him 
this money sooner had any safe opportunity pre- 
sented itself. I entreated him, likewise, to write 
to me occasionally, and inform me of the transac- 
tions of the departed Giessendanner, which may 
be of great service to him." 

The name of Rev. Giessendanner occurs in sev- 
eral other paragraphs of the same Reports, but 
only in connection with the books and monej' 
above-mentioned; but nothing further is said con- 
cerning himself and his ministry, or that of his 
predecessor. He was probably prevented from 


imparting the desired information on account of 
the want of communication between Ebenezer and 

Kev. John Giessendanner hibored ten years as 
a Lutheran minister, after which, in 1749, he went 
to London to receive Episcopal ordination at the 
hands of Rev. Dr. Sherlock, Bishop of London. 
The reasons for making this change in his Church 
relationship are not known ; however, it is pre- 
sumable that, as he was then the only Lutheran 
pastor in South Carolina, he preferred to enjoy a 
more intimate connection with some ministerial 
organization than the one that was then afforded 
him in the bosom of his own Church; and although 
the Ebenezer pastors were also then laboring in 
the South, nevertheless they were somewhat dis- 
tantly removed from him, and dwelling in another 
Province. He doubtless also had his fears that 
some other Zauberblihler difficulty might harass 
him again, and thus, by taking this step, he would 
have all legal preferences in his favor, as the 
Church of England was then virtually the estab- 
lished Church of the Province. • 

He was united in marriage to Miss Barbara 
Hug, and became the father of several children, 
one of whom, a son named Henry, born July 3d, 
1742, was still living in 1826, as he is mentioned 
in "Mills' Statistics;" and his widow spent the 
close of her life with one of her children residing 
in Georgia. 

Henry Giessendanner was married to Miss 
Elizabeth Eumpf, February 25th, 1767; he re- 


corded the birth of but oue child, Elizabeth, in 
his father's church-book, though he may have 
had more children, whose names were not entered 
there. This record-book likewise informs us that 
Eev. John Giessendanner had a brother and sister 
living in Orangeburg, named George and Elizabeth 
(afterwards married to a Mr. Krieh), and that the 
whole family were natives of Switzerland ; hence 
also the money sent Rev. Giessendanner came from 
this countrj^, as mentioned in the Urlsperger Re- 
ports. This concludes the history of the Giessen- 
danner family, as far as it is necessary for our pur- 
pose, and until recently it was not known that 
these two pastors were the first Lutheran minis- 
ters that labored in South Carolina — even their 
very names had become almost obliterated in the 
annals of the Lutheran Church. Dr. Dalcho yet 
adds this information, that Rev. John Giessen- 
danner departed this life during the year 1761. 

The Orangeburg settlers at first clustered to- 
gether near the banks of the Edisto River, and 
built their dwellings near each other in the form 
of a small town, supposing that the adjacent stream 
would be advantageous in forming an outlet for 
them to Charleston, in the transportation of lum- 
ber to market. A year later other German emi- 
grants arrived, who located themselves on lands 
adjoining their predecessors, and thus this tide of 
immigration continued until the entire district be- 
came mostly colonized with German and Swiss 
emigrants. The present town of Orangeburg is 
located very near the spot where this original 


German village once stood. In this village the 
first Lutheran church in the Carolinas was erected, 
and there also the first Lutheran pastor of this 
congregation lived and died ; his nephew and suc- 
cessor, as is supposed by some of the present in- 
habitants, had his home several miles from the 
village, where he died and was buried. 

Some half a mile from the centre of the present 
town of Orangeburg and towards the Edisto River 
there is a graveyard, which presents the appear- 
ance of having been a long time in use for the 
interment of the dead, and where the entombed 
generations of the present day are silently slum- 
bering with those of the past. It is still styled 
" the old graveyard,^' although there are many new- 
made graves to be seen in it; and here, doubtless, 
repose the remains of the first Lutheran pastor in 
the Carolinas. 

During the evening twilight of autumn the 
writer visited this hallowed spot, in order to com- 
mune with the dead; the seared and faded leaves 
of October overhanging his head or rustling be- 
neath his feet ; the peculiar sighing sound of the 
winds of autumn, passing through the foliage of 
the Southern long-leaved pine trees, produced 
Nature's sad and fitting requiem for the dead. 
He sought for records of the past upon some di- 
lapidated tombstone, but his search was unavail- 
ing, and, like the fallen leaves of many years past, 
even these mementos of a former age were no 
longer visible. 

What lessons of the vanity of all human great- 


ness, namely: the power of wealth, the pride of 
family, the pleasures and gayeties of life ! All end 
at last in the grave — all alike blend in one com- 
mon dust. 

Around this place, with the old church edifice 
very near it, the former village stood; they are 
both thus described by a correspondent : " The 
Orangeburg church was built of wood and clay, 
in much the same manner as chimneys are when 
made of clay ; the old graveyard is still used as a 
burial-ground common to all; and the site of the 
church is still plainly seen — it is in the village, 
and was at that day in the centre of it. I have 
learned this likewise from an old gentleman who 
remembers hearing his father saying this as above. 
It fell to ruins at the time of the "Revolution ; but 
the spot has never been built upon since that day, 
and is now known as ' the old churchyard.' This 
church was the one used by the Rev. John Gies- 
sendanner as an Episcopal church, and no doubt 
used likewise by him at first as a Lutheran church; 
its dimensions w^ere — say thirty by fifty feet." 

The time when the old church edifice was 
erected is now no longer known, and can only be 
a matter of conjecture; however, it is possible 
that this event occurred during the elder Giessen- 
danner's ministry — the records do not positively 
state this to have been the case, nevertheless sev- 
eral indications are given which make it very 
probable that this was the time. 

It became changed into an Episcopal house of 
worship in 1749, when the pastor, the younger 


Giessendanner, took orders in the Church of 
EngLiiid, as he continued to labor there to the 
close of his life. At the time this change was 
effected, the congregation numbered 107 commu- 
nicants, and on .Whitsunday following 21 persons 
more were admitted to the Lord's Supper. 

In concluding the history of this congregation, 
we would simply add, that after Rev. Giessen- 
danner's death nothing further is known concern- 
ing it until 1768, when a new Episcopal chapel 
was ordered to be erected, and the Rev. Paul 
Turquand preached there in connection with 
another congregation. 

During the Revolutionary War, Rev. Turquand 
was absent, and labored in the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, but returned in 1788, when he resumed 
his labors in Orangeburg, and died the following 
year; since then no trace is left of the history of 
the church and its congregation. 

The present Episcopal Church in the town of 
Orangeburg is of recent organization, and their 
house of worship is comparatively new, indicating 
that the old church edifice, the still later erected 
chapel, and the former congregation have long 
since become entirely extinct. 

The existing Lutheran church and congregation 
in Orangeburg are of a still more recent date ; both 
the organization and church edifice have no his- 
torical connection with the past, made up of ma- 
terial in membership who have become citizens 
of the place not many years ago. 


Section 11. The German Settlers of Saxe-Gotha Town- 
ship^ now Lexington County., S. C, A.D. 1787. 

Ill Mills' Statistics of South Carolina, page 611, 
we have the following statement in reference to 
Lexington District (now County): "This District, 
when first settled, was merged in Orangeburg pre- 
cincts. A parish and township were laid out in 
about the year 1750, and named Saxe-Gotha, in 
compliment to the first settlers of the country, who 
came from that part of Germany." 

An entirely dift'erent statement may be found 
on pages 25 and 26 of Dr. Hazelius' History of 
the American Lutheran Church ; from which we 
learn that the name Saxe-Gotha originated in 
Queen Anne's time, and that the first settlers of 
that county "came from the neighborhood of the 
Rhine, Baden, and Wiirtemberg," kingdoms con- 
siderably removed from Saxe-Gotha. 

But from the Journals of Council, in the ofiice 
of the Secretary of the State, the date of the set- 
tlement of Saxe-Gotha by Germans is unmistak- 
ably fixed to be 1737, and that few, if any, of the 
first settlers of that county came from Saxe-Gotha, 

Council Journal, vol. viii, p. 69: "May 26th, 
1742. — Petition of John Caspar Gallier and family, 
John Caspar Gieger and family, John Shalling 
and family, Abram Gieger and family, Jacob 
Liver and familj^, Julius Gredig and family, 
Caspar Fry and family, Conrad and Caspar 
Kiintzler (now Kinsler), John Jacob Bieman and 
family, Herrmau Gieger and family, Elizabeth 



Shalliiig and familj', showing that, as they arrived 
and settled in his Majesty's Township of Saxe- 
Gotha, even since the year 1737, and received his 
Majesty's most gracious bounty of provisions and 
warrants for lands in Saxe-Gotha Township, but 
that they could not find in what ofiice they are, 
therefore they humbly pray his Honor, the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, and his Majesty's honorable 
Council, that they w^ould be pleased to order that 
search may be made," &c., &c. 

Again, under date 1744, "John Jacob Gieger 
arrived seven 3-ears ago, is now married, and prays 
for one hundred acres of land over against Santee 
River, opposite Saxe-Gotha, where he has already 
begun to clear ground and almost finished a house. 
Granted." Subtract seven years from 1744, and 
we have again the date 1737, the time of the first 
settlement of that township by Germans. 

From the above reliable source of information 
we evidently perceive that Mills' statement is en- 
tirely incorrect, and that Saxe-Gotha Township 
was laid out and received its name long before 
the year 1750, as it is spoken of in the Journals 
of Council as early as 1742, as being then a town- 
ship and known by the name, Saxe-Gotha, and 
may have been so called, according to Dr. Haze- 
lius' statement, during Queen Anne's time, pre- 
vious to the year 1714, the time of her Majesty's 
death. However, the Council Journals likewise 
prove the Doctor to have been mistaken in stating 
that these lands were wrested from the Germans, 
for they settled there, and their descendants are 


there still, occupying the very lands which their 
forefathers had received by warrant from the king 
of England, showing conclusively that, inasmuch 
as their titles came directly to them from the first 
legal authority, these lands had not yet passed into 
other hands. 

But it is possible that, as in the State of N'ew 
York, the benevolent Queen Anne did make 
grants of land for church and school purposes in 
Saxe-Gotha Township, which, however, could not 
be occupied at the time, as the settlements in 
South Carolina had then not been extended so far 
inland; the Indians were still in possession of that 
portion of the province, and the grants and good 
intentions of the Queen were eventually lost sight 
of and forgotten. Afterwards, when the Germans 
did actually locate themselves in Saxe-Gotha, new 
warrants were issued and secured to them by the 
authority of the then ruling sovereign, his Majesty 
George II. 

Independent of the actual accounts and dates of 
the settling of this township, we have before us 
the general rule that " Westward the star of em- 
pire takes its way," and that the farther westward 
or inland the settlements were made, the later 
will be the dates of such settlements. This is the 
result of natural causes, and admits of no excep- 
tions to the well-known rule; the first settlers of 
America necessarily located themselves along the 
seashore, afterwards a little more inland, whilst 
the aborigines, living in the forest, gradually re- 
ceded from the march of civilization; then further 


encroaches were made upon their territory, and 
SO on, gradually', until the Appalachian chain of 
mountains was reached. After the Kevolutionary 
War even the mountains formed no barrier to the 
settlements of the whites, and thus, in a short time, 
nearly all of America became populated, even be- 
yond the valley of the Mississippi. 

Orangeburg;, South Carolina, was settled by 
Germans in 1735; Saxe-Gotha, further inland, of 
necessity was settled still later; hence common 
sense will admit of no date of permanent settle- 
ment earlier than, or even as early as, that period 
of time. 

Saxe-Gotha comprised nearly all that portion 
of territory embraced at present in Lexington 
County; it is not many years since the name was 
changed, in honor of the battle of Lexington, 
Massachusetts, by an act of legislature, which was 
a most unfortunate exchange of names, being less 
euphonic, very inappropriate, and altogether un- 
historical. Give us back the old name, and may 
the' citizens of old Saxe-Gotha, in South Carolina, 
never be ashamed of their German names and 
German extraction. 

How the name originated, as applied to this 
township, it is impossible to state. It certainly 
was not so called in compliment to the Germans 
who settled there, as they came from a ditierent 
section of Germany ; it is possible that the name, 
"Saxe-Gotha," was applied to this scope of terri- 
tory during Queen Anne's reign, as intimated by 
Dr. Hazelius, and thus, even by name, it was to be 


distinguished as a future home for German emi- 

The following record of this settlement is made 
in the Urlsperger Reports, vol. iii, p. 1791 : " Wed- 
nesday, December 2d, 1741. We had heard nothing 
before of Saxe-Gotha in America, but we have just 
received the intelligence that such a town (town- 
ship) is laid out in South Carolina, twenty-five 
German miles (100 English miles) from Charles- 
town, on the road which passes through Orange- 
bui"g, and settled with German })eople. Doubtless 
the majority of them were German Reformed, as 
they have a Reformed minister among them, with 
whose character we are not yet acquainted." This 
minister was the Rev. Christian Theus, of whom 
we shall say more hereafter. He commenced his 
labors in Saxe-Gotha as early as 1739. 

The Geiger families and their neighbors were 
not compelled to remain a long time as isolated 
settlers in their new homes; the name Saxe-Gotha 
sounded so agreeably familiar to the ears of the 
Germans that they flocked in numbers to this 
Germany in America. 

Besides, a certain German, named Hans Jacob 
Riemensperger, contracted with the government 
to bring over a number of Swiss settlers, many of 
whom he located in this township, as we learn 
from Urlsperger, vol. iii, p. 1808, and from the 
Journals of Council, on several difterent pages. 
In addition to these settlers, this same Riemen- 
sperger, in company with a Mr. Haeg, brought a 
number of orphan children to Saxe-Gotha, for 


which service to the province, as well as for the 
boarding of the children, they brought in their 
accounts to the Council for paj- raent. Vol. viii, pp. 
69 and 70. 

Settlement of Redemptioners. 

Some of our best and most useful settlers in the 
South were persons, who, too poor to pay their 
passage-money across the ocean, were sold by the 
captains of the vessels, that brought them to 
America, to any one of the settlers who felt in- 
clined to secure their labor. The price for which 
they were sold in Carolina was usually from five 
to six pounds, sterling money, and both men and 
women were thus alike sold to service; and then, 
by hard labor, which extended over a period of 
from three to five years, they eventually redeemed 
themselves from this species of servitude. 

The advantages of such an arrangement to them 
and to their adopted colony were, upon the whole, 
important and salutary. 

1. Our infant colonies stood in need of a useful 
population which would prove a defence to the 
country in case of the execution of the continued 
threatenings of a Spanish invasion, and the sudden 
attack of hostile Indians. 

2. Besides, labor was greatly needed for the cul- 
tivation of the virgin soil, and these poor Germans 
— many of them excellent farmers, some of them 
useful artisans, and all of them hard-working 
people — furnished this labor, and at very cheap 


3. The counti'}' also needed permanent settlers 
who would become habituated to the soil and cli- 
mate, Avho would learn to love their adopted coun- 
try, by being compelled to remain until they had 
fully tested all the advantages of the same; these 
the Redemptioners abundantly supplied in their 
own persons. 

4. Nor were the advantages to them of slight 
importance. They had nothing to risk in the 
shape of property, as they possessed nothing 'of 
this world's goods, and thus they never became a 
prey to those landsharks whicli often despoil the 
less sagacious immigrants of much of the posses- 
sions which they brought with them to America. 

5. Besides, they were the poorer class of people 
at home in Europe, and would always have re- 
mained in this condition, had such an arrangement 
not existed; but now they enjoyed the flattering 
prospect of receiving competency and wealth at 
some future day. 

6. Then again, their servitude became their ap- 
prenticeship in America; in the meantime they 
learned the English language, they became ac- 
quainted with the laws and customs of the new 
country, they discovered by silent observation 
what would in future be to their advantage, and 
thus in every way did they become qualified by 
sagacity, industry, and economy, for their new and 
independent sphere of life. 

Yet it must be confessed that they had to endure 
many hardships; often were they rigorously treated 
by their ship captains; ill and insufficiently fed on 


their voyage across the ocean, and on shore hefore 
they were purchased for their services; exposed 
puhlicly for sale as the African slave; often treated 
harshly by their masters who purchased them, and 
compelled to labor in the broiling sun of a south- 
ern climate, and many, by disease and death, fre- 
quently closed their short earthly career. 

However, when our country had become suffici- 
ently populated, the government interposed and 
put an end to this kind of servitude, on account 
of the severity of the lot of these unfortunate la- 
borers, and thus abandoned this source of coloni- 
zation. In confirmation of these facts, the follow- 
ing extracts will furnish abundant proof, and are 
herewith submitted : 

Journals of Councils, vol. xiv, p. 37, January 
24th, 174i: "Read the petition of a considerable 
number of Protestant Palatines, most humbly 
showing that the poor petitioners have been on 
board the St. Andrew's, Captain Brown com- 
mander, these twenty-six weeks past, and there is 
as yet no likelihood for them to get free of her, 
because there are none of us yet who have pur- 
chased their service; they therefore humbly pray 
his Excellency and Honors that they may find so 
much favor as to their passages that a sum equiva- 
lent to discharge the same be raised by the gov- 
ernment, for which they promise to join in a bond 
to repay the same within the term of three years, 
with lawful interest; and that if any of them shall 
not be able to pay the above sum within that time, 
that the government in that case shall have full 


power to dispose of them and their families as they 
shall think proper, &c. Ordered to make investi- 
gations, and report." 

Yol. xiv, pp. 62 and 63: "Several Protestant 
Palatines, who arrived hither on Captain Brown's 
ship, and whose services have not as yet been pur- 
chased, sent a complaint, by their interpreter, to 
the governor, that the said Captain Brown had often 
withheld their diet from them on board his ship, 
and that they had been several days without meat 
or drink; particularly that last Friday they w-ere 
the whole day wnthout any, the least, sustenance, 
and had been the like for several days before, and 
not only they, but all the rest of the Germans that 
still remain on board Captain Brown's ship. 

" Captain Brown being sent for and interrogated 
whether he had used those foreigners in the man- 
ner they had represented, answered, that if they 
had asked him for food in their language he w^ould 
not have understood them. 

"His Excellency ordered the captain's steward 
to be sent for, who attended accordingly, and the 
original contract between Captain Brown and 
those Palatines in Holland was also sent for and 
laid before the Board, which being read and the 
particular species of diet that was allowed for 
every day of the week specitied, his Excellency 
asked, in particular, if the said Germans had been 
fed last Friday in the manner contracted for? 

"The steward replied that the Germans would 
sometimes reserve the taking of diet on certain 
days in order to have double allowance another. 


But his Excellency gave Captain Brown to under- 
stand that as he was by virtue of his contract 
bound to maintain those foreigners till they were 
disposed of, if any should die for want while 
aboard his ship, he must answer for their lives ; 
after which they withdrew." 

The accounts of the trials and hardships of these 
persons, as narrated in the XJrlsperger Beports, 
are entirely too numerous to be inserted in these 
pages; those who feel inclined to search for them- 
selves are referred to the volume and page of 
those Beports, where they can find all they desire 
to know concerning the Bedemptioners. Vol. i, 
p. 10 ; vol. ii, pp. 2472, 2482, 2508. How the Be- 
demptioners conducted themselves can be learned 
from vol. ii, pp. 2193, 2200, 2213, 2221, 2404, 2413. 

One account is here translated for the informa- 
tion of our readers. Vol. ii, p. 2472: 

"The poor people which Captain Thomson 
brought over with him as servants for this colony 
are chiefly Palatines and Wiirtembergers, a whole 
vessel full of men, women, and children; these 
are to be sold for five years' service, but for which 
the inhabitants have neither money nor provisions. 
An adult person costs £6 5s., sterling. After I 
had preached to these poor people from Bom. 8 : 
28, they thronged around me and besought me to 
take them to our place (Ebenezer, Georgia), but 
which was out of my power. An old widow of 
fifty years, who had lost her husband at sea, and 
who, on account of her age, was despised and neg- 
lected, have I besought General Oglethorpe to 
release, and sent her to our Orphan House." 


This was the general condition of these poor 
persons in almost every seaport of America. The 
following extracts indicate that many such ser- 
vants were sold and located in Saxe-Gotha, and 
after their legal discharge from servitude they ob- 
tained the king's bounty and tracts of land, the 
same as other settlers. 

Journal of Council, vol. xi, p. 486 : " Petition of 
John Wolfe and wife, natives of Berne, Switzer- 
land, too poor to pay passage-money, entered 
into the service of Anthony Stack, of Saxe-Gotlia, 
for three years, being now discharged from ser- 
vice, prays for his quota of land and bounty-money. 
Granted, on evidence of his written legal dis- 

Vol. xi, pp.142 and 143: "Fullix Smid, of 
Switzerland, servant of David Hent, latelj" deceas- 
ed, discharged by his executors, applied for and 
received 150 acres of land and bounty in Saxe- 

It is useless to multiply instances, which could 
easily be done; these extracts will fully show the 
correctness of all the foregoing statements, and 
that Saxe-Gotha, with many other settlements, re- 
ceived her full share of this class of useful settlers, 
who proved to have been upon the whole a great 
benefit to their adopted country. 

During the period that intervened between the 
years 1744 and 1750, Saxe-Gotha received a large 
influx of population, and much of the available 
land of that townsliip was then occupied. The 
vessel which bore them across the ocean was the 
ship St. Andrew, Captain Brown, commander, 


who doubtless treated liis payiug passengers well, 
altliougb he acted so unfeelingly to those who 
were to be sold for their passage-money. Mention 
is likewise made of a Captain Ham, who brought 
other German settlers to South Carolina, but 
whose passengers chiefly located themselves in 
Orangeburg, whilst others settled in Saxe-Gotha. 

All these German colonists came mostly from 
those provinces bordering on the Rhine, such as 
Switzerland, Baden, the Palatinate, and Wlirtem- 
berg. They excelled as tillers of the soil, and 
were accustomed to the culture of the vine, and 
thus they constituted the very class of people 
which did become greatly serviceable to the pros- 
perity of Carolina, but whose influence upon the 
physical welfare of their adopted country has been 
as yet little noticed by the various historians of 
the South. 

The Saxe-Gothans were fortunate and blessed 
in obtaining the services of a pious and faithful 
pastor; all the records extant speak in the strongest 
terms of praise concerning him, but, at the same 
time, all agree in stating that he had a hard life 
of it, that he was not appreciated, that he was 
often persecuted for righteousness' sake, and this 
treatment he received at the hands of the very 
people for whose good he labored and prayed. 
Two years after the first settlers set foot upon the 
soil of Saxe-Gotha, the Rev. Christian Theus ar- 
rived and labored in their midst; and as these 
settlers were not neglected in the administration 
of the means of grace, which unfortunately was 


the case with many otliers of the early colonists, 
they really had no excuse for their conduct, and 
should have treated their pastor in the most friendly 

Dr. Muhlenberg's journal, published in the 
Evangelical Review, vol. i, p. 540, contains the 
following statement: 

"October 22, 1774. This afternoon I had an ac- 
ceptable visit from the Reformed minister, the 
Rev. Theus, of the Congaries (Congaree River), 
in South Carolina, 120 miles from Charleston. 
His brother Theus, a painter, lately deceased, re- 
ceived me as a stranger most kindly into his house 
when, thirty -two years ago, I travelled through 
here on my journey from Savannah to Philadel- 
phia, and alibrded me an opportunity^ to preach on 
Sunday to the then yet few German families. The 
Lord requite his love in eternity ! The aforesaid 
pastor, Theus, came with his parents into this 
country from Switzerland as a candidatus iheologice, 
was examined and ordained by the Reverend 
English Presbyterian Ministerium, and since 1739 
has performed the duties of the ministerial office 
in the scattered country congregations among the 
German Reformed and Lutheran inhabitants, and 
has conducted liimself with the propriety and 
fidelity due his station, according to the testimony 
of capable witnesses. We had agreeable conver- 
sation, and he promised me a written account of 
church matters in these country congregations, 
which, moreover, he is best able to furnish, having 
lived longest in this country, and being an erudite 


It is to be regretted that this *' written account of 
church matters,^' if Dr. Muhlenberg ever received 
it, has never been published; what interesting 
material it could now furnish the Church, which 
must forever be buried in oblivion ! 

The Doctor continues: "He also furnished me 
with a more detailed description of the sect men- 
tioned October 5th, the members living near him. 
At a certain time he came unexpectedly into their 
meeting, and found Jacob Weber contending 
that he was God, and the said Smith Peter (or 
Peter Schmidt) insisting that he himself was 
Christ, and that the unconverted members must 
be healed through his stripes. Pastor Theus, op- 
posing such bhisphemy, the leaders became en- 
raged and threatened his life, and counselled w^ith 
the rabble whether to drown or hang him. He 
escaped, however, from their hands, fled to the 
river, and fortunately found a negro with his canoe 
at the shore, sprang into it, and w'as conveyed 

Here we have the impartial testimony of Rev. 
Dr. Muhlenberg, gathered from " capable wit- 
nesses," of the parentage, ordination, date of min- 
istry in Saxe-Gotha, piety and learning of the 
Eev. Christian Theus, up to the period immedi- 
ately preceding the Revolution. This brief nar- 
rative, coming from such a source, is not only en- 
titled to our entire credit, but speaks as much of 
that devoted man of God as though a volume were 
w^-itten to perpetuate his name and memory. 

Rev. Theus lived to be an aged man, for we 


discover his name in the list of members of the 
" Corpus EL-angelicum,'' and present at every meet- 
ing of that body until the year 1789, the last meet- 
ing of which the records are still extant. How 
much longer he was spared to do good we know 
not; but from the dates which are in our posses- 
sion, he had at that time been half a century iu 
the ministry of his Savior. 

His resting-place is still pointed out to the 
stranger, and is located iu a field along the state 
road, between Columbia and Sandy Eun, about 
eight miles from Columbia. It is the only grave 
that can still be seen there, and tradition says that 
his dwelling was located not far from that grave- 
yard. Mr. Abraham Geiger, now also in eternity, 
erected the tombstone, at his own expense, at the 
head of Rev. Theus' grave, to perpetuate his mem- 
ory. Had Mr. Geiger not performed this labor 
of love, the Church and the world would never 
even have known where the lirst pastor of Suxe- 
Gotha, the contemporary of Geissendanner, Bol- 
zius and Gronau, had been laid down to rest. The 
inscription is now much defaced by the hand of 
time, and can scarcely be deciphered; nevertheless, 
we are thankful for this much, and would wish that 
we could ofather similar mementoes of the restins^- 
places of all the first German ministers in the 
South. The inscription reads as follows : 

" This stone points out where the remains of 
Rev. Christian Theus lie. This faithful divine 
labored through a long life as a fiiithful servant 
in his Master's vineyard, and the reward which 


he received from many for his hibor was ingrati- 

Rev. J. B. Anthon}^, one of the late pastors of 
Sandy Run Lutheran Church, adds yet this infor- 
mation, published in the Lutheran Observer, A.D. 
1858: "Among the octogenarians of this vicinity 
we have not been able to learn much more of Mr. 
Theus than the rude stone, now standing in a 
vast cotton-field, records. Few now living recol- 
lect to have seen him. No records of those early 
times are known to exist. The small school- 
house, which is said to have stood near his grave, 
has long since disappeared. A few other graves 
are said to be here, but as no stones can be found 
in this sandy section to place at the head and foot, 
light-wood knots are frequently substituted by the 
poor, hence, when these decay, there is nothing 
left to mark the place." 

The spiritual and moral condition of the Saxe- 
Gothans is not very highly extolled in the Urls- 
perger Reports. Rev. Bolzius, who gives us the 
account, may have been somewhat prejudiced, in- 
asmuch as his Ebenezer colony had lost some 
runaway white servants, who probably concealed 
themselves in the neighborhood of the Congaree 
River, and in several pages of his diary he berates 
both the Saxe-Gothans and the government of 
South Carolina that they were not returned; thus, 
perhaps, his human feelings were too much en- 
listed on the side of prejudice and interest whilst 
speaking of these people. We insert the follow- 
iuir extract : 


Urlsperger Reports, vol. iv, p. 672: "Wednes- 
day, April 25, 1750. — The German Evangelical 
Lutheran inhabitants of Congaree, in South Caro- 
lina, which new settlement has been named Saxe- 
Gotha, had besought me, several months ago, to 
come to them and preach for them, and admin- 
ister the Lord's Supper. I sent them books suit- 
able for the edification of adults and the instruc- 
tion of children, and wrote them that my circum- 
stances did not permit me to make so long a 
journey. I^ow I have received another letter, in 
which the former request is renewed, and in which 
they likewise beseech me to assist them in the 
erection of a church and in obtaining a pastor. 
They have a congregation of about 280 souls, who 
all could attend church if the house of worship 
were erected in the midst of their plantations. 

"The Reformed have received 500 pounds, 
Carolina currency, from the government, which 
amounts to something more than 500 guilders, 
fQr the building of a church, but no one is in- 
terested for the Lutherans, unless I would do 
something in their behalf. They live with the 
Reformed in great disunion, at which I showed 
my displeasure in my former letter. A few fami- 
lies have removed from this place among them, 
who might have supported themselves very well 
here; afterwards three adult youths were per- 
suaded to leave their service here, and two (white) 
servants ran away, all of whom are harbored in 
the Congaree settlement. The citizens them- 
selves, as a Carolina minister once wrote me, 


lived disorderly among each other, and estimate 
their Reformed minister very low. I have no 
heart for this people. If they were truly con- 
cerned about God's word, then so many unworthy 
people would not have located in their midst, as 
there are other places where good land and sub- 
sistence may be obtained. 

"In this very letter they inform me that they 
have built both a saw-mill and a grist-mill, and 
expect to build more of the kind. Why then 
should they be unable to erect a house of worship 
if they were sincerely in earnest?" 

The above record in Bolzius' diary, published 
in the Urlsperger Reports, is in strict accordance 
with the testimony of Dr. Hazelius on the Weber- 
ites — which sect arose some ten years later, — with 
Dr. Muhlenberg's account, with the inscription 
on the tombstone on Rev. Theus, and with several 
living witnesses, who were contemporaries with 
many old citizens of a former day, whose narra- 
tives they still well remember. 

Whilst many of the Saxe-Gothans Avere not 
devoid of blame, and deserved censure in those 
days, there were others whose life and conduct 
were praiseworthy, and others who were devotedly 
pious, and who were anxious to enjoy the bless- 
ings of the means of grace, and it is sad that Rev. 
Bolzius permitted his feelings of interest for his 
own colony to cause him to act so unfriendly to- 
ward this people, and to send no kind word of 
encouragement to them, when they besought him 
to visit them and break to their hungry souls the 


bread of life. Who knows what good he might 
have accomplished bj a friendly visit? Who 
knows what future evil, e.g., that Weber heresy, 
he might have been the instrument of preventing? 
Besides all this, he, as a minister of the Gospel 
and of like persuasion with these people, had no 
right to withhold his influence and sympathy from 
two hundred and eighty souls, (we are surprised at so 
large a number) who extended such a Macedonian 
call to him, and besought him twice to interest 
himself in their behalf in procuring a minister 
for them, who were almost as sheep without a 
shepherd. Who could calculate the influence the 
Lutheran Church would have exerted in those 
regions, had this large congregation been properly 
cared for, and supplied with the means of grace ? 
Besides, had Rev. Bolzius been instrumental in 
securing a pious and efiicient pastor for them at 
that early period, and tliis pastor, laboring side 
by side with Rev. Theus, how much that faithful 
servant's hands would have been strengthened, 
and how much good seed might have been sown, 
springing up to everlasting life, which would 
have entirely changed the spiritual and moral 
condition of this people. Deprive men of the 
Gospel and the Sacraments, take away or refuse 
to give them the benign influences of Christianity, 
and we need not be astonished at "disorderly 
living" and heresy in doctrine. 

Another Lutheran minister in South Carolina 
at this time, A.D. 1750, and one of the right char- 
acter. Rev. Giessendaimer being then in Orange- 


burg, who, in that event, might have remained 
in the Lutheran Church, with the three Eben- 
ezer pastors in Georgia, these five might have 
formed the nucleus for a Lutheran Synod in the 
South, ahiiost as old as the Pennsylvania Synod, 
which could have instructed and ordained other 
pious men for the Gospel ministry. At a later 
date the pastors of other established Lutheran 
congregations would have connected themselves 
with this Synod; their synodical reports sent to 
the city of Augsburg, in Germany, would have 
made the Urlsperger Reports as interesting in its 
records of Church affairs, as the Halle reports are 
now, filled, as they are, with general accounts of 
Church matters in the entire Province of Penu- 
sjdvania, and not simply the detailed accounts of 
daily occurrences in a single settlement. Wiiat 
short-sighted people even the most pious ministers 
of the Gospel sometimes are! 

The present citizens of old Saxe-Gotha, now 
Lexington County, are an entirely difi:erent people; 
their forefathers could not prevent unworthy set- 
tlers from locating themselves among them. Many 
of those depraved men met an untimely death in 
the war with the Cherokees; a few perished miser- 
ably at the hand of administrative justice; others 
were cut ofl:'by disease and an early death; whilst 
a number moved to other parts of the country. 
It is exceedingly doubtful whether many of those 
reprobates left their descendants behind them in 
Saxe-Gotha, as all traces of Weber and Schmidt 
have entirely disappeared. 



We have seen that Rev. Theus came to the 
Congaree settlement in the year 1739. In M^iat 
building he first preached is unknown, but ar- 
rangements were soon made for the erection of a 
church. As early as 1744-5 John Jacob Riemen- 
sperger petitioned the government of South Car- 
olina to do something toward the erection of 
churches and school-houses for the German set- 
tlers in various localities; otherwise they would 
continue to do what many had done heretofore, 
move with their families to Pennsylvania, where 
all these advantages could be enjoyed. That the 
government entered into such an arrangement we 
have already seen from the Urlsperger Reports, 
for five hundred pounds currency was donated 
for the building of a German Reformed Church, 
which, we presume, had been completed at that 
time, A.D. 1750, and the people were enjoying 
the means of grace in their new house of worship. 
Tradition informs us that this German church 
stood near the spot where the remains of Rev. 
Theus are deposited, but it has long since been 
no more. We now turn to an ancient map of 
South Carolina, originally published in 1771 and 
1775, and recently reprinted in " Carroll's Collec- 
tions." Near the Congaree River, a short distance 
below the confluence of the Saluda and Broad 
Jiivers, and in the township of Saxe-Gotha, a 
church is laid down, bearing the name St. John's. 
This substantiates all the abovCrmentioned records 
and traditions, gives us the exact locality of that 
church, which, in the proper proportion of dis- 


tances, would be the very spot where the grave 
of Rev. Theus can still be seen, and furnishes, 
furthermore, the name by which that church was 
known. This house of God must have been de- 
stroyed during the Revolutionary War, as all 
traces of the same after that period appear to 
have been lost; it is not mentioned in the general 
act of incorporation of all the German churches, 
passed by the legislature of South Carolina in 

During the years 1759 and 1760, the people of 
Saxe-Gotha suiFered greatly from the ravages of 
the Cherokee war. During the time that the 
French and English were at war with each other 
in the colonies of America, which however did 
uot reach as far south as the Carolinas; the French 
instigated the Cherokee Indians to make war upon 
the peaceful settlers of the two Carolinas, who 
murdered the white inhabitants at midnight, whilst 
they were wrapped in their peaceful slumbers, and 
committed atrocities at which humanity shudders. 
The Congaree and Fork settlements were then 
mostly exposed to the fearful inroads of the sav- 
ages, as but few settlers were living further in 
the interior than the Germans were at that time. 
Bolzius informs us, that many were compelled 
to take refuge among the Germans at Ebenezer 
and Savannah, whilst others fled for safety to 
Charleston, Purysburg, and other places, until 
those Indian hostilities were ended, and peace 
and security was again restored. 


Section 12. The German Settlers from. Pennsylvania 
in Central North Carolina, A.D. 1750. 

Had a traveller from Pennsylvania visited, about 
forty or fifty years ago, portions of the present 
counties of Alamance, Guilford, Davidson, Rowan, 
Cabarrus, Stanly, Iredell, Catawba, Lincoln and 
some others in the State of I^orth Carolina, he 
might have believed himself to have unexpectedly 
come upon some part of the old Kej'stone State. 
His ear would have been greeted with sounds of 
the peculiar dialect of the Pennsylvania-German 
language, familiarly known as " Pennsylvanisch- 
Deutsch," a language made up of the dialects 
used in the ancient Palatinate, Wiirtemberg and 
other countries bordering along the Rhine, inter- 
mixed with English words, which plainly indicate 
that many of their forefathers were some of those 
Protestant refugees, who fled from the persecutions 
of Louis XIV, king of France, and were brought 
to America under the kind and fostering care of 
Queen Anne of England. 

This language, however, has almost become ex- 
tinct in North Carolina; a few aged persons may 
still be found, who are fond of conversing in that 
kind of German with those who are acquainted 
with it,'but in a few more years the last vestige of 
Pennsylvania-German will be sought for in vain 
in this State, where once even many of the negro 
slaves of these Germans/spoke no other language. 

Family names are to be met with in this section 
of North Carolina, which are familiar in Mont- 


gomery, Berks, Lehigh and Northampton Coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania, snch as the Propsts, tlie 
Bostians, the Kleins (Cline), the Trexlers, the 
Schloughs, the Seitzs (Sides), the Reinhardts, the 
Bibera (Beaver), the Kohlmans (Coleman), the 
Derrs (Dry), the Bergers (Barrier), the Behringers 
(Barringer), and many others still abounding both 
in Pennsylvania and iJ^orth Carolina. 

Our supposed traveller might have worshiped 
on Sundays in churches, where the services were 
still conducted entirely in the German language, 
in which both the Lutheran and German Reformed 
had equal rights and privileges, and each denomi- 
nation alternately worshiped therein, as is still 
the case in many parts of Pennsylvania. The 
ever-present " Gemainshaftliches Gesangbuch " 
(union hymn-book) suited to the taste, at that 
time, of both denominations, would have been 
found in general use; and, at the centre of one of 
the long sides of the church, there would have 
stood the high and goblet-shaped pulpit, with a 
sounding-board suspended overhead of the officia- 
ting minister; a few such shaped pulpits may be 
seen in this State to the present day, but they will 
soon be numbered with the past. 

The farm-yard of these Germans still abounds 
with fine and well-fed horses, and the old Penn- 
sylvania four-horse wagon securely housed in the 
shed between two corn-cribs, with the bow-shaped 
body suspended above it upon chains, ready to be 
let down in its position on the wagon, whenever it 
should be needed. 


In the dwelling-house, and behind a cheerful 
wood-fire, during the winter season, one might still 
notice a heavy iron plate placed upon the hearth 
to protect the back of the chimney, having singular 
devices cast upon its face, such as no ironworks of 
modern times are known to mould, with German 
sentences and "Redting Furniss" (Reading Fur- 
nace) standing out in relief, indicating that they 
were cast in the city of Reading, Berks County, at 
a time when those extensive iron manufactories of 
Pennsylvania were yet in their infancj^, and per- 
haps brought along to North Carolina with the 
emigrants from the Keystone State. 

On the blank pages of the old German Bibles of 
those first German settlers of North Carolina, we 
may frequently find the story of their colonization, 
stating that they were born in Pennsylvania at 
such a date, and that they emigrated to North 
Carolina and settled in such a county of that 
Province. Besides, all the aged citizens of that 
section, where the German descendants are located, 
will tell you that their ancestors came originally 
from Pennsylvania, and here and there you may 
meet a family, like the Heilig family, who still 
keep up a friendly intercourse with some of their 
relatives in Pennsylvania. 

The conclusion then evidently is, in the absence 
of all State documents on that subject, and the 
silence of all historians of North Carolina, that 
the Province of Pennsylvania, and not Germany, 
furnished North Carolina with the most of her 


nnraerons German settlers, located in the central 
and western part of the State, 

The cause of their migration from Pennsylvania 
to North Carolina may be found recorded in Wil- 
liamson's History of I*Torth Carolina, vol. ii, p. 71, 
which, however, he applies only to their neighbors, 
the Scotch-Irish settlers : " Land could not be ob- 
tained in Pennsylvania without much difficulty, 
for the proprietors of that Province purchased the 
soil by small parcels from the natives, and those 
lands were soon taken up;" and at that early 
period no one ventured to cross the Alleghany 
Mountains for the purpose of settling there, so 
the seekers after new homes went southward in- 
stead of westward, and kept to the east of the 
range of the Alleghanies, until they found unoc- 
cupied lands where they could make their settle- 
ments. "Williamson informs us, vol. ii, p. 71, 
that "Lord Carteret's land in Carolina, where the 
soil was cheap, presented a tempting residence to 
people of every denomination." 

The eastern portion of North Carolina having 
been settled at an early date by various colonies 
of English, Swiss, and German Palatines at JSTew- 
berne, French Huguenots, and Scotch refugees, 
and these colonies having, in process of time, 
located their descendants as far inland as Hills- 
boro on the northern side of the Province, and the 
Pedee Eiver on the southern side, with a number 
of Quakers and Scotch-Irish among tliem; an en- 
tirely new class of colonists, the Germans from 
the Province of Pennsylvania, as above described, 


arranged themselves on vacant lands to the east- 
WAvd and westward of the Yadkin River, whilst 
the Scotch-Irish from the same Province, who had 
always lived on friendly terms with their German 
neighbors in Pennsylvania, soon followed them 
southward, and occupied vacant lands mostly to 
the westward of the German settlers, along both 
sides of the Catawba River; these again, Germans 
and Scotch-Irish, at a later day, formed settlements 
of their descendants in the western part of the 
State. This is the brief story of the settling of 
North Carolina; the different European nationali- 
ties from which these settlers originated, occupy- 
ing strips of land across the State mostly in a 
southwesterly direction, like so many strata of a 
geological formation. 

The Pennsylvania Germans journeyed in much 
the same manner as did the later colonists to the. 
Western States, before railroads afforded a cheaper, 
safer and more speedy mode of transportation ; 
every available article for house and farm nse, 
capable of being -stowed away in their capacious 
wagons, was taken with them; and then the caval- 
cade moved on, every able-bodied person on foot, 
women and children on bedding in the wagons, 
and cattle, sheep, and hogs driven before them; 
they travelled by easy stages, upon the roads of 
the picturesque Cumberland and Shenandoah 
Valleys, crossing the Bhie Ridge Mountains in 
some part of Virginia, until they reached the land 
of their hopes and promise. 

It is impossible to date precisely the arrival of 


all those German colonists from Pennsylvania, as 
they all depended upon themselves for leaving 
home and journeying southward; they arrived 
continuously for a number of years in succession, 
usually leaving home in the fall season, after all the 
harvesting was over and the proceeds of the year's 
labor could be disposed of; they arrived at their 
places of settlement just before the commencement 
of the winter season. The first arrival of the 
pioneer train may have occurred about the year 
1745, but the large body of these German colonists 
did not commence to settle in North Carolina until 
about the year 1750; this maj' be gathered partly 
from tradition, partly from old family records in 
their German Bibles, but mostly from the title- 
deeds of their lands, which were always dated 
some years after their actual settlement, affording 
them time to decide upon a permanent location, 
and to make some other necessary arrangement, 
having to run no risk in losing their titles by the 
delay of a few years. 

These German settlers were all industrious, 
economical, and thrifty farmers, not afraid nor 
ashamed of hard labor, and were soon blessed 
with an abundance of everything, which the fertile 
soil and temperate climate of that portion of N'orth 
Carolina could furnish them. As they were all 
agriculturists, they generally avoided settling 
themselves in towns; uninformed in the ways of 
the world, ignorant of the English language, and 
unacquainted with the shrewdness necessary for 
merchandising, yet well informed in their own 


language, and well read in tlieir Bibles and other 
devotional German books, they remained at their 
own counti'j homes, and enriched themselves with 
the productions of the soil; hence we witness the 
fact, that very few Lutheran and German Reformed 
churches were erected in the towns of North Car- 
olina at that early day; and when, in process of 
time, it did become necessary to build churches iu 
the villages and towns of the State, it was found 
exceedingly ditRcult to get the members from the 
country to become accustomed to the new ar- 

Inasmuch as these settlers located themselves 
so gradually, as before stated, besides being di- 
vided into two denominations, it was some time 
before they were sufficiently numerous to have a 
pastor located and permanently settled among 
them ; sermons and prayers were usually read on 
Sunday by their German school-teacher, and when- 
ever they were permitted to enjoy the regular ad- 
ministration of the preached word and sacraments, 
which was but seldom, it was afforded them by 
some self-appointed missionary, whilst their school- 
teacher usually buried their dead with an appro- 
priate ceremony from the German liturgy, and, in 
ease of urgent necessity, baptized their children. 

Section 13. The 3Ior avians at Salem, N. C, 
A.D. 1763. 

The first colony of Moravians settled in Georgia 
in the year 1735, under the leadership of Rt. Rev. A. 


G. Spangenberg, a bishop in the Moravian Church, 
or " Uiiitas Fratrum," as that Church is sometimes 
called. This new colon}^ came one year later than 
the first arrival of the Lutheran Salzburgers at 
Ebenezer, Georgia, and located itself between 
Savannah and Ebenezer. The Moravians, how- 
ever, did not remain long in Georgia; in 1737 a 
war broke out between the English colonies and 
the Spaniards, who believed themselves aggrieved 
by the colonization of Georgia under English 
government, and regarded it as an encroachment 
upon their territory ; this war was renewed in 
1739, and the Moravians, who were conscientiously 
opposed to taking up arms, were nevertheless 
compelled to do so, contrary to the promise made 
them, that they should be exempt from military 
service; hence they believed themselves necessi- 
tated to abandon houses and lands in Georgia, and 
removed to Pennsylvania, in 1738 and 1740, the 
peaceful government of the Quakers in that Prov- 
ince being well suited to their conscientious 
scruples against war. Here the Moravians now be- 
gan their settlements at Bethlehem and Nazareth, 
and likewise their missions among the Indians in 
different parts of Pennsylvania and New York. 

In the year 1751, the Moravians were induced 
to purchase one hundred thousand acres of land 
in ISTorth Carolina, from Lord Granville, President 
of the Privy Council of the government of Great 
Britain; Bishop Spangenberg was commissioned 
to locate and survey this large tract of land, and 
journeyed with some friends, during the month of 


August, from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to Eden- 
ton, North Carolina, where he was accompanied 
by the surveyor-general, and at first attempted to 
locate the tract towards the head-waters of the 
Catawba, New and Yadkin Rivers, but suflered 
so much from sickness, cold and hunger, that 
they retraced their steps, and located the tract 
farther eastward, in the present county of Forsyth, 
to the east of the Yadkin River. The general 
deed for the whole tract, containing 98,985 acres, 
was signed and sealed August 7th, 1753, and re- 
ceived the name of *' The Wachovia Tract,'" in 
honor of one of the titles of Count Zinzendorf, 
who was lord of the Wachau Valley in Austria, 
and the founder and head of the Moravian Society 
under its present new organization. 

The sources whence the above information is 
principally derived are the Urlsperger Reports, 
Life of Bishop Spangenberg, and Martin's History 
of North Carolina, but the following continued 
narrative is copied from Martin's History, Vol. 
I, pp. 28-30, et seq., of the Appendix. 

" In order to facilitate the improvement of the 
land, to furnish a part of the purchase-money, and 
to defray the expenses of transportation, journey, 
&c., of the first colonists, a society was formed, 
under the name of The Wachovia Society, consisting 
of members of the Brethren's church and other 
friends. The directors of it were Bishop Spangen- 
berg and Cornelius Van Laer, a gentleman resid- 
ing in Holland. The members of it, who were 
about twenty, received in consideration for the 


money which thej^ advanced, two thousand acres 
of the land. This society was again dissolved in 
1763, having proved very beneficial and answered 
the intended purpose. 

"In the autumn of the year 1753, the first colo- 
nists, twelve single brethren or unmarried men, 
came from Bethlehem to settle upon the land. 
They had a wagon, six horses, cattle, and the neces- 
sary household furniture and utensils for husbandry 
with them. After a very tedious and fatiguing 
journey, by way of Winchester, Evan's Gap, and 
Upper Sauratown, on which they spent six weeks, 
they arrived on the land the 17th of November, 
1753, and took possession of it. A small deserted 
cabin, which they found near the mill creek, served 
them for a shelter or dwelling-house the first win- 
ter. On the spot where this cabin stood, a monu- 
ment was erected in the year 1806, with the in- 
scription, Wachovia Settlement, begun the VJth Novem- 
ber, 1753. They immediately began to clear some 
acres of land, and to sow it with wheat. In the 
year 1754, seven new colonists, likewise single 
brethren, came from Bethlehem. It was resolved, 
that on the same spot where the first settlers had 
made already a small improvement, a town should 
be built, which was named Bethabara (the house 
of passage), as it was meant only for a place of so- 
journing for a time, till the principal town in the 
middle of the whole tract could be built at a con- 
venient time. Bishop Bohler, who was here on 
a visit from Bethlehem, laid, on the 26th of No- 
vember, the corner-stone for the first house in 


this town, which was appointed for a church and 
dwelling-house of the single brethren, with prayer 
and supplication to our Lord that he might pros- 
per the work. He likewise examined more accu- 
rately the greatest part of the Wachovia tract, 
divided it into proper parts for improvement, and 
gave names to several creeks, which are yet some- 
times used, and are to be found in deeds and pub- 
lic records. 

" In May, 1755, Bishop David Nitschmann came 
on a visit from Bethlehem, and on the 11th of the 
same month the first meeting-house was conse- 
crated, which solemn transaction was attended 
with a gracious feeling of the divine presence. 
Many travellers and neighbors have heard after- 
wards, in this house, the word of life with joy and 

"In the year 1758, the Cherokees and Cataw- 
bas, who went to war against the Indians on the 
Ohio, often marched through Bethabara in large 
companies, sometimes several hundreds at once, 
and the Brethren were obliged to find them quar- 
ters and provisions for several days. The Chero- 
kees were much pleased with the treatment they 
received, and gave to their nation the following 
description of Bethabara : The Dutch fort^ where 
there are good jjeople and much bread. 

"In 1759, the town of Bethany was laid out, 
three miles north of Bethabara, on Muddy Creek, 
and divided into thirty lots ; and at the end of the 
year 1765, the number of inhabitants in Bethabara 
was eighty-eight, and in Bethany seventy-eight. 


"In the year 1766, the beginning was made to 
build Salem, the principal settlement oftheUnitas 
Fratrum in North Carolina, tive miles to the south- 
east from Bethabara. Hitherto, all the bretliren 
and sisters who settled in North Carolina came 
from Pennsylvania, but in this year the first com- 
pany, consisting of ten persons, came from Ger- 
many by way of London and Charleston. Salem 
was laid out the year previous by Frederick Wil- 
liam von Marshall, senior civilis of the Unitas 
Fratrum. It was resolved that Salem should be 
built in the same manner and have the same regu- 
lations as Herrnhut, Niesky, Bethlehem, and 
other settlements of the United Brethren, wherein 
the unmarried men and boys, and the unmarried 
women and girls live in separate houses by them- 
selves. The house for the unmarried men or sin- 
gle brethren was built in the years 1768 and 1769." 

Two other settlements were made on the Wa- 
chovia Tract, named Friedburg and Friedlcmd, 
during the years 1769 and 1770, each having their 
own meeting-house and school, which received a 
considerable number of settlers from Germany 
and from that part of Massachusetts which is 
now the State of Maine. Another settlement re- 
ceived its name, Hoije., and was made in 1772, by 
colonists from Frederick County, Maryland. 

During the Revolutionary War, the Moravians 
again suffered severely on account of their pecu- 
liar principles not to take up arms personally, and 
were obliged at times to pay large amounts of 
money for substitutes for all those who were 


drafted as recruits for the American army, but 
were, at last, exempted from military service by 
taking the oath of allegiance and fidelity to the 
State of Carolina and the United States, and pay 
a triple tax, which they accordingly did, and re- 
mained unmolested. 

" About eight miles above the Hope meeting- 
house, and ten miles from Salem, on the west side 
of Muddy Creek, a meeting-house was built iu 
1782, by a German Lutheran and Reformed con- 
gregation, wherein, since the year 1797, divine 
service is held by one of the ministers of the 
Brethren's church, every fourth Sunday, in the 
German language." 

In the year 1804, the well-known Salem Female 
Academy was founded. The building was com- 
menced the year previous, and has educated a 
large proportion of the matrons and daughters of 
the Soutliern States. " From the beginning of 
the institution, in May, 1804, to the end of the 
year 1807, about one hundred and twenty young 
ladies, from IS'orth and South Carolina, Virginia, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia, received their 
education in it, of whom, at the end of 1807, 
forty-one remained in the Seminary." 

This narrative of the Moravian settlement in 
and around Salem, Il^orth Carolina, has been in- 
cluded in this history, because it is also a German 
settlement, and was established by a religious de- 
nomination near akin to the Lutheran Church, with 
the Augsburg Confession as the basis of their 
faith. Besides two of the ministers, connected 


with the Lutheran Sj-iiod ofjSTorth Carolina, came 
from this settlement of Moravians: the liev. Gott- 
lieb Shober, ordained by the Lutheran Synod of 
North Carolina in 1810, and who labored in some 
Lutheran churches in the vicinity of Salem, N. C, 
but who also retained in some way his connec- 
tion with the Moravians, residing all his life in 
Salem ; and the Rev. S. Rothrock, still living 
and doing good service in the jSTorth Carolina 

Section 14-. The German Lutheran Colony at Hard 
Labor Creek, Abbeville County, South Carolina, 
A.D. 1763 and 1764. 

A few years before the Revolutionary War, 
there occurred a most interesting instance of Ger- 
man colonization, which added greatly to the 
growth and strength of the Province of South 
Carolina, and which, likewise, ought to have con- 
tributed much to the jpermanent establishment of 
one or more Lutheran churches in that vicinity; 
however, the facts, as taken from Hewatt's His- 
tory of South Carolina and Georgia, vol. ii, pp. 
269-272, will speak for themselves. 

"Not long after this, during the years 1763 and 
1764, a remarkable affair happened in Germany, 
by which Carolina received a great acquisition. 
One Stiimpel, who had been an ofhcer in the king 
of Prussia's service (Frederick the Great) being 
reduced at the peace (after the close of the Seven 
Years' War) applied to the British ministry for a 


tract of land in America, and, having received 
some encouragement, returned to Germany, where 
by deceitful promises, he seduced between tive or 
six hundred ignorant people from their native 

"When these poor Palatines arrived in Eng- 
land, the othcer, iinding himself unable to perform 
his promises, fled, leaving them in a strange land 
without money, without friends, exposed in the 
open fields, and ready to perish through want. 
While they were in this starving condition, and 
knew no person to whom the}'- could apply for 
relief, a humane clergyman, who came from the 
same country, took compassion on them, and pub- 
lished their deplorable case in the newspapers. 
He pleaded for the mercy and protection of gov- 
ernment to them, until an opportunity might offer 
of transporting them to some of the British col- 
onies, where he hoped they would prove to be 
useful subjects, and, in time, give their benefactors 
ample proofs of their gratitude and aifection. 

"JSTo sooner did their unhappy situation reach 
the ears of a great personage, than he immedi- 
ately set an example to his subjects, which served 
both to warm their hearts and open their hands 
for the relief of their distressed fellow-creatures. 
A bounty of three hundred pounds sterling was 
allowed them; tents were ordered from the Tower 
for the accommodation of such as had paid their 
passage and been permitted to come ashore; 
money was sent for the relief of those that were 
confined on board. 


" The public-spirited citizena of London, famous 
for acts of beneficence and charity, associated, and 
chose a committee on purpose to raise money for 
the relief of these poor Palatines. A physician, 
a surgeon, and a man-midwife, generously under- 
took to attend the sick gratis. From different 
quarters benefactions were sent to the committee, 
and in a few days those unfortunate strangers, 
from the depths of indigence and distress, were 
raised to comfortable circumstances. The com- 
mittee, finding the money received more than 
sufficient to relieve their present distress, applied 
to his Majesty (George III), to know his royal 
pleasure with respect to the future disposal of the 
German Protestants. His Majesty, sensible that 
his Colony of South Carolina had not its propor- 
tion of white inhabitants, and having expressed 
a particular attachment to it, signified his desire 
of transporting them to that Province. Another 
motive for sending them to Carolina, was the 
bounty allowed to foreign Protestants by the Pro- 
vincial Assembly, so that when their source of 
relief from England should be exhausted, another 
would open after their arrival in that Province, 
which would help them to surmount the difficul- 
ties attending the first state of cultivation. 

" Accordingl}^, preparations were made for send- 
ing the Germans to South Carolina. When the 
news was communicated to them, they rejoiced, 
not only because they were to go to one of the 
most fertile and flourishing Provinces on the con- 
tinent, but also because many of them had friends 


and countrymen there before them. Two ships, 
of two hundred tons each, were provided for their 
accommodation, and provisions of all kinds laid 
in for the voyage. An hundred and fifty stand of 
arras were ordered from the Tower, and given 
them by his Majesty for their defence after their 
arrival in America; all of which deserves to be re- 
corded for the honor of the British nation, which 
has at different times set before the world many 
noble examples of benevolence. Everything 
being ready for their embarkation, the Palatines 
broke up their camp in the fields behind White 
Chapel, and proceeded to the ships, attended by 
several of their benefactors; of whom they took 
their leave with songs of praise to God in their 
mouths, and tears of gratitude in their eyes. 

"In the month of April, 1764, they arrived at 
Charleston, and presented a letter from the Lords- 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to Gov- 
ernor Boone, acquainting him that his Majesty 
had been pleased to take the poor Palatines under 
his roj'al care and protection, and, as many of 
them were versed in the culture of silks and vines, 
had ordered that a settlement be provided for 
them in Carolina, in a situation most proper for 
these purposes. Though this settlement met with 
some obstruction from a dispute subsisting at that 
time between the Governor and Assembly, about 
certain privileges of the house, yet the latter could 
not help considering themselves as laid under the 
strongest obligations to make provision for so 
many useful settlers. Accordingly, in imitation 


of the noble example set before them in London, 
they voted five hundred pounds sterling to be dis- 
tributed among the Palatines, according to the di- 
rections of the Lieutenant-Governor, and their 
necessities. That they might be settled in a body, 
one of the two townships, called Londonderry, 
was allotted for them, and divided in the most 
equitable manner, into small tracts, for the accom- 
modation of each family. Captain Calhoun, with 
a detachment of the Rangers, had orders to meet 
them by the way, and conduct them to the place 
where their town was to be built, and all possible 
assistance was given towards promoting their 
speedy and comfortable settlement." 

In the State Library at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
to which the writer had access by invitation of the 
late Governor Ellis, he found an old map of South 
Carolina, and discovered that Londonderry Town- 
ship is the exact locality answering to that of 
Hard Labor Creek in Abbeville County, at which 
place, as is well known, a settlement of Germans 
was made, and a Lutheran church and congrega- 
tion once existed; so that this fact, in connection 
with corresponding dates, besides they having 
been met by Captain Calhoun, which family set- 
tled and resided in Abbeville District, and various 
other circumstances, prove beyond a doubt that 
this interesting account, given by Ilewatt, is the 
story of the colonization of our German Lutheran 
brethren at Hard Labor Creek. 

Dr. Hazelius' history informs us (p. 120) that 
formerly there existed among them a Lutheran 


church and congregation, as it was incorporated 
bj the legislature, February, 1788, under the name 
and title of " St. George, on Hard Labor Creek," 
and a few years ago, whilst on a visit to Abbeville, 
the writer was informed that the old church edi- 
fice was still standing. 

These settlers had also their own pastor, for at 
the time when the above-mentioned visit was made 
there were persons still living who had heard him 
preach in St. George's Church. 

The last account we have of this congregation 
may be found in the journal of Rev. R. J. Miller's 
missionary tour, published in the minutes of the 
Spring Session of the North Carolina Synod, of 
1812, an extract of which is here given: 

"Saturday, l^ovember 9th, 1811. I arrived in 
the evening, after having crossed Saluda River, 
at a Mr. Robert Smith's, on Hard Labor Creek, 
where my appointments were to commence. Sun- 
day, the 10th, I preached in a German meeting- 
house; here was fornierlj^ a Lutheran congrega- 
tion, but no remains of them (Lutherans) are now 
to be found; here the Methodists and Baptists 
have pulled each other out of the pulpit. Every 
person seemed very attentive. Here is a full proof 
of the necessity of missionary preaching. Bro- 
thers Dreher, Meetze, and Fulmar, from the con- 
gregation on Saluda, met me here." 

The period of time when the above reported 
visit of Rev. R. J. Miller was made, and even be- 
fore that time, was the trying period of the Lu- 
theran Church in the South ; the want of ministers 


to feed the flock was felt everywhere; the people 
lived as sheep without a shepherd, and soon be- 
came a prey to ravening wolves; and this congre- 
gation in Abbeville District, being somewhat iso- 
lated and remote from the present flourishing 
churches in the central and southern part of the 
State, and having become vacant, could not be 
easily visited by the few Lutheran ministers then 
laboring in South Carolina, they having their 
hands full and their time occupied in laboring 
among the other churches committed to their 
charge, and so the Lutheran congregation on 
Hard Labor Creek very naturally became extinct, 
and thus an interesting page in the history of our 
Lutheran Church in the South is practically lost 
to us. 

Section 16. Other German Settlements^ ■particularly 
in South Carolina. 

It is impossible to give a correct account of all 
the smaller settlements of Germans in the two 
Carolinas, inasmuch as no records concerning 
them have been preserved, either in the colonial 
annals of these two States, or in the various other 
published or unpublished historical reports, from 
which reliable information might be obtained. 
In North Carolina the German emigrants from 
Pennsylvania, that scattered themselves over the 
central and western part of the State, located them- 
selves in companies wherever they found vacant 
lands to be occupied, and continued to arrive 


almost every year from 1740 to the breaking out 
of the Revohitionary War. In addition to these 
yearly arrivals, the older settlements in the State 
began likewise to send out new colonies farther 
westward in tliis State, and in tliis manner were 
new settlements of Germans formed east and west 
of the Catawba River. 

In South Carolina a number of other German 
settlements were made, which have not yet been 
noticed ; the one in Barnwell County was doubt- 
less formed by the breaking up of the Dutch col- 
ony on James Island, the gradual absorption of 
the unsuccessful German and Swiss colony at 
Piirysburg, and the influx of other German set- 
tlers from Orangeburg County. In much the same 
manner were German settlements made along the 
boundary line of Richland and Fairtield Counties, 
on Cedar and Dutchman's Creeks. The most of 
these colonists doubtless came from adjoining 
older settlements; as the one at Saxe-Gotha Town- 
ship, Lexington County, was nearest to Richland 
and Fairfield, it may have supplied the German 
element residing there. On Cedar Creek there 
was once a German church, which bore the name of 
" German Protestant Church of Apii-Forum," and 
was incorporated by legislative enactment in 1788. 
From the best accounts that we can gather at this 
late date, this congregation, having been so long 
neglected by our Lutheran and German Reformed 
ministers, became at last absorbed by and into a 
Methodist congregation in the vicinity. The 
Newberry County Germans were mostly all de- 


sceiidants from the original German settlers in 
Saxe-Gotlia Township, with an occasional addi- 
tion from the German settlements of Korth Caro- 
lina and Virginia. 

In the southern part of Edgetield County, along 
the Savannah River, and opposite the city of Au- 
gusta, Georgia, there was a township laid out at 
an early date, bearing the name of ISTew Windsor; 
here a number of German emigrants were located, 
that were brought over to America by the Rev. 
Bartholomew Zauberbiihler of Orangeburg noto- 
riety, or came over to South Carolina under his 
influence ; at a later date an addition of G erman 
emigrants was made to this new colony, who were 
brought there by John Jacob Riemensperger, who 
appears to have been commissioned so to do by 
the provincial government of South Carolina; it 
is possible that the German descendants, now re- 
siding in the central part of Edgefield County, 
came originally from this settlement and Saxe- 
Gotha Township, This supposition is strength- 
ened by the fact that Riemensperger brought col- 
onists also to Saxe-Gotha, which may have induced 
both settlements to locate a colony on lands lying 
about midway between them. 

Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg speaks of meeting a cer- 
tain Philip Eisenman in Charleston during his 
visit there in 1774; this Eisenman informed him 
that he was a resident " of Okl Indian Swamp, 
fifty miles in the country, who arranged his barn 
for public worship, and they (he and his neigh- 
bors) have accepted as preacher a young man 



lately arrived from Germany, and who might 
answer for a schoolmaster." The Doctor does not 
mention his name, nor does he speak very highly 
of his attainments. A church, bearing the name 
of "The German Protestant Church of St. George 
on Indian Field Swamp," was incorporated by 
the legislature in 1788. Taking these facts to- 
gether, it is proper to conclude that a German 
settlement was made fifty miles from Charleston, 
that these Germans had a church of their own, 
which was doubtless unitedly Lutheran and Re- 
formed, as it bore the name " German Protestant," 
but where to locate the church is now a matter of 
impossibility, as the afore-mentioned swamp is not 
shown on any of the old or modern maps of South 
Carolina; it is probable, however, that it had its 
position in Barnwell County, where there are 
Lutheran Churches at the present time. 

About the year 1750, a German colony from 
the Palatinate arrived in South Carolina, and 
" after some delay, settled in " what was then 
called "Anson County," North Carolina, along 
the boundary line between the two provinces, on 
lands that are now located in Union County, 
[N'orth Carolina, and Lancaster and Chesterfield 
Counties, South Carolina, many of whose descend- 
ants are still living, and are gathered in Lutheran 
congregations belonging to the Tennessee Synod. 

In company with this colony came the Rev. 
John Nicholas Martin, one of the first pastors of 
St. John's Lutheran Church, Charleston, South 
Carolina, but at that time a layman, and the father 


of a family " with several children." According 
to Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg's statement, he was a 
self-taught man, and was said to have been or- 
dained afterwards by the Lutheran pastors at 
Ebenezer, Georgia. He did not remain long in 
Anson County, ISTorth Carolina, but, in company 
"with the larger portion of" his fellow-colonists, 
removed to the fork of Saluda and Broad Rivers, 
in South Carolina, where they found permanent 
homes, and where afterwards they were also 
served in spiritual things by Rev. Martin, after 
having been pastor in Charleston from 1763 to 
1767, but who finally located himself permanently 
in that city. 

Section 16. Hessian Deserters during the Revolution. 

The period of the Revolutionary War was one 
of sore trial to all the American colonies, and the 
German settlers underwent an amount of suflering 
no less than that of other citizens; the thirteen 
Provinces numbered at that time three millions of 
inhabitants, and these had established their homes 
with but few exceptions, east of the Alleghany 
Mountains. It was a severe trial for them to take 
up arms and send ablebodied men into the battle- 
field, when they were needed at home in develop- 
ing the resources oi" their country, which had been 
but partially reclaimed from its primeval condi- 
tion. Thousands left home and enlisted for the 
war, who never again returned, but whose bodies 
filled the honored graves of the patriot soldier; 
thousands of widows and orphans lamented their 


irreparable loss, and a void was created in the 
heart and a vacancy at the fireside, which in most 
cases was never again filled. 

England supplied her depleted ranks in the 
army from the overcrowded population of other 
European countries, whose military service she 
procured by large subsidies to the sovereigns of 
these people, and bounty money to the purchased 
soldier, thinking to gain thereby a two-fold ad- 
vantage, that of saving her British subjects, who 
went reluctantly to fight against their own flesh 
and blood, for so were the American colonists 
regarded, and that of preventing desertion to the 
American army and cause of liberty and indepen- 
dence. It was confidently supposed that the Ger- 
man soldiers, mostly Hessians, numbering "a little 
over seventeen thousand men," ignorant of the 
English language, generally spol^en in America, 
would be proof against the seductive representa- 
tions made bj^ the Americans; and to make this 
fancied security doubly sure, the most incredible 
stories concerning the character of the Americans 
were freely circulated among the Hessians. 

However, one thing the British government 
had entirely overlooked, namely, that numbers of 
the American citizens were Germans and German 
descendants, still bearing German names, pos- 
sessed of German characteristics, and speaking 
the German language. No sooner did the Hes- 
sian soldiers come in contact with these German- 
American citizens, than they deserted the ranks 
of the British army whenever they found a safe 


opportunity for so doing, and fled to the German 
settlements, to be delivered from the dangers and 
hardships of a war in which they had no interest. 

In these settlements the identity of the Hessian 
deserters soon became lost to the British, and the 
German farmers were only too happy to have the 
Hessians in their midst as laborers ever to betray 
them to the British, who were their own enemies 
as well as they were dangerous foes to the Hes- 
sian deserters. The Hessians discovered that 
these American-Germans were both civilized and 
christianized, contrary to the slanderous tales cir- 
culated by the British leaders; and though they 
were not originally from the same German prov- 
ince, yet they spake the German language, and 
were generally of the same faith with themselves. 
Besides, they discovered that land was cheap and 
labor scarce, and that better prospects were before 
them in America, than they could ever hope to 
find on their return to Germany after the termina- 
tion of the war. 

In this manner were the German settlements at 
the North, where the Hessians first landed, sup- 
plied with a valuable addition to their strength ; 
and farther south, particularly in the Carolinas, 
many honest, industrious, and useful German set- 
tlers came in good time to supply the loss that had 
been caused by the war. These did not, and of 
necessity could not, form separate settlements, as 
that would most certainly have endangered tlieir 
safety as long as the war continued, but they lo- 


cated tliemselves among the German farmers, who 
had ah-eadj' been established in this country. 

Among these Hessian deserters was one who 
afterwards became a Lutheran minister in South 
CaroUna, named John Yost Miitze, known better 
as Rev. J. Y. Meetze, and whose liistor}' was ob- 
tained from one of his sons. He deserted near 
Charleston at the time the British army was be- 
sieging that city from the other side of Ashley 
River; he was pursued some thirty miles, but 
finally made his escape over Bacon's bridge, where 
he was safe within the American lines. He located 
himself in Saxe-Gotha Township, now Lexington 
County, six miles above the present county-seat, 
and became the forefather of a large and influen- 
tial family in that section of the countr3\ The 
following tablet inscription marks the spot where 
his remains now repose : 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. J. Y. Meetze, 
who departed this life May 7th, 1833, aged 76 
years, 5 months, and 5 days." 






Section 1. A Brief Review of the Planting of the differ- 
ent German Colonies in North and South Carolina. 

" The child is the father of the man;" this is a 
trite but true saying, and is the key that unlocks 
many of the peculiar mysteries of habit, manners 
and customs, as well as the moral, intellectual 
and religious life of any community. The condi- 
tion of an infant colony has much to do with its 
future development ; one age of the world suc- 
ceeds another as naturally, and adjusts itself to 
the preceding age as appropriately as do the sev- 
eral pieces of mosaic in making a grand whole — a 
perfect picture ; and, inasmuch as there can be no 
effect without a cause, it is always necessary to 
study the character and condition of the early 
colonies, if we desire to understand fully their 
peculiarities of the present time. 

It is not to be supposed that the German settle- 
ments in the Carolinas would form the only excep- 


tion to this general rule. With these truths before 
us, and kept always in view, the peculiar ditier- 
ences, that still mark the North and South Caro- 
lina German descendants at the present day, can 
be easily understood. Local and State govern- 
ments have had something to do with the forming 
of these peculiar characteristics, but when we re- 
flect that these governments are the creatures of 
the settlers of each county, then we are again 
thrown back upon the original condition of the 
first colonies. 

Again, it is not to be supposed that the German 
forefathers, coming directly from various parts of 
Germany or from the Province of Pennsylvania, 
would leave their German peculiarities at home, 
and be ready to adopt the manners and customs of 
the settlers who preceded them and among whom 
thej^ lived, or be moulded into their religious be- 
lief and peculiar ecclesiastical usages. This doubt- 
less was the case with those German settlers, who 
were isolated and cut off from all intercourse with 
their brethren, and where other elements of colo- 
nization predominated, but not until after process 
of time, when a generation or two had passed 

The Dutch were the first Lutheran settlers in 
the Carolinas, and history has informed us how 
strenuously they, with others, resisted the en- 
croachments of the Church of England upon their 
faith, and how they struggled against the eftbrts 
of the Proprietary government of South Carolina 
to make Episcopalians of them and their children; 


■whilst the German and Swiss colony at Newberne, 
Worth Carolina, in course of time, submitted to 
the arrangement of a change of their faith, when 
made in a more conciliatory spirit and manner. 
However, as both these colonies became practi- 
cally lost to the faith of their early founders, it is 
unnecessary to follow them any farther, as on this 
wise their original identity was lost; although a 
number of the Dutch settlers found congenial 
homes, and preserved their original faith among 
German settlers in other parts of South Carolina. 
Charleston, Purj-sburg, Barnwell, Orangeburg, 
Saxe-Gotha, Edgefield and Newberry received 
their Teutonic element previous to the year 1740, 
and inasmuch as, with the exception of Purys- 
burg, the descendants of these settlers are still to 
be met there, and the Lutheran Church is firmly 
established among them, it is proper to examine 
the condition of these early settlements to under- 
stand their peculiar characteristics manifest at the 
present day. They received their principal 
strength from several German nationalities; na- 
tives of Switzerland, the Palatinate, Austria, Wiir- 
temberg, Holland and the Hessian States, located 
themselves principally in those parts of South 
Carolina, and all, of course, brought their peculiar 
national characteristics with them, and were so 
far beneficial to each other as to increase their in- 
tellectual and practical acquirements in almost 
every department of life, for they could communi- 
cate to each other the ideas and information which 
they received in their different mental and religious 


trainings, as well as what was customary and ad- 
vantageous in the useful arts in their native coun- 
tries. Besides, the Swiss element largely pre- 
dominated over any one of the other German na- 
tionalities, and these Switzers, coming from the 
land of William Tell, were born and cradled in a 
republic, lived in an adopted country which had 
overthrown the Proprietary government in 1719, 
because of its oppressive rule in that province; — 
need any one then be astonished at their love of 
liberty, and the prompt assertion of their inaliena- 
ble rights? 

Their peculiar ecclesiastical condition is like- 
wise the result of their early colonial training; 
in the interior of South Carolina the Lutherans 
and German Reformed did not continue long as 
two separate denominations, owing to the neglect 
of the German Reformed Church in taking care 
of their congregations so far south, and failing to 
supply them with ministers of the gospel after the 
older ministers there had all died. This, no doubt, 
the German Reformed Church in America could 
not avoid, and thus the members of that Church 
in those settlements soon lost their ecclesiastical 
identity, many having connected themselves with 
the Lutheran Church; whilst others, who were 
again necessarily neglected by the Lutherans, were 
absorbed by other denominations. In Charleston 
the ecclesiastical union of Germans extended still 
farther, and embraced even those who were at- 
tached to the Roman Catholic faith, of which the 
Rev. Dr. Velthusen, of Helmstaedt, Germany, re- 


ports in his preface to the N'orth Carolina Cate- 
chism, as follows: "We have likewise the assur- 
ance from other parts of America, that our books 
of instruction are suitable to their wants. Besides, 
various of these books have been also introduced 
in Charleston, by the approval and support of the 
congregation, for the instruction of their youth. 
This congregation may be looked upon as an ex- 
ample of Christian harmony, for it is composed of a 
union of Lutherans, German Reformed and Catholics, 
all of whom live, according to the testimony of 
their pastor, the Rev. Mr. Faber, very peaceably 
together, although they are educated in different 
principles of religion. They visit the house of 
God faithfully, and contribute equally for the sup- 
port of divine worship." Thus w^ere these dif- 
ferent elements united, communicating to each 
other their peculiar faith and church usages, re- 
taining, however, the Lutheran name up to the 
present time. 

The only other extensive settlement of Germans 
in South Carolina was the one in Abbeville County, 
on Hard Labor Creek, which remained Lutheran 
for a number of years, but, owing to neglect on 
the part of the Lutheran Church in supplying 
those people with the much-needed means of grace, 
they became, in course of time, lost to the Lu- 
theran faith entirely. 

In JSTorth Carolina there existed an entirely dif- 
ferent state of things; all the German settlers, 
with the exception of those who were located at 
Newberne, came mostly from Pennsylvania during 


a period of twenty-five or thirty years before the 
Revohitionary War; even the Moravians at Salera 
and vicinity came originally and mostly from that 
Province; consequently, one will find Pennsyl- 
vania ideas, habits, manners and customs pre- 
vailing among the German descendants in North 
Carolina, and here and there the Pennsylvania- 
German dialect still spoken among the aged. In 
addition to that, the Lutherans, German Reformed 
and Moravians have always preserved their eccle- 
siastical identity, and although the Lutherans and 
Reformed built many joint-churches for them- 
selves, in which both these denominations wor- 
shiped alternately, that arrangement has not ma- 
terially interfered with their respective faith and 
ecclesiastical usages. 

Again, these North Carolina German settle- 
ments have been mostly made in the country, as 
those colonists from Pennsylvania were principally 
farmers, and continued to follow their peaceful 
and unambitious pursuits for many years, and 
until recently, they cared to make but little prog- 
ress in intellectual pursuits beyond that which 
their forefathers enjoyed, thej^ continued their 
German schools and German worship for a long 
time, and but few of their descendants engaged 
in mercantile pursuits, or sought distinction and 
prominence in the arena of political life; and, as 
a general thing, they also adhered all the more 
closely to the faith and church usages of their 
forefathers. Besides, with the exception of the 
German and Swiss settlers at Newberne, the three 


German denominations of North Carolina have 
lost but very little by the proselyting encroach- 
ments of other denominations, compared with the 
German settlements of almost every other State 
in the Union. 

This is doubtless owing to various circum- 
stances : firstly, they were more strongly attached 
to their own peculiar faith; secondly, they remained 
more closely together in their own settlements, 
and when they did colonize, it was generally done 
in such a manner as to have a number of German 
families locate in the same new settlement; thirdly, 
they were more regularly supplied with the means 
of grace in their own churches, although there 
were some exceptions to this condition of things 
in certain localities ; fourthly, the German colonies 
were established in North Carolina at a later date, 
when the parent Churches in Europe had become 
fully awakened to the importance of taking care 
of their interests in America. 

Section 2. Trials and Difficulties of the Early 

The trials of strangers in a strange land under 
the most favorable circumstances, when the neces- 
saries and comforts of life are at their command, 
are sufficiently numerous and hard in themselves; 
the feeling of loneliness, the separation from af- 
fectionate relatives and friends, the sighings ("Ach 
und Weh") produced by home-sickness, especially 
such as the Swiss emisraut must have felt, when 


he contrasted the grandeur of the Alpine scenery 
in his native land with his surroundings in the 
Carolinas, located, as he was, upon the level and 
sandy plains, which extend there along the At- 
lantic coast. In the same manner, doubtless, were 
also the German Palatines affected, although war 
had driven them from their peaceful homes, when 
they remembered the beautiful banks along the 
Rhine and its vine-clad hills, which they had left 
behind them — never to behold again ; all of which 
tended to make the heart sink within them in 
mental anguish and despondency. Wise indeed, 
as well as kind, was the divine injunction given 
to the children of Israel, Deut. 10:19: "Love 
ye, therefore, the stranger : for ye were strangers 
in the land of Egypt." 

Yet how much greater must have been the 
anguish and suffering of the early colonists, who 
either willingly or necessarily abandoned home 
without the most distant prospect of return, to 
dwell in a land that could give them no shelter, 
until the log-cabin was erected by their own in- 
dustry, and no necessary supplies of life, until 
they could cultivate these themselves; and all that 
they possessed to sustain life was often nothing 
more than what they brought with them from 
the vessel that conveyed them to America. The 
first English colony, located on Roanoke Island 
in ]!^orth Carolina, actually perished from want, 
and was swept away entirely; not a soul was left 
to tell the tale of its woes and sufferings, of which 
Dr. Hawks speaks: "It was subjected to the hor- 


rors of famine; time and experience would prob- 
ably have corrected the other evils we have named, 
but for starvation there was no remedy; and so, 
after the toil and suffering of years, the expendi- 
ture of much precious treasure, and the loss of 
still more precious life, the waves of Albemarle 
rolled, as of old, their ripples up the deserted 
island beach, and the only voice heard was that 
of the fitful winds, as they sighed through the 
forests of Roanoke, and broke upon the stillness 
of nature's rough repose. The white man was 
there no longer." 

And then came also the exposure to all kinds 
of weather and the inhospitality of climate, to 
which the early settlers were as yet unaccustomed, 
which, with the ignorance in regard to the pecu- 
liarities of the new country, often locating them- 
selves near streams of water, the malaria of which 
superinduced sickness, frequently brought the 
strongest constitutioned person to an early grave; 
whilst others were so enfeebled by sickness, that 
all their native strength and energy, brought with 
them from the Fatherland, was necessarily pros- 
trated. It was some time before they became ac- 
quainted with the peculiarities of the country and 
climate, and discovered the healthy localities, 
where they would be free from the attacks of 
malignant fevers, and their physical constitution 
would adapt itself to the climate of their new 

But the greatest hardship of the early settlers 
was the occasional outbreak of hostility from the 


Indians; this was a never-failing cause of appre- 
hension and alarm. Whilst the Indians remained 
near them, they never felt themselves perfectly 
safe; war often broke out upon them quite un- 
awares; the strong man, the helpless woman and 
the innocent child were not unfrequently mur- 
dered in cold blood. In this manner did many 
of the poor Palatines and Swiss, in and around 
^ewberue, lose their lives during the Tuscarora 
and Core Indian war, as already related in chapter 
i, section 7, of this history, containing an extract 
from Dr. Hawks' History of North Carolina. 
Whenever the early colonists were pursuing their 
daily avocations, at home or in the iield, at church 
or elsewhere, the trusty rifle had always to accom- 
pany them, so that they might be prepared for 
any sudden attack. 

The sparseness of population was another great 
inconvenience to the early settlers, both in the 
matter of defence against the hostile attacks of 
the Indians, as well as in the procuring of most 
of the necessary articles of husbandry and do- 
mestic life. There were but few mechanics and 
still fewer trading-places, where the supplies of 
commerce could be obtained, so that nearly all the 
settlers were obliged to live and labor without 
those things which are now regarded as neces- 
saries of life. This, of course, compelled each 
family to manufacture their own articles of cloth- 
ing and implements of husbandry; the loom, the 
anvil, the tannery and the shoe-shop became nec- 
essary adjuncts to almost every household, whilst 


all the inmates of the family had to content them- 
selves to live and he clad in the most i^rimitive 
style; useful industry became every member of 
society at that time, and the hum of the spinning- 
wheel resounded in almost every dwelling. 

Section S. Character, Occupation and Condition of 
the German Settlers in the Carolinas. 

Wherever the Germans have located themselves, 
they have usually manifested certain traits of char- 
acter, which are upon the whole very commend- 
able. Whilst they are generally retiring and 
peaceful in their intercourse with man, opposed 
to riot and contention, and will patiently suffer 
wrong for a long time, i\\Qy are nevertheless un- 
willing to submit to oppression when persistently 
brought to bear down upon them; they may be 
led, their minds are open to conviction, but they 
cannot be driven, and will determinately resist 
all attempts to deprive them of their inalienable 

The Germans are the most industrious settlers 
that have ever come to America; they are willing 
to endure any amount of toil to secure a perma- 
nent home, or an establishment over which they 
may have entire control; tliey never shrink from 
labor that promises to be remunerative; every- 
thing around them must be well and profitably 
arranged, hence their farms usually present the 
appearance of order, thrift and comfort; all w^ork 
must be well done, ere it can be made satisfactory 



to them. Besides, they also love home and its 
comforts, and are usually slow to leave the place 
which they have once secured as their own; there 
are plantations and farms at the present day in 
possession among the German descendants in both 
the Caroliuas, that have never passed out of the 
family, being still held by virtue of the original 
grant or deed made in colonial times. They 
generally persevere in all their undertakings, even 
when the immediate prospects are not encour- 
aging, and manage all their affairs with the strict- 
est economy, often carrying their frugality to such 
an extreme as to become a fault, when such 
frugality is no longer needed. Honesty and up- 
rightness are also marked characteristics of the 
Germans; they shrink from debt, and are un- 
happy as long as all their liabilities are not can- 
celled, and when once a promise has been made 
by them, it can generally be relied on, for their 
word is usually as good as their bond; there are, 
of course, exceptions to this general trait of char- 
acter, yet not so many as materially to impair the 
confidence which is usually reposed in the Ger- 
mans and their immediate descendants every- 
where. They are slow in making changes, and 
often tenaciously adhere for a long time to the 
practices and conduct of their forefathers; this 
has been frequently attributed to them as a fault, 
inasmuch as they appear so unwilling to make 
progress and keep pace with modern advance- 
ment; yet whilst this may be true, it can also be 
said that they do not advance so readily in the 


vices, immoralities and fraudulent dealings of our 
progressive age. 

The Germans appear to have been specially 
fitted in all their characteristics to make the wilds 
of America to blossom and bloom as the rose; 
their patient toil, together with their excellent and 
economical management, has made the soil of this 
country to produce abundantly, thereby enhanc- 
ing its material prosperity. 

The early German colonists were slow in aban- 
doning their native language, especially where 
they lived in settlements of their own, and did not 
come much in contact with other people, as was 
the case in agricultural districts; this was one of 
the causes of their having retained their peculiar 
traits of character for so long a time, having had 
its influence also upon their educational, religious, 
social and moral condition. They established 
parochial schools in all their settlements, wherever 
it could possibly be done, and a teacher could be 
secured, an arrangement to which they had al- 
ways been accustomed in their Fatherland, in 
which the catechism was taught, as well as the 
other branches of rudimental knowledge; neither 
was the Bible excluded from the school, and gene- 
rally constituted the text-book in the reading 
classes ; by this means a vast amount of religious 
intelligence was difiused among the German set- 
tlers and their descendants. 

Their divine service was conducted for a long 
period of time in the German language, and when, 
at length, it did become absolutely necessary to 


introduce the English language occasionally in 
their churches, because some of their descendants 
and some English settlers among them could not 
understand the German very well, the minister or 
pastor in charge, who conscientiously tavored or 
proposed this new arrangement, often met with a 
storm of opposition that generally impaired his 
usefulness, and obliged him to seek for another 
field of labor. His successor, however, then found 
the way prepared before him, and could officiate 
in English without much opposition, the storm 
having spent itself upon the pastor who first pro- 
posed the change. This same German character- 
istic, namely, opposition to all innovations, or firm 
adherence to the ways of their forefathers, had 
another deleterious ett'ect : it sometimes became 
necessary to have a church located in town, in 
order to preserve its prosperity, when a number of 
the members had removed there, and the town 
became the central point of the congregation, then 
animosities would sometimes arise, which either 
defeated the proposed measure, or necessitated 
the removal of the pastor. The long use of the 
German language, whilst it exerted a deleterious 
influence upon the Church in retarding its prog- 
ress, in many instances also preserved it from the 
encroachments of error and the inroads of prose- 
lytism, especially in the rural districts; whilst in 
cities and towns it had the opposite eftect, and 
caused numbers of the German descendants to 
connect themselves with other denominations, who 


would gladly have remained in the church of their 

Many of the Germans in the Province of South 
Carolina were brought there with the design of 
establishing the production of silk and the culti- 
vation of the grape-vine, with which the Swiss 
and Palatines were well acquainted, as it was 
thought that the soil and climate were admirably 
adapted thereto; but it did not promise much suc- 
cess, owing chiefly to the little demand for those 
articles of luxury at the time, and the more profit- 
able employment of labor in other and more nec- 
essary articles; besides, the cost of producing silk 
and wine was greater than in Europe. Wine 
could be made, as the grape-vine bears plenti- 
fully, but the wine produced in South Carolina 
cannot be long preserved in so warm a climate 
without admixture of other ingredients, especially 
in the lowlands, where the first German settlers 
were located. Planting, farming and the useful 
arts constituted the principal employment of the 
Germans and their descendants in the Carolinas : 
merchandizing, especially in towns and cities, 
eventually claimed their attention also, but only 
to a limited extent. Their mode of living, their 
industrious habits, and their simplicity of manners, 
to all of which they had been accustomed in their 
Fatherland, were well adapted to the condition of 
the country in its early period of colonization, of 
which Captain John Smith, though Governor of 
another Province, the Virginia Colony of James- 
town, very appropriately remarks: "When you 


send again, I entreat you, rather send but thirty 
carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, 
blacksmiths, masons and diggers up of trees' 
roots, well provided, than a thousand such as we 
have; for except we be able to lodge them and 
feed them, the most will consume with want of 
necessaries before they can be made good for any 
thing." [Smith's History of Virginia, vol. i, p. 

The purity of morals of the early German set- 
tlers likewise contrasts very favorably with some 
of the English colonists, who came to Carolina to 
seek a change of fortune, and of whom Rev. Dr. 
Hawks writes : " The outcasts of London prisons 
and the sweepings of London kennels, then, as 
now, doubtless could furnish their quota to every 
shipload of adventurers. The dissipated scions 
of respectable families were gladly sent off, lest 
they should finally tarnish ancestral honors by a 
felon's fate at home: the inmates of the vile slums 
and alleys of the metropolis were but too glad to 
escape the grasp of violated law; to leave a conn- 
try where they had nothing to gain and every- 
thing to lose, because they had reached an infamy 
and attained to a notoriety in guilt, which left 
them no further hope of committing crime with 
impunity. Li short, we may not doubt, that some 
of the earliest colonists belonged to that class 
which the poet has described as ' the cankers of a 
long peace, and a calm world.'" [Hawks' History 
of North Carolina, vol. i, p. 253.) 


Section 4- Great want of the Means of Grace among 
the early German colonists in the Carolinas. 

" The harvest truly is plenteous, but the laborers 
are few," has been the cry for more than eighteen 
centuries, and the want of ministers of the gospel 
is continued to be felt up to the present time, but 
at no time and among no people to a more alarm- 
ing extent than among the early German settlers 
in the Carolinas. The Dutch colony on James 
Island, South Carolina, the Swiss and Palatine 
settlers in Newberne, North Carolina, the German 
and Swiss colonists in Purysburg, South Carolina, 
never did have a minister of the gospel of their 
own faith among them, and were consequently 
lost entirely to the Church of their fathers; whilst 
all the other German settlements in these two 
Provinces suft'ered more or less, and some for a 
long time, for the want of the regular adminis- 
tration of the means of grace; and when German 
ministers did eventually come to labor among 
their brethren of the same faith with themselves, 
the enemy had already sown his tares among the 
wheat, which caused great spiritual degeneracy. 
From A.D. 1674 to 1737, that is to say, from the 
settlement of the Dutch colonists to the arrival of 
the first German minister in Orangeburg, South 
Carolina, embracing a period of sixty-three years, 
during which time a number of important German 
settlements had been made, not a single minister 
of the gospel of their own faith labored among 
these settlers in that entire territory; and after 


that time their pastors were so few in number that 
comparatively little good could be effected. 

In some localities temporary houses of worship 
were erected, and grants of land were secured for 
that purpose; or in the absence of these, school- 
houses and barns were used for divine service, 
generally conducted by some pious layman or the 
school-teacher, who read a sermon or devotional 
essay from such books as constituted the library 
of the earl}' settlers. Great desire was at first 
awakened to enjoy the preaching of the Word 
and the administration of the sacraments, which 
want was occasionally supplied by very unworthy 
men, who were generally denominated " straggling 
preachers," of whom Dr. E. W. Caruthers, in his 
"Life of Rev. David Caldwell, D.D.," speaks as 
follows: "Hardly any of these (preachers) were 
calculated to advance the interests of vital piety, 
or to elevate the character of the people. Some 
of them had no kind of authority to preach, and 
no claims on the confidence of the churches on 
the score of piety; but came out here, either from 
the Northern States or from Germany, pretending 
to be preachers ; exercised an assumed authority, 
and acted as self-constituted pastors of the churches, 
or went from place to place, imposing on the peo- 
ple who knew no better, or were glad to meet 
with any one who came to them as a minister of 

The efi:'ect of such great want of the means of 
grace, or the improper administration of them, 
can be readily imagined; it occasioned at first 


much sorrow and regret among tlie better class of 
settlers, wlio became greatly dissatisfied with their 
new homes on account of this deficiency; and, as 
in Saxe-Gotha, South Carolina, gave intimation 
that thej- would likewise remove from their present 
location to the Province of Pennsylvania, where 
they could enjoy these spiritual advantages, as 
many had heretofore done. In Purj'sburg, 
Charleston and elsewhere, a number of German 
settlers did leave for this very reason, and located 
themselves among the Salzburgers of Ebenezer, 
Georgia, who were supplied with two efiicient and 
pious pastors, the Revs. Bolzius and Gronau. 
Others again grew cold and indifterent to their 
spiritual interests and welfare, whilst not a few 
abandoned themselves to the dictates of their own 
corrupt natures, and fell from that grace and 
those pious principles of which they were once 
possessed ; permitting their children to grow up 
without a proper knowledge of God, of their duty, 
and of the way of salvation. 

In one locality a singular heresy made its ap- 
pearance among a number of settlers, which ter- 
minated in a very tragical aftair, as found related 
in the succeeding section, and may readily be un- 
derstood as a very natural consequence of the want 
of the means of grace administered in the regularly- 
appointed and divinelj^-ordered way. 

In Charleston, South Carolina, the German set- 
tlers fared somewhat better; it being the centre of 
commerce in that Province, and having more in- 
tercourse with the European world, ministers of 


the gospel, who first landed there on their way to 
their respective fields of labor in other parts of 
America, occasionally supplied the German citizens 
there with the preaching of the gospel and the ad- 
ministration of the holy sacraments; Rev. Bolzius 
visited them in 1734, and accomplished much good 
in preaching and administering the communion to 
them for the Urst time; Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, 
who had been sent by the Mission Society of Halle 
to labor in Pennsyh^ania, landed in Charleston, 
September 21, 1742, and whilst tarrying there he 
preached the gospel and catechized the children ; 
Revs. Rabenhorst and Gerock, the one on his way 
to Ebenezer, Georgia, and the other destined for 
Pennsylvania, likewise visited the German citizens 
of Charleston, and labored a short time for their 
spiritual welfare, A.D. 1753; in this manner was 
the flame of true religion preserved from becoming 
entirely extinguished among them, until they se- 
cured the services of a regular pastor in 1755. 
But in the rural districts of South Carolina, the 
spiritual condition of the German settlers was 
most deplorable, inasmuch as, previous to the year 
1737, not a single German pastor labored among 

The Lutherans in Saxe-Gotha Township, num- 
bering two hundred and eighty souls, wrote to the 
Ebenezer pastors, in 1750, for a minister of their 
own faith; but their urgent plea was not regarded, 
which greatly discouraged them. I^eed any one 
be astonished at the legitimate effects of so deplor- 
able a want of the means of grace as Avas witnessed 


at that time in the Pi'ovince of South Carolina. 
The settlements of Germans from Pennsylvania 
in the interior of Korth Carolina were not com- 
menced until about this time, therefore they do 
not now claim our attention ; but the Newberne 
colony of Swiss and Germans in 1710, as has been 
stated before, was entirely neglected, and became, 
as a necessary consequence, also entirely lost to 
the Church of their fathers. 

Section 5. An Account of the Weber ( Weaver) Heresy. 

In Saxe-Gotha Township, Lexington County, 
South Carolina, and " in the neighborhood of 
what is now called Younginer's Ferry," there 
originated a sect among the Swiss and German 
settlers, who were called Weberites. Their heresy 
was of so revolting a nature, that it would be de- 
sirable to pass it by in silence, if it could be done 
without doing injustice to a faithful and correct 
narration of historical facts. 

Eev. Dr. Hazelius gives us a brief sketch of the 
doings of these Weberites in his American Lu- 
theran Church, p. 103; and the Rev. Dr. Muhlen- 
berg has also furnished us a more extended ac- 
count of them in his journal, translated and pub- 
lished in vol. i of the Evangelical Review, dating 
their transactions as having occurred in the year 
1760; nevertheless, the origin of this sect must 
have taken place some time before, as that is the 
date of the culmination of their heresy into the 
crime, which brought their leader to suffer the 
just penalty of the law. 


Dr. Muhlenberg's account is as follows : " Mr, 
Strobel, the son-in-law of Rev. Mr. Martin, a 
wealthy tanner, sent for me in a chaise, to convey 
me out of town to dine with him. He told me, 
among other things, a remarkable history of an 
abominable sect, which had arisen among the 
Germans in South Carolina, A.D. 1760-1, and had 
some similarity with Knipperdolling and Jan Van 
Leiden. They committed murders, on which ac- 
count one of them, named Jacob Weber, who 
called himself a god, and slew a person, was 
hanged. Their founder is said to have been Peter 
Schmidt. The sect originated at Saluda Fork, 
about one hundred miles from Charleston (125 
or 130 miles). 

"Jacob Weber was a Swiss. He first became 
an exhorter, then he advanced himself still farther, 
but before his end he came to his senses, and saw 
his error. 

"The people in the countr}^, in general, grew 
up without schools and instruction. Occasionally 
a self-taught (auto-didacter) minister may labor 
for awhile amongst them, yet it continues only a 
short time. The people are wild, and continue to 
grow wilder, for what does it profit them to hear 
a sermon every four, six, or twelve weeks, if in 
early youth the foundation of Divine Truth had 
not been laid ? The aforesaid sect had so far ob- 
tained the supremacy that several families united 
with it for fear of their lives ; numbers of both 
sexes went about uncovered and naked, and prac- 
ticed the most abominable wantonness. One of 


them pretended to be God the Father, another 
the Son, and a third the Holy Spirit; and the pre- 
tended Fatlier, having quarrelled with the Son, 
repudiated the pretended Son, chained him in the 
forest, declared him to be Satan, and finally gath- 
ered his gang, who beat and trampled on the poor 
man until he died ; he is reported also to have 
killed the pretended Holy Ghost in bed. A report 
of these circumstances having reached the au- 
thorities in Charleston, the militia were ordered to 
arrest the pretended deity, when he was tried, con- 
demned, and executed upon the gallows. 

" The English inhabitants scofi'ed about it, and 
said the Germans had nothing to fear, tlieir Devil 
having been killed, and their God having been 
hanged. Such are the fruits of not inculcating 
the doctrine of Divine Truth early in youth, and 
of leaving man to himself. Rom. 1 : 21-32. This 
sect spread from South to N^orth Carolina, thence 
to Maryland and Virginia, among the German 
and English population, and has likewise left some 
seed of this heresy in Charleston. Upon this gross 
Satanic tragedy a more subtle temptation followed. 
Quakers, Anabaptists, &c., spread themselves in 
the country regions around, and appear to be better 
suited to the circumstances of the land at this 

'• October 9th. To-day I received the original 
copy of a letter dictated by Jacob Weber in prison 
before his death, for the benefit of his childreUj 
which reads as follows: 


^^^ Jacob Weber'' s Confession. 

" ' April 16th, 1761, being imprisoned and ironed, 
it occurred to me and the jailor to transmit to my 
beloved children a sketch of my mournful life. I, 
Jacob Weber, was born in Switzerland, in Canton 
Zurich, in the county of Knomauer, in the parish 
of Stifterschweil, and was raised and educated in 
the Reformed Church. In the fourteenth year of 
my age I journeyed with my brother to South 
Carolina, leaving my parents ; and soon after my 
arrival I lost my brother by death. Thus I was 
forsaken of man, and without father or mother. 
But God had compassion on me amid much 
trouble and sorrow. He planted the fear of the 
Lord in my heart, so that I had more pleasure in 
the Lord, in godliness, and the Word of God, than 
in the world. I was often troubled about my sal- 
vation when I reflected how strict an account God 
would require, that I must enter into judgment, 
and know not how it would result. Although 
God drew me with his grace, I found also the re- 
verse in my corrupt nature, which was excited 
with the love of the world, viz., of riches, honors, 
and an easy life. 

"'Mankind love a social life, and as the Lord 
drew me back in many wonderful ways, I came, 
therefore, nearer to him; notwithstanding I always 
attended to my religious services and prayer, but 
with a heart cold and averted from God. Through 
such exercises of the heart I arrived at a knowl- 
edge of my sins, and learned how awfully the 


human race liad fallen from God, and how low all 
mankind, without exception, are sunken in de- 
pravity. As soon as I experienced this, I earnestly 
besought God day and night for forgiveness, for 
the Holy Spirit, for a pure heart, and for saving 
faith, and I felt the necessity of retirement to re- 
strain my thoughts, and to prevent the Divine 
work from being hindered in me. In this retire- 
ment I forgot the turmoil of the world. In this 
light I regarded all vain desires and thoughts and 
all human w'orks as by nature damnable in the 
sight of God. Fear and sorrow now seized upon 
my poor soul, and I thought, what shall I do to 
be saved? It was shown me that nothing would 
suffice but being born again of water and of the 
Spirit. Realizing that I could not be saved in 
any other way, I prayed still more earnestly, and 
it was shown me still more plainly by the Holy 
Ghost in my heart how sinful I was (Rom. 7), so 
that I stood there before the judgment of God; 
but the judgment of God became manifest in me, 
so that I judged m^'self, and confessed that I had 
deserved a thousand-fold to be cast from the pres- 
ence of God, and wondered that the forbearance 
of the Lord had not long since hurled me, poor 
and condemned wretch, into the lowest pit of de- 
struction; and then too, I saw the whole world lay 
in sin. Feeling myself so lost, I cast myself en- 
tirely upon tlie mercy of God to lead me according 
to his holy will and pleasure, whether unto life or 
death, if he would only be gracious unto my poor 


soul for Christ's sake, and pardon m}'- sin, and 
purif}' my heart from all iincleanness. Thus I lay 
at the feet of Jesus with all my heart in submis- 
sion, sighing and praying night and day for his 
grace, and so continued for several days, until I 
had passed from death unto life. Then Jesus re- 
vealed himself unto my soul. Then there was 
great joy in heaven over me, a returning sinner. 
Then all my sins were forgiven me, and I was full 
of the Holy Ghost, and rejoiced with a joy un- 
speakably great. This occurred, or I experienced 
this joy, A.D. 1756, in the month of May. This 
grace caused me to despise the joy of the world, 
and to disregard its reproach, and kept me, thence- 
forth, continually with my surety, Jesus, amid 
many temptations not now to be mentioned, until 
finally I found rest for my soul. This peace and 
communion with God I possessed about two years, 
under every burden of affliction, for I had the 
grace to enable me, under all circumstances, to 
submit my will to the mercy of God. Through 
the grace which was in me I could govern tem- 
poral goods without danger to my soul. Upon 
this followed the great misery and awful fall into 
sin, already, alas! too well known. The devil 
bringing me into a greater temptation and fall 
than was ever knoAvn, of which Peter Schmidt was 
the origin and instrument. After this, by the provi- 
dence of God, I was captured and cast into prison, 
that I might recover my reason, come to a knowl- 
edge of my great sins, and confess them before God, 


that thus it might awaken great wretchedness in 
my soul, liumble me before God and man, yea, 
beneath all creature?, yea, that I might account 
myself as the poorest worm. I often thought 
each and every person too good to speak to me, 
and interest himself in me. Nevertheless I sought 
cordially the forgiveness of my sins in the blood 
of the Lamb of God, my Redeemer, who loved me 
and died for all my sins, and for his righteousness' 
sake arose, all which I heartily believe, because I 
experience again the witness of the Holy Spirit, 
which testifies unto mj^ spirit that I am a child of 
God. And now, my children, beloved in the Lord, 
I must leave this world, and, perha'ps, behold 
your face no more in this life, I commend you, 
therefore, to the protection and mercy of God! 
Pray without ceasing, learn and read; injure no 
one willingly and wilfully while you live; labor 
industriously and faithfully according to your 
ability; then, if we should meet no more in this 
world, we may hope to meet each other in heaven, 
in the world to come; which may the triune God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, grant to you for the 
sake of the crucified Jesus, Amen. Such cunning 
and celerity does Satan possess as to cause so great 
a schism and injury even among the children of 
God, and to lead them astray, and make them tall 
so suddenly against their knowledge and consent. 
May God preserve all persons from so great a fall, 
and trample Satan under foot, for Christ's sake. 
Amen. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be 
with you and all persons. Amen. And I beseech 


all persons who have been injured by me to for- 
give me, for Christ's sake. 
" ' Written or dictated by 

"'Jacob Waeber. 

'"April 16th, 1701.'" 

Dr. Hazelius' account of this tragic affair is as 
follows : 

"It was about this time that a number of our 
(German) people, living on the banks of the Saluda 
Eiver, in South Carolina, being destitute of minis- 
terial instruction, agreed to assemble from time to 
time for singing, prayer, the reading of the Scrip- 
tures, and mutual edification. This was as it 
should be, but the enemy soon sowed tares among 
the wheat, by introducing spiritual pride among 
the small flock. One man, by the name of Wea- 
ver, personated Christ, another the Holy Spirit, a 
certain woman, the wife of Weaver, the Virgin 
Mary, and one poor fellow was doomed to repre- 
sent Satan. The curiosity of the people became 
highly excited by the strange proceedings on Sa- 
luda River, in the neighborhood of what is now 
called Younginer's Ferry. Excess followed excess, 
until at length Weaver, representing either Christ 
or God, ordered, in virtue of his dignity, that 
Satan should be chained in a subterranean hole, 
and finally that he should be destroyed. For this 
purpose they met, placed the unfortunate man in 
a bed, covered him with pillows, on which some 
seated themselves, while others stamped with their 
feet on the bed until the life of the man had be- 


come extinct. The corpse was then taken out of 
bed, and thrown into a burning pile of wood, to 
be consumed to ashes. The perpetrators of this 
crime were taken to Charleston and tried. Wea- 
ver was found guilty, and suffered the penalty of 
the law on the gallows. His wife was pardoned." 

The Rev. Christian Theus furnished Dr. Muhlen- 
berg with a more detailed description of this sect 
of Weberites, as he was well acquainted with their 
doings, having lived about twenty-five miles from 
the place where the murder occurred. At a cer- 
tain time he came unexpectedly into their meeting, 
and found Jacob Weber contending that he was 
God, and the said Peter Schmidt insisting that he 
himself was Christ, and that the unconverted mem- 
bers must be healed through his stripes. 

Pastor Theus opposing such blasphemy, the 
leaders became enraged, and threatened his life, 
and counselled with their rabble whether to drown 
or hang him. He escaped, however, from their 
hands, fled to the river, and fortunately found a 
negro with his canoe at the shore, sprang into it, 
was conveyed across, and thus saved his life. 

All traces of this abominable heresy have long 
since been obliterated ; neither are there even any 
descendants of Jacob Weber and Peter Schmidt 
to be found in the Saluda Fork. To what region 
of country they emigrated, or what was their sub- 
sequent history, is not known. The object of his- 
tory in preserving the record of such deeds is that 
it might serve as a warning to all not to depart 
from the truth as revealed in God's word, even in 


their religion. The Bible is given as a "lamp to 
our feet and a light to our path," and the promise 
is there that the wayfaring man, though a fool, need 
not err therein ; but whosoever despises the re- 
vealed light will soon glide into very grievous and 
dangerous errors. Sincerity is no proof of the 
purity of faith, and no guide to man's actions. That 
Weber was sincere, his confession, which he made 
with eternity in view, fully proves; notwithstand- 
ing his sincerity, so great was his deception in 
spiritual things, that he became guilty of the most 
horrid blasphemy and of the greatest crime known 
to the law. 

This narrative also demonstrates the value of 
an evangelical, educated and faithful ministry of 
the Gospel, an institution which has been divinely 
appointed, through whose ministrations God is 
pleased to bless mankind and keep them in the 
way of truth and peace. In such occurrences as 
these, the infidel is rebuked in his opposition to the 
preaching of the Gospel ; man soon degenerates and 
becomes capable of committing all manner of ex- 
cesses, w'here he is not restrained by the influence 
of the Gospel. In this locality, where the "Weber- 
ites had their origin, and about that period of time, 
A.D. 1758, according to the import of Weber's 
confession, the Gospel was but seldom preached, 
and the effects of such neglect soon manifested 
themselves; the people generally gave a loose rein 
to their passions, rioted in their wantonness, and 
actually believed that in doing so they were ren- 
dering service to God. If in the commencement 


of this settlement the people would have been 
blessed with the faithful labors of an evangelical 
and intelligent pastor, doubtless such extravagance 
in religion and morals never would have been 
manifested there, as is sufficiently proved by the 
condition of those settlements where religious ad- 
vantages were enjoyed ; so likewise, where the 
young are well trained and indoctrinated, depart- 
ures from the principles of a pure faith and cor- 
rect morals are not likely to occur. Occasional 
ministrations of the word and the sacraments are 
not sufficient in any community; orthodox churches 
should be established in reach of every family, and 
a pastor should labor continually among his people, 
both at the fireside and upon the pulpit, if he ex- 
pects to accomplish permanent good, for it appears 
that the want of such constant ministrations had 
a serious effect upon this community, at the time 
these criminal occurrences took place. 

Section 6. History of St. John's Lutheran Church, 
Charleston, South Carolina, to the close of the 
JRevolutionary War. 

At the period of time when the first Lutheran 
Church in Charleston was establishec7, so far as 
the records now extant appear to indicate, there 
was no longer a single Lutheran congregation nor 
Lutheran minister in the Province of South Caro- 
lina. The Rev. John Giessendanner, of Orange- 
burg, having become discouraged, and dreading 
further annoyance from such straggling preachers 


as Zauberbiihler, connected himself and his con- 
gregation with the established Cliurch of England 
in 1749; and the Rev. Christian Theus labored as 
a German Reformed minister in Saxe-Gotha 
Township, near the Congaree River, 

The early records of the Charleston Lutheran 
Church are mainly derived from the journal of 
Rev. H. M. Muhlenberg, D.D., who labored in 
Pennsylvania, and who was sent, A.D. 1774, by 
the " Society for Propagating the Gospel " on a 
second visit to the South to adjust certain difficul- 
ties, which had arisen in the congregation at Eben- 
ezer, Georgia; and on his way thither he spent 
some time in Charleston, and took notes of the 
principal occurrences in the Lutheran Church in 
that city, as well as of the German churches gen- 
erally, located in South Carolina. Dr. Muhlen- 
berg's journal was translated and published in 
the Evangelical Review in 1850, by a descendant 
of his, the Rev. J. W. Richards, D.D., then Lu- 
theran pastor at Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Ramsa3",in the second volume of his "History 
of South Carolina," reprinted edition, p. 23, states: 
"Their first minister, the Rev. Mr. Luft, arrived 
in 1752." How much credit is to be given to this 
statement, the writer is not prepared to say; but 
it appears singular that Dr. Muhlenberg, who ex- 
amined the records of this Lutheran Church in 
Charleston thirty-four years before Ramsay, and 
associated freely with its members for five weeks, 
arranging their church affairs, should not have 
mentioned the Rev. Mr. Luffs name in his jour- 


nal. However, if the Rev. Mr. Luft was the first 
pastor of this people, they certainly had no house 
of worship of their own at the time, and very prob- 
ably no regularly organized congregation, for even 
Ramsay states : "In the year 1759 they began to 
build a house of worship themselves," and that 
event took place during Rev. Friederichs' minis- 
try in Charleston. 

Rev. John George Friederichs arrived in Char- 
leston, South Carolina, about the year 1755 or 6, 
and gathered the Germans residing there into a 
congregation, which he afterwards served for sev- 
eral years ; he may, therefore, justly be regarded 
as the founder of the first Lutheran Church in 
Charleston. The elders of the French (Huguenot) 
congregation kindly offered and granted the use 
of their church for divine service to our German 
brethren, when not needed for their own worship; 
they likewise extended the right of sepulture to 
the Germans in their own graveyard, all of which 
was accepted with gratitude. 

"Rev. Friederichs labored hard, and, together 
with the elders and wardens, exerted himself so as 
to procure a place in the town for a German Lu- 
theran church and graveyard. He was acquainted 
among the English and beloved by them, and col- 
lected among them towards the erection of a house 
of worship. He desired the church to be built of 
brick, which would have been best, but several 
elders and members outvoted him, and caused it 
to be built of wood." The enterprise so far suc- 
ceeded as to have the corner-stone of the new edi- 


fice laid on the 17th of December, 1759. Soon 
after this event, liev. Priedericlis resigned, and 
took charge of several congregations in the coun- 
try, locating himself in Amelia Township, Orange- 
burg District, South Carolina. 

After tlie removal of Rev. J. G. Friederichs the 
congregation secured the services of a Rev. Mr. 
Wartman, who was a highly educated divine, and 
is said to have been an animated preacher, yet his 
usefulness was very much injured, on account of 
his having been possessed of a very fiery and chol- 
eric disposition, which unhappy temperament had 
been the cause of his short staj^ in several congre- 
gations in Pennsylvania and Virginia, where he 
had frequently exposed his temper, and exhausted 
both himself and his people. This was also the 
reason of his short stay in Charleston, where he 
might have been exceedingly useful, as he was 
possessed of the other necessary qualifications of 
a pastor, had he been enabled to control his un- 
happy disposition. He remained but two years 
and then took up his residence in the country. 

The fourth pastor of this congregation was the 
Rev. John Nicholas Martin, a self-taught man, 
who is said to have been ordained by the Salz- 
burg pastors in Georgia, and who enjoyed the 
reputation of having been a sensible and indus- 
trious laborer in Christ's vineyard. He took 
charge of St. John's Church, November 24th, 
1763, and served it for three years and three 
months; during his ministry the new church edi- 
fice was completed, which had been in course of 


construction over four years, and was dedicated 
on the 24th of June, 1764, John the Baptist's day. 
The officiating clergymen on this occasion v.-ere 
Eev. J. G. Friederichs, the founder of this congre- 
gation, and the Rev. J. K Martin, the pastor in 
charge. The dedication sermon was preached 
from the text, Luke 1 : 68-70 : " Blessed be the 
Ijord God of Israel ; for he hath visited and re- 
deemed his people, and hath raised up a horn of 
salvation for us in the house of his servant David; 
as he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, 
which have been since the world began." This 
church was a small wooden building, situated in 
the rear of where the present church stands, and 
"was an antiquated building of a peculiar con- 
struction, resembling some of the old churches in 
the rural districts of Germany;" a representation 
of it is still preserved, "suspended in the vestry- 
room of the present church ; and for uniqueness 
of architecture, as well as for its value as a relic of 
the past, excites no little notice." 

During the ministry of Rev. Martin in this con- 
gregation, a large n Umber of worthy Germans 
organized themselves into a "German Benevolent 
Society," now known as the "German Friendly 
Society," which appears to have been in a most 
flourishing condition from its commencement to 
the present time. Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg gives a 
glowing description of this praiseworthy society, 
and informs us, that it was founded January 15th, 
1766, and had increased in a little more than eight 
years to " upwards of eighty members, living in 


the town and country, of whom upwards of fifty 
are still living." During those years their funded 
capital had accumulated to £400 sterling, the in- 
terest of which is to be " applied for the relief of 
every such poor member, or of his widow and or- 
phans, as shall have been connected seven years 
with the Society, and have paid their contribu- 
tions. This commendable Society is, in a measure, 
the flower and crown of the German nation in this 

By special invitation of the "heads of this So- 
ciety," and escorted to their place of meeting by 
the Vice-President and Treasurer, Rev. Dr. Muh- 
lenberg dined with the members, and thus became 
acquainted with the most influential Germans in 
the place. He speaks also very highly of their 
manner of conducting the business of this Society, 
and gives the names of the members present at 
that meeting. 

Early in the year 1767, Rev. J. N". Martin took 
leave of this congregation, and labored in the Fork 
of the Saluda and Broad Rivers, where it is known 
that he still labored some seven years later, in 
1774, as his name is incidentally mentioned in 
that connection in Dr. M.'s journal, and the pre- 
sumption is, that he became the Lutheran pastor 
of the congregations in the Fork soon after his de- 
parture from Charleston. 

The elders and wardens of St. John's Church 
now applied to Rev. Dr. Wachsell, in London, be- 
seeching him to send them a regular teacher and 
pastor, and obtained through his instrumentality 


the Rev. John Severin Hahnbaum, to whom a 
call was extended on the 28th of January, 1767. 
He arrived with his family, and took charge of 
the church on the 12th of June of the same year; 
unfortunately, however, he was either in injEirm 
health when he arrived in Charleston, or the cli- 
mate there disagreed with him, for he was often 
indisposed, and lived only a few years. During 
the first year of his ministry, "the following per- 
sons were the elders or vestrymen of the church : 
Messrs. Johannes Swint, Melchior Werley, 
Philip Mensing, Abraham Speidel, Martin Miil- 
ler, J. Shutterling, Jacob Breidell, John Kirchner, 
and Michael Kalteisen. One year later four war- 
dens were elected, viz., Messrs. Joseph Kimmel, 
Henry Lindauer, Godnian, and Jury. 

"In 1768 the Hon. John Paul Grimpke pre- 
sented the church with a silver plate of the weight 
of one pound, which was appropriated by the 
council for gathering the collections every Sunday. 
So also did Capt. Alexander Gillon, who had re- 
centlj" arrived from Germany, present to the 
church a pair of beautiful candlesticks, which 
were ordered to be placed on each side of the 
pulpit. He had also collected, whilst in Germany, 
£275 currency for the benefit of the church, which 
he ottered to pay over, but the council requested 
him to retain it in his possession, and pay it out 
for the repairs and improvements of a house re- 
cently purchased by the congregation." 

This fact, in connection with the additional one, 
that no charge was to be made to the pastor for 


house-rent, and the statement of Dr. Muhlenberg, 
indicate that the congregation possessed a par- 
sonage at that time, which was rented out for 
the good of tlie church, when not in use bj the 

"In 1769 the officers made a contract with Mr. 
Speisseggir for a new organ, but no statement is 
given as to its cost." 

A short time previous to Rev. Hahnbaum's 
death, a certain Master of Arts, Mr. Frederick 
Daser, who was yet very young, arrived in Char- 
leston from the Duchy of Wiirtemberg, without 
credentials, without clothes or money, his trunk 
containing said articles, according to his declara- 
tion, having been stolen from him in Holland. A 
good-hearted elder of this congregation had com- 
passion on him, paid his passage-money, and pro- 
cured him respectable clothing suitable to his pro- 

Pastor Hahnbaum having been sick a long time 
received this Artis Magister, with the consent of 
the vestry, as his vicar. He examined him, had 
him ordained, and afterwards also installed through 
two elders, and married him on his sick-bed, be- 
fore his decease, to one of his own daughters, be- 
sides giving him the necessary books and skeletons 
of sermons. 

After the death of Rev. Hahnbaum, which oc- 
curred February 10th, 1770, the vestry gave Mag- 
ister Daser a conditional call for one year, with 
the hope that through "prayer, study, and tempta- 
tion" (oratione, meditatione et tentatione), which 


was Luther's celebrated recipe for the making of 
a preacher, a theologian might yet be formed of 
him; but his young wife likewise conducted her- 
self in a manner unbecoming a pastor's wife, be- 
sides being ignorant of housewifery, and destitute 
of the true ornament of a woman — 1 Pet. 3:4; 
and he himself was light of body, light in spirit, 
and heavy in self-will and inordinate passions and 
affections; consequent!}^, the fruits of such dispo- 
sitions soon manifested themselves.. The year 
having now expired, and having no other alterna- 
tive, the congregation contracted with him to serve 
them three years longer. 

The following account of this transaction, as 
gathered from the church records of this congre- 
gation by Mr. Jacob F. Schirmer, does not exactly 
agree with what is related above by Dr. Muhlen- 
berg, but may, therefore, because taken from the 
records of the church, be all the more correct: 

" The congregation appointed a committee to 
wait upon the pastor, and inquire upon what terms 
and what length of time he would be willing to 
serve them, and whether he would promise to be 
faithful, industrious, and conscientious in his walk 
and conversation, and to serve the flock as a faith- 
ful shepherd. Such questions, propounded to Rev. 
Daser after he had labored one year as pastor of 
that church, do not argue much in his favor, and 
yet the committee at the next meeting reported 
that the congregation appear to be perfectly satis- 
fied with Pastor Daser, and that he on his part 
promises to discharge his duties faithfully, but he 


thought it unbecoming to enter into a regular 
contract between pastor and people, but was will- 
ing to serve them for three years at a quarterly 
payment of £500 currency. This was submitted 
to the congregation, and they finally agreed to 
engage Mr. Daser for two years, and that he re- 
ceive £420 currency quarterly, still reserving to 
themselves the right, that if his conduct did not 
meet with their approbation, they w'ere at liberty 
to discharge him, by giving him three months' 
notice. This arrangement was first objected to 
by the minister, but he finally agreed to it, and 
signed the agreement. He now requested his 
people to present him with a gown, which was 
accordingly ordered, and was made by Mr. Tim- 

"In 1773 Pastor Daser lodged a complaint 
against one of the members for his improper 
conduct towards him, and hopes he would treat 
him with more kindness, and not judge him so 

Dr. Muhlenberg states further: "However, as 
Rev. Daser had always discharged the duties of 
his oflice as a secondary business, and both he and 
his wife had digressed in several things, had fre- 
quented too much company, and became deeply 
involved in debt, &c., the vestry discharged him 
before the end of the third year. He had, how- 
ever, a party of his own kind, who were offended 
at the vestry on account of his discharge, and who 
regarded his extravagance either as trifling or 
praiseworthy; yet they w^ere far too weak to raise 


his salary without the aid of the elders and other 
well-disposed members." The vestry then wrote 
to the Reverend Consistoriiim of the Electorate 
of Hanover, supplicating that ecclesiastical body 
for a regular minister, but were informed that 
they could not be supplied from that source. Af- 
terwards the elders and wardens addressed Dr. 
Muhlenberg, and besought him to send them an 
educated and exemplary pastor of the Pennsyl- 
vania Ministerium. The adherents of Mr. Daser 
also wrote to him anonymously at the same time, 
accusing the vestry, stating that Parson Daser had 
been a good preacher for them, and that the vestry 
had discharged him without the will and knowl- 
edge of the congregation, without cause and from 
motives of personal hatred, &c. 

Dr. Muhlenberg answered both communications, 
informing them that, "God willing, he would make 
a journey to Ebenezer, in Georgia, in the fall, and 
would then also come to Charleston on his way 
to Georgia, and there personally investigate their 

Accordingly Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg set sail for 
Charleston, South Carolina, August 27th, 1774, 
and arrived September 8th following. He was 
received and welcomed with the utmost kindness 
by the principal German families, as well as by 
many English inhabitants, and whilst there he ex- 
erted himself, as far as he could, to heal the un- 
happy division then existing in the German Lu- 
theran congregation, caused by the irregularities 
of Pastor Daser, in which, as he was well adapted 


for this undertaking, and was frequently and justly 
entitled the peacemaker, he was quite successful. 

In the mean time, which elapsed between Dr. 
Muhlenberg's answer to both parties in the con- 
gregation and liis arrival in Charleston, Rev. Daser 
had procured a recommendation from the Lord 
Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina, residing 
in Charleston, and also from the resident English 
Episcopal clergymen, to the Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don for Episcopal ordination, and afterwards to 
receive " a competent living in some country con- 
gregation, and thus become a dead weight in the 
English Established Church." However, before 
he had completed his arrangements for his con- 
templated visit to London, Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg 
arrived in Charleston ; and then he hoped and ex- 
pected, through the venerable Doctor's interces- 
sion, to be called by the vestr}' of St. John's Lu- 
theran Church for life, and to receive an annual 
salary of £100 sterling. 

But as soon as the Doctor had learned all the 
circumstances of Daser's own and his wife's con- 
duct " from sensible and impartial persons," he 
could not conscientiously interest himself in Rev. 
Daser's behalf; "for," says the Doctor, " when a 
minister makes himself familiar with drunkards, 
flourishes with his sword at night along the streets, 
throws stones at windows, &c., and his wife fre- 
quents the theatre at night, leads in the dance at 
weddings, &c., we can easily imagine what impres- 
sions this must make upon well-meaning mem- 


bers ! Lord of Heaven, do Thou have mercy 
upon such a state of things!" 

For the purpose of carrying out his design, Rev. 
Daser sailed in a vessel from Charleston to Lon- 
don, in order to obtain Episcopal ordination; many 
well-disposed persons subscribed liberally to the 
support of his wife and two small children during 
his absence; but a violent storm arose whilst the 
vessel was out at sea, and so injured her that she 
was obliged to return to Charleston. This provi- 
dential occurrence had the effect of changing Rev. 
Daser's purpose, and may have induced him to 
become a wiser and better man, for his after-life ' 
appears to have been considerably changed. 

It is also recorded of him, that during his ab- 
sence at sea, the members of St. John's Church 
discovered that he had cut thirty-two leaves out of 
their church-record book, for which they took 
him to task immediately after his return, and he 
acknowledged that he had cut out and burned 
two leaves only. This accounts for the mutilation 
in that church-book as mentioned by Mr. Schirmer 
in his "Reminiscences of the Past." 

Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg had no small difficult}^ in 
healing the dissensions of the congregation. He 
listened to all parties and heard their tale of 
grievances patiently, preached to them faithfully 
in the church every Sunday during his stay among 
them, called congregational meetings, and on the 
fourth Sunday of his visit administered the com- 
munion, and yet apparentlj' with very little effect; 
for some still wanted Rev. Daser to be recalled, 


others desired the Rev. Mr. Martin, who now- 
labored in the Saluda Fork, to return and be their 
pastor; whilst Dr. Muhlenberg, with many others, 
believed it to be the best policy to call an entire 
stranger from Germany or elsewhere, who could 
exert much more influence, and heal all divisions, 
than one who was already well known to the con- 
gregation. Acting upon this belief, and as a last 
resort, the Doctor drew up a petition to be sent to 
the " Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," 
requesting it to send a pastor to this congregation, 
which reads as follows : 

" We, the subscribers, for the time being, war- 
dens, vestrymen, and contributing members of the 
German Lutheran St. John's Church and congre- 
gation in and about Charleston, in South Carolina, 
His Brittanick Majesty King George Ill's, loyal 
and dutiful subjects, do send greeting to the most 
worthy and reverend fathers in God, Frederick 
Ziegenhagen, His Majesty's Chaplain in the Ger- 
man Chapel at St, James, Anastasius Freyling- 
hausen, Louis Schultz, D.D., and to the Directors 
of the East and West India Missions at Halle, 
Gustavus Burgmann of the Savoy, Rector, and 
William Pasche, Assistant in His Majesty's Ger- 
man Chapel, all worthy members of the venerable 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; and 
do humbly request that," &c., &c. (here follows a 
description of the kind of minister that was de- 
sired, adding also this important clause), " who is 
able and willing to propagate the Gospel accord- 
ing to the foundations of the holy Apostles and 


Prophets, whereof Christ Jesus is the Corner- 
stone, and to administer the holy sacraments, 
agreeably to the articles of our unaltered Augus- 
tan (Augsburg) Confession." (Then follow an 
enumeration of the other pastoral duties, salary 
promised, use of the parsonage rent free, precau- 
tionary promises against further divisions in the 
congregation, &c., concluding the whole with): 
"In witness whereof, we have hereunto inter- 
changeably set our hands and seals at Charleston, 
in South Carolina, this 25th day of October, in 
the sixteenth year of His Majesty's reign, Anno 
Domini one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
four." Evangelical Review, vol. i, pp. 401 and 

Dr. Muhlenberg had the satisfaction to see this 
petition signed by nearly all the members of the 
congregation. It was carried around to each one 
privately by several of the vestrymen, who by 
their personal influence, and the great desire for 
peace at last, enabled them thus to heal up the 
unhappy divisions then existing in the congrega- 

As a matter of course, this petition terminated 
all hopes of Rev. F. Daser's ministrations in this 
congregation for that time; how he returned and 
served this people again, and under what circum- 
stances, will also be made apparent. 

The letter containing the petition of the congre- 
gation to the " reverend Fathers" in Europe for a 
pastor was sent to Rev. "William Pasche in Lon- 
don ; a merchant in Charleston, Mr. Mey, took it 


in charge, and forwarded it to Europe by the first 

The vestrj' also sent another letter to the Rev. 
J. N. Martin, beseeching him to serve the congre- 
gation once more until the new pastor would 
arrive, provided they should be successful in ob- 
taining one from the Society in Europe. E,ev. 
Martin consented to their request, as Dr. Muhlen- 
berg states: "To-day an elder of the congregation 
showed me an answer from Rev. Mr. Martin, in 
which he states, that in compliance with the desire 
of the vestry, he will serve the Evangelical Con- 
gregation of this place one and a half years, and, 
Deo volente, will take charge the first Sunday in 
Advent. Thus, it appears, this object is gained, 
that the congregation will be supplied in the 
meanwhile, until it can be seen what will result 
from the critical strife between the Colonies and 
their angry mother, and whether the intended call 
to our reverend Fathers for an ordained minister 
will meet with the desired eft'ect." 

Under date of October 15, Dr. Muhlenberg 
states : " To-day I sent for the church records of 
this congregation, and recorded the actus ministe- 
riales that occurred during my five weeks' sojourn 
in this place." 

On the 26th of October, Dr. Muhlenberg took 
affectionate leave of this people, after having satis- 
factorily settled all the difliculties in the congrega- 
tion. Many of his cherished friends attended him 
to the vessel which was to take him, together with 
his wife and daughter, who accompanied him, to 


Savannah. The good that he had effected in 
Charleston was long remembered by many grate- 
ful hearts. 

The church council agreed to pay Rev. J. IS". 
Martin half of his travelling expenses to Charles- 
ton, and give him a tixed salary of X130 quarterly, 
which was accepted, and he returned once more 
to them as their pastor early in December, 1774, 
and labored faithfully among his people, beloved 
by all, and in harmony with the various opposing 
parties that had previously existed. About this 
time the German Friendly Society presented the 
church with a clock. 

The time of engagement with Rev. Martin as 
pastor among the Lutherans in Charleston was 
now drawing to a close, and no hope as yet pre- 
sented itself of obtaining a pastor from the So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 
Troubles of a more serious nature were gathering 
thick and flist. The high price of the necessaries 
of life, the struggles of the American Revolution 
which had caused it, the irregularity and final ces- 
sation of all commercial intercourse with Europe, 
made it now a matter of impossibility to obtain 
ministerial help from abroad; all of which induced 
the congregation in 1776 to enter into a new agree- 
ment with Rev. Martin, engaging him for two 
years longer, inasmuch also as they were well 
pleased with him as their pastor. 

From an anniversary sermon, delivered by Rev. 
John Bachman, D.D., a glowing picture of the 
state of this church at that time is furnished us. 


The Doctor informs us, that "dnrino; the stormy 
season of the Revolution, the Germans of this city 
had been the strenuous advocates and defenders 
of the rio-hts of their adopted country. The Ger- 
man Fiisilier Company was formed out of the 
original members of this congregation. They par- 
ticipated in the dangers and sufierings of the 
Revolution, and their captain fell at the siege of 
Savannah. Their pastor, the Rev. Mr. Martin, 
many of whose descendants are still living among 
us, on his refusal to pray for the king, was driven 
from his church and his property was confiscated. 
He was for a time placed under an arrest, and 
was afterwards compelled to leave the city, to 
which he did not return until the close of the war. 
In the meantime, the church was partially supplied 
by tw^o other ministers, who were less exception- 
able to our foreign rulers." 

The two ministers, alluded toby Dr. Bachman, 
were the Rev. Christian Streitt, and Rev. Fre/l- 
erick Daser; however, it is not to be supposecT 
that the former was a Tory in principle. In the 
memoir of Rev. Mr. Streitt, published in the 
Evangelical Review, vol. ix, p. 379, we are in- 
formed, that "during our Revolutionary struggle. 
Rev. Streitt was appointed Chaplain in the army, 
and was, for a season, in the service of the Third 
Virginia regiment. Afterwards he was settled as 
pastor of a congregation in Charleston, South 
Carolina. During the sacking of the city in 1780, 
he was taken prisoner by the British, and retained 
as such until exchanged. The cause of his capture 
was, undoubtedly, his unwavering patriotism and 


firm attachment to the principles of the American 
Revohition. It is a source of congratuLation to 
the Lutheran Church, that those who ministered 
at her altars during that memorable and trying 
period, with scarcely an exception, were the de- 
voted friends of their countr3^" 

The two pastors appear to have labored in 
friendly connection with each other, as the signa- 
tures of both are occasionally affixed to the records 
of the proceedings of the vestry, whilst at other 
times the signature of only one of them appears. 
This may have been permitted b}^ Pastor Streitt 
and the vestry, from motives of respect to Rev. 
Daser, and for the purpose of conciliating him 
and his party. 

Rev. Streitt entered upon the duties of his 
office in 1778. During the month of April of 
that year he preached several trial sermons, when 
he, soon afterwards, became the pastor. He was 
engaged to serve three years in this charge, but 
was taken away before the expiration of that term 
as a prisoner of war by the British. It was Rev. 
Mr. Streitt, says Ramsay, vol. ii, p. 23, who "first 
introduced divine service in the English language, 
so as to have one service in English every second 
or third Sunday." In July, 1782, he took charge 
of 'New Hanover Church, in Pennsylvania, and 
in 1785 he commenced his labors in Winchester, 
Virginia, where be remained to the close of his 

An enormous rate of charges for ministerial 
duties appears to have been established by the 
vestry of St. John's Lutheran Church, in Charles- 


ton, in 1779, whilst the Rev. Mr. Streitt was the 
pastor. This was done on account of the very 
high price of provisions consequent upon the war, 
and was to remain in force only so long as such a 
state of things existed. They were as follows: 
For attending a funeral, £10; for preaching a 
funeral sermon, £30; and £50 for a marriage fee; 
of course, all in Carolina currency. 

In the year 1781, Rev. F. Daser seems to have 
had sole charge of this church once more. This 
was the period of British rule in Charleston, and 
it is probable that he was the person who was 
"less exceptionable to oar foreign rulers," as 
stated by Rev. Dr. Bachman. At all events he 
continued in otfice during the whole of that period, 
and resigned his charge of St. John's Church some 
time after peace was declared, viz., in July, 1786, 
when he removed to Orangeburg District, South 

Section 7. The Lutheran Church in Amelia Town- 
ship^ Orangeburg District [County), South 

In addition to the settlement of Germans and 
Swiss in and around Orangeburg village, which 
received the name of Orangeburg Township, so 
great was the influx of German emigrants there, 
that another township was soon laid out, north- 
east of Orangeburg, and adjoining it, which was 
named Amelia Township, where a Lutheran con- 
gregation was organized and a house of worship 
erected, that received the name St. Matthew's 
Church, and which has survived all the vicissi- 


tudes and encroachments of more than a century 
of time. 

When it was organized and who was instru- 
mental in effecting- its organization can now be 
only a matter of conjecture. From the church- 
record book, kept by Rev. John Geissendanner, 
and still preserved by his descendants, we learn 
that he often visited the German settlers in Amelia 
Township, and performed ministerial acts among 
them; it is not improbable that he also occasion- 
ally preached there, but nothing is stated con- 
cerning a church-edilice and congregation having 
existed in Amelia Township during the first years 
of his ministry, and there is strong reason to be- 
lieve that such was not the case, inasmuch as he, 
at that time, connected the records of baptisms, 
marriages, &c., of these people with those of the 
Orangeburg congregation, l^evertheless, as he 
must have labored there some nine years before 
any other German minister arrived, he may have 
been instrumental in organizing St. Matthew's 
Lutheran Church. 

In the year 1747, the Rev. Joachim Ziibly, D.D., 
removed from Frederica on St. Simon's Island, in 
Georgia, and labored in this community. lie was 
a German Reformed minister, and is spoken of in 
the highest terms in Dr. Muhlenberg's journal, as 
follows: " Oct. 28. According to invitation, I and 
my family dined with Rev. Dr. Ziibly, and I spent 
the afternoon very pleasantly with him in his 
library and study. He is an experienced, influen- 
tial, learned, prudent, and very industrious man, 
of a sanguine temperament. He has a larger col- 


lection of fine books than any I have seen in 
America. The external appearance of his library 
and study is not surpassed by the most superior 
in German3^ All the books appear like trees that 
lose their fruit in autumn, so that innumerable 
printed leaves, whole and half tracts, manuscripts, 
&c., are scattered on the floor. It reminded me 
of the polyhistorian Markosius, and our venerable 
Bogatzky, whose studies are said to appear in 
such good order, that the most noted housewife 
dare not venture to arrange anything in them, lest 
she should put them in disorder. January 9th. 
Towards evening Rev. Dr. Ziibly arrived here, 
who communicated to us in the evening his man- 
uscript Latin dissertation, 'Pro gradu doctoris,' 
which will shortly be printed. January 10th. 
Towards evening Rev. Dr. Ziibl}^ returned from 
Purysburg, where he had preached in English, 
and refreshed us during the evening with Chris- 
tian conversation." 

During the ministrations of Dr. Ziibly in Amelia 
Township, he doubtless was instrumental in effect- 
ing the organization of "The German Calvinistic 
Church of St. John on the Fourhole," which was 
incorporated by that name by the State Legisla- 
ture in 1788, but is now no longer in existence, 
and its members and their descendants have long 
since been mostly absorbed by the Lutheran 
churches in the vicinity. Fourhole is the name of 
a creek in Amelia Township, which with the fact 
that this (St. John's) Church is clustered together 
with the two Lutheran churches located in 
Orangeburg District (County), in one and the 


same bill of incorporation, locates that church in 
Amelia Township, or immediately below it, in 
Orangeburg County, which encompasses all that 

Rev, Dr. Ziibly afterwards removed to Savan- 
nah, Georgia; where Dr. Muhlenberg met him 
on his way to Ebenezer. 

In the year 1760, the Rev. John George Fried- 
erichs, the founder of the first Lutheran church in 
Charleston, commenced to labor in Amelia Town- 
ship, and remained in this pastorate for a long 
time, being still at that post of duty on October 
15th, 1774, when Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg gives the 
following account of him : 

" I received an agreeable letter from Rev. John 
George Friederichs, Lutheran minister in Amelia 
Township, one hundred miles in the country, 
dated October 15th, 1774, in which he states, that 
he learned of my arrival in Charleston, first from 
Rev. Hochheimer, who traveled through here, and 
was assured of it by letter of September 20th ult., 
which afforded him very great pleasure, and in- 
duced him to prepare, for a journey to Charleston, 
but that he was prevented by sickness and the 
fear of not meeting me here, especially as I had 
intimated in my letter that I intended, God will- 
ing, to continue my journey to Georgia in October. 
But that he would request my host, Mr. Kimmel, 
to inform him when I returned to Charleston, and 
then, if we lived, visit me, &c., &c. The person 
bringing the letter returning to-morrow, I an- 
swered his letter and sought to encourage him to 
fight the good fight, to keep the faith, and to finish 


the course, &c. He sustains a good character for 
sound doctrine and exemplary conduct among in- 
formed persons; he has no familj-, and is satisfied 
with the necessaries of life. 

"A laborer, standing thus alone in the wilderness 
among rude people, must be much encouraged 
when be receives unexpectedly a few lines of com- 
fort from a fellow-suffering and tempted cross- 
bearer, as is manifest from his answer to my first 
letter. It is written, ' Woe to him that is alone.' " 

How long afterwards Rev. Friederichs labored 
in this charge cannot be ascertained, but it is pre- 
sumed that he remained there in the faithful dis- 
charge of his duty to the close of his life. Per- 
haps he did not live long after Dr. M.'s visit to 
Charleston, for nothing is further recorded of 
him, and his name does not appear among the list 
of ministers in South Carolina, who formed the 
Corpus Evangelicum in 1787; and in 1786 an- 
other minister had taken charge of the pastorate 
in Amelia Township. 

It Avas during the ministry of Rev, J. G, Fried- 
erichs in this communit}', that a colony of Ger- 
mans came from Maine and settled in Orangeburg 
District, accompanied by their pastor, the Rev. 
Mr. Cilley or Silly; but, inasmuch as the records 
of this colonization of Germans do not harmonize 
with each other, they are inserted here without 
comment, leaving the reader to form his own con- 

J. C. Hope, Esq., speaking of the Lutheran set- 
tlers in Orangeburg District, says: "In 1763 a 
colony of German Lutherans came from Maine, 


accompanying their pastor Silly, and joined their 
brethren in South Carolina ; but in time the most 
of these returned." 

Rev. Dr. Hazelius' statement is: "Rev. Mr. 
Cilley arrived in South Carolina with a colony of 
German emigrants from Maine, in the year 1773. 
But of his labors and success no accounts can be 

The statement in "The Javelin," pp. 170 and 
171, is as follows: "The disappointment and suf- 
fering which they were presently made to endure 
in consequence of the deceptions practiced upon 
them, were trying in the extreme. And to all 
their other troubles, the Indians fell upon them 
also, and destroyed many lives and much sub- 
stance. Ill-treated, robbed, wronged and disap- 
pointed, many of them, under the guidance of a 
Moravian clergyman, left Muscungus (Maine), and 
emigrated to Carolina, in 1773." 

Section 8. The Lutheran Churches in Saxe-Gotha 
Township, Lexington District {County), South 

Saxe-Gotha Township having been settled as 
early as 1737, principally by Germans and Swiss, 
who continued to arrive there for several years 
following, soon became well populated by these 
colonists, considering the difficulties of emigration 
and state of the country at that time. The Ger- 
man Reformed settlers, as already stated, were 
supplied with a pastor, who labored among them 
from the year 1739 to the close of his life, a period 
of more than fifty years, for he was still living in 


1789. The Lutherans were not so fortunate as 
their German Reformed brethren, in being thus 
early supplied with the regular means of grace. 
At the time of Dr. Muhlenberg's visit to Charles- 
ton, in 1774, there were two Lutheran ministers 
laboring in Saxe-Gotha, the liev. Lewis Hoch- 
heimer, at Sandy Ran, and the Rev. J. N. Martin, 
in the Saluda Fork, and it is safely presumed that 
they were the first Lutheran ministers who labored 
in that township; at all events, it is an ascertained 
fact, recorded in the Urlsperger Reports, that no 
Lutheran minister had labored there previous to 
the year 1750, when a petition was sent to the pas- 
tors of Ebenezer, Georgia, signed by two hundred 
and eighty Lutherans, beseeching those pastors 
to send them a minister; yet their petition was 
not regarded, and they were left without a pastor 
of their own faith. How long they continued in 
this spiritually destitute condition is not known, 
but it is more than probable, judging from the 
condition of the colony and of the Church at the 
time of the criminal conduct of the Weberites, in 
1760, that the Lutherans of Saxe-Gotha were then 
still destitute of the means of grace. Seven years 
later Rev. Martin removed from Charleston and 
commenced his labors in the Saluda Fork, but no 
records inform us at what time Rev. Hochheimer 
commenced his ministry in the Sandy Run Church. 
The members of the Lutheran Church of that 
portion of Saxe-Gotha bordering on the Congaree 
River, known better as the Sandy Run settlement, 
although privileged to hear the Gospel in their na- 
tive language from the lips of the German Re- 


formed minister, Rev. Christian Thens, still felt it 
their dut}' to build a church for themselves, where 
they conld worship God according to the princi- 
ples of their own faith ; but at what time they took 
the proper steps to secure this object, although so 
much discouraged by Rev. Bolzius, is not known. 
Nevertheless, as the Urlsperger Reports, which 
gives us the Church news generally, does not 
mention this fact up to the year 1760 (the latest 
date of the Ebenezer pastors' diary), and as the 
Cherokee War would naturally interfere with all 
ecclesiastical enterprises, it can be safely inferred, 
that the building of the Lutheran church at Sandy 
Run, probably the earliest erected Lutheran 
Church in Saxe-Gotha, was not commenced before 
the year 1765. 

'Nine years later we have a brief record from 
Dr. Muhlenberg's journal, as follows: "A visit 
from Rev. Lewis Hochheimer, 120 miles from 
here, at Sandy Run, who related to me the events 
of his life, and offered to assist me in preaching 
next Sunday." " Sunday, September 18th. In 
the afternoon I went again to church and heard 
Rev. Hochheimer preach from Psalm 50 : 21 : 
' These things hast thou done and I kept silence,' 
quite edifying and systematic." " Monday, Sep- 
tember 19th. Rev. Hochheimer took leave, and 
promised to give me a correct description of some 
Lutheran congregations in this neighborhood." 
These records indicate that a Lutheran church 
existed at Sandy Run at that time, and that the 
congregation had a pastor, the Rev. Lewis Hoch- 


The early settlers along the Congaree River se- 
lected their lands and erected their dwellings very 
near the river banks, where they could obtain the 
richest lands, and enjoy all the advantages of 
water transportation, fishing, &c. ; but where they, 
on the other hand, suffered much from the effects 
of the miasma arising from the river and its nu- 
merous swamps, j^evertheless, they clung to their 
original settlements and homes until disease had 
made repeated inroads upon their robust consti- 
tutions, and death had greatly diminished their 
original number. 

Wherever they had located their houses and 
homes, there likewise did they erect their church, 
about three miles from the present situation of 
Salem Church, Sandy Run. The old graveyard, 
which was not far removed from the church, is 
still pointed out under the appellation of " The 
Church Field;" and it is stated that so swampy 
or spongy is the condition of the land, that many 
a coflin was lowered in its grave which had become 
half tilled with water, so that the coffin became 
quite covered with that element; and all efforts 
to remedy the evil at that place were unavailing. 
Yet it did not occur to the members of the church 
until a long time afterwards, to remove the church 
and graveyard to a more elevated situation. 

It is to be lamented that we know so little of 
Rev. Hochheimer's history ; when he became 
pastor, how long he remained at Sandy Run, 
what the condition of the church was during the 
Revolution, who succeeded Rev. Hochheimer, 


when and where he died and was buried? all 
these are questions which, it is feared, will never 
be answered, and these answers, with other in- 
teresting facts connected with thera, may lie for- 
ever buried in the oblivion of the past. 

Three Lutheran congregations composed at one 
time the Saluda charge : Zion's or Mount Zion, 
on Twelve-mile Creek, St. Peter's, on Eighteen- 
mile Creek, and Bethel, on High Hill Creek. 
They are always spoken of in the old records of 
their church-books as having formed one pastor- 
ate; but how far back this arrangement extended 
cannot now be ascertained. Salem Church, on 
Hollow Creek, was added to this pastorate at a 
much later date, probably some time at the be- 
ginning of the present century. 

In the year 1767 the Rev. John Nicholas Martin 
commenced to labor in the Fork of the Saluda and 
Broad Rivers, and remained there until the close 
of the year 1774, when he was recalled to Charles- 
ton, as temporary pastor of St. John's Lutheran 

During the Revolutionary War, it is probable 
that these churches were vacant, as no Lutheran 
minister was residing then in that part of South 
Carolina, unless, perhaps, the Rev. Lewis Hoeh- 
heimer of Saridy Run was still living, and occa- 
sionally visited them. 

Section 9. Other German Churclicsin South Ccu^olina. 

Newberry District (County) was only partially 
settled by Germans, and at a period succeeding 


the colonization of Saxe-Gotha. A number of 
German churches existed there in 1788, which 
were incorporated at that time by legislative en- 
actment, the names of which were: "The German 
Lutheran Church of Bethlehem, on Forest's 
(Fust's) Ford;" "The German Lutheran Church 
of St. Jacob, on Wateree Creek;" "The German 
Protestant Church of Bethany, on Green Creek;" 
and "The German Lutheran Church of St. Mar- 
tin." The last one mentioned was not organized 
until after the Revolutionary War. (See minutes 
of Corpus Evangelicum.) "When these congre- 
gations were organized, and whether they had a 
pastor previous to the Revolutionary period, is 
not known, and the probability is that no minister 
labored there at that time. The first pastor min- 
istering there, of whom we have any knowledge, 
was the Rev. Frederick Joseph Wallern, whose 
name occurs in the first minutes of the Corpus 
Evangelicum, in 1787, but of the date of his arrival 
in Newberry nothing is said. 

At Hard Labor Creek, Abbeville District 
(County), there was also a Lutheran Church, 
likewise incorporated in 1788, and named St. 
George; but unless the German settlers brought 
their pastor with them from Germany, of which 
nothing is said in the records of their colonization, 
it is exceedingly doubtful whether they were sup- 
plied with the means of grace in tlie German 
language previous to the Revolution, inasmuch 
as this German settlement was only made in 


1764, eleven years before the breaking out of the 

Concerning the other settlements of Germans 
in South Carolina very little can be said during 
this period, except that which has already been 
stated; the one on Indian Field Swamp, fifty 
miles from Charleston, had no minister for some 
time: they were supplied with the labors of a 
German preacher in 1774, whether Lutheran or 
Reformed is not stated, and even his name is not 
mentioned; the congregation worshiped in a barn 
belonging to Philip Eisenman. 

Dr. Muhlenberg speaks of the condition of this 
German settlement as follows: "My kind host re- 
ceived a visit to-day from an intimate German 
family of our denomination from old Indian 
Swamp, fifty miles in the country. The man is 
named Philip Eisenman, has a farm of his own, 
but no negroes. He and his wife cultivate the 
place themselves, in the sweat of their brows. 
They lamented the want of schools and churches 
in their neighborhood. Tie has arranged his barn 
for public worship, and they have accepted as 
preacher a young man lately arrived from Ger- 
many, and who might answer for a schoolmaster. 
He writes his sermon through the week, and 
reads it on Sundaj', and even reads with it the 
Lord's prayer also, being yet young, and excusing 
himself with: 'The Lord not having gifted him 
with a retentive memory.' The credentials 
brought by him from Germany are — a black 
suit of clothes. The remaining fragments, to 


wit, band, &c., he obtained from his countryman, 
Rev. Daser. The two honest old people com- 
plained that his preaching was so meagre and 
dry, and left the heart entirely unaffected, and 
they wanted something, therefore, more to awaken 
and nourish the heart." 

It is not known at what time these people suc- 
ceeded in building their church, but it is not very 
probable that they accomplished this undertaking 
until after the Revolutionary War, inasmuch as 
they had no church at the time of Dr. Muhlen- 
berg's visit, which was only a few months previous 
to the battle of Lexington, Mass. In 1788 this 
settlement had a church organization and a house 
of worship, incorporated under the name of "The 
German Protestant Church of St. George, on In- 
dian Field Swamp." 

The German Protestant congregation in Rich- 
land District (County), near the Fairfield line, in- 
corporated at the same time by the name of "The 
German Protestant Church of Appii Forum, on 
Cedar Creek," was established during this period. 
Mills, in his Statistics, p. 722, says: "The Presby- 
terians were the first religious society established 
in the (Richland) District; they erected a church 
on the banks of Cedar Creek anterior to the Rev- 
olution." Dr. Howe, in his "History of the Pres- 
byterian Church in South Carolina," p. 494, says: 
"It must have been of the German Reformed 
connection, and was ministered to by Rev. William 
Dubard, who died of the small-pox in the city of 
Charleston, near the close of the Revolutionary 


War." Dr. Howe thinks it probable that this was 
the church which became incorporated by legis- 
hitive enactment, in 1788, under the name of " The 
German Protestant Church of Appii Forum, on 
Cedar Creek." 

From the memoranda furnished Dr. Howe, p. 
495, by A. F. Dubard, of Cedar.Creek, Richland, 
we learn that "the traditions of the neighborhood 
speak of it as having continued in existence into 
the next century, the successors of Mr. Dubard 
being a clergyman by the name of Penegar, 
another by the name of Houck, and another by 
the name of Loutz. The house of worship was 
built of logs, with an earth floor." 

" Our informant speaks of Mr. Loutz as a man 
of education and influence, who visited this church 
from North Carolina, where his residence was. 
The communion seasons were to his mind, in his 
3"0uth, scenes of great solemnity. The commu- 
nicants, approaching the table one after another, 
received the elements of bread and wine in a 
standing posture, and passed away from the table 
with clasped hands and uplifted eyes." 

" This church had occasional preaching by 
others, but became extinct as a Presbyterian 
church of the German Reformed order, and the 
neighborhood became the seat of a Methodist 
church and congregation. jSTo traces of this 
church now remain." 

The Rev. Mr. Houck, or Hauck, is mentioned 
in the minutes of the Lutheran Synod of ]^orth 
Carolina, A.D. 1812, p. 7, as a candidate for the 


ministry, who desired to be ordained by that body 
as a minister of tlie German Reformed Church; 
"but this Synod, after due consideration, con- 
cluded that they conhl not consistently do any- 
thing in this matter." 

Dr. Muhlenberg mentions the name of a Rev. 
Mr. Hausile as having preached twice in the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church of Charleston "a few years 
ago," but whether he became permanently located 
in South Carolina, and where he labored is not 

The following is a list of all the German min- 
isters who were laboring in South Carolina imme- 
diately preceding the Revolutionary AVar, as far 
as the records in the writer's possession appear to 
indicate, namely: 1. Rev. John N. Martin, pastor 
of the Lutheran church in Charleston ; 2. Rev. F. 
Daser, no charge, but still residing in Charleston; 

3. Rev. , preacher at Indian Field Swamp ; 4. 

Rev. John G. Friederichs, pastor of the Lutheran 
churches in Amelia Township, Orangeburg Dis- 
trict; 5. Rev. Lewis Ilochheimer, pastor of Salem 
Lutheran Church, Sandy Run; 6. Rev. Christian 
Theus, German Reformed pastor in Saxe-Gotha 
Township; 7. Rev. Christian Streit, pastor, for a 
short time during the Revolution, of the Lutheran 
church in Charleston; and although the names 
of Revs. Cilley and Hausile are also mentioned, 
nothing special is known concerning them ; 8. 
Rev. William Dubard, German Reformed pastor 
at Cedar Creek Church, Richland District. 


Section 10. Early History of St. John's Lutheran 
Church, Salisbury, N. C. 

It is a cheerful task for the writer of historical 
narrative to enter upon a field where the earliest 
records are abundant, carefully made, and well 
preserved. This is the case in regard to nearly 
ail the churches in North Carolina, whose original 
church record-books and titles to church property 
are still extant, and the reports of whose pastors' 
labors, like those of the Pennsylvania and Georgia 
ministers, had been sent to Germany, and were 
published there. 

St. John's Lutheran Church, in Salisbury, l^orth 
Carolina, is first brought to view, and was doubt- 
less the first Lutheran congregation organized in 
that Province, under the following circumstances: 

The German citizens of that place organized 
themselves into a congregation in the days of King 
George III, and several years before the Revolu- 
tion, when Salisbury was as yet denominated "a 
township," containing but few dwellings and a 
small number of inhabitants. One of the wealthy 
citizens residing there, John Lewis Beard, a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church, was bereaved by 
death of a beloved daughter. Whether the town- 
ship of Salisbury could then boast of a regular 
" God's acre '" is not known, and the probability 
is that the mortal remains of departed ones were, 
at that early period, deposited without many re- 
ligious services in the grounds of each landholder 
in whose familj- or family connection the death 


occurred, a custom thus early established from the 
force of circumstances, and still reverently ob- 
served by many in various parts of this country. 

In the same manner was the body of Mr. Beard's 
daughter laid in the silent tomb, opened on her 
father's town property, in a lot containing nearly 
an acre, and well selected for the quiet repose of 
the dead. However, the question then naturally 
arose. Shall that hallowed spot, consecrated by the 
repose of the dead and the tears of fond survivors, 
ever be disturbed by the march of civilization ? 

To prevent such an occurrence, the forefather of 
the Beard family in Salisbury made and executed 
the following land title, donating the grounds upon 
which his daughter slept the quiet slumber of the 

dead, to the German Lutheran Church, the 

Church of his choice. The original title is still 
preserved, and enables us to glance at the peculiar 
customs of that day in making conveyance of prop- 
erty, as well as to learn the condition of the Church 
at that time. 

Leaving out all useless and redundant matter, 
it reads as follows: 

"This indenture, made September 9, 17G8, be- 
tween John Lewis Beard, of Salisbury, in the 
County of Rowan, and Province of North Caro- 
lina (butcher), of the one part, and Michael Brown, 
Michael More, Caspar Gueiither, and Peter Peeb, 
Trustees of the Evangelical Lutheran congregation 
in the township of Salisbury, of the county and 
province aforesaid, of the other part, Wilnessef.h, 
that for and in consideration of the sum of live 
shillings, &c., &c., and for other good causes, him 


thereunto moving, hath granted, &c., &c., unto the 
said trustees of the said congregation aforesaid, and 
to their successors in office forever" (here follows 
the boundaries and description of the lot, contain- 
ing 144 square poles), " unto the Grerman Lutheran 
congregation in and about Salisbury, for to erect 
and build thereon a church, for the only proper 
use and behoof of the said German Lutheran con- 
gregation forever" (here follows a long descrip- 
tion of the manner the vacancies in the trustees' 
office are to be filled, granting also the use of the 
church to) "the High Church of England, and to 
the Reformed Calvin ministers at such time as the 
said Lutheran minister doth not want to perform 
divine service in said church," &c., &c. Signed 
and sealed by John Lewis Beard, in presence of 
John Braly, Andreas Betz, and Valentine Mauny, 

The historical facts derived from this convey- 
ance and from other sources are the following: 
In the year 1768, Salisbury had as yet no house 
of worship of any kind within its precincts; min- 
isters of the Gospel may have often or occasionally 
preached in the private or public houses of the 
place, and persons may have worshiped in other 
churches in the country, but no church existed in 
Salisbury at that early period. 

Although trustees had been elected for the Lu- 
theran congregation there, indicating that some 
kind of organization had been effected, yet regular 
worship could not have been held among the mem- 
bers, as no Lutheran minister was then laboring in 
all iTorth Carolina; all these arrangements were 


made preparatory to, and anticipating the regular 
administration of the means of grace. 

The Lutheran church in Salisbury is the oldest 
church established in the place, and from other 
sources we learn that the congregation had a log 
church edifice erected on the lot granted by Mr. 
Beard, in order that they might secure the land 
to the congregation as stipulated by the grantor, 
in which he also rendered them every assistance 
in his power. This log church was built soon 
after the lot of land was granted. 

This deed seems to have answered the threefold 
purpose of a title to the land, a charter, conferring 
upon the congregation certain rights and privi- 
leges, and a code of bj'-laws for its government, 
and thus has the appearance of a very peculiar 
legal document. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. 
Adolph Nussmann, a ripe and thorough scholar, 
and, what is still better, a devoted, self-sacrificing, 
and pious Christian. He came from Germany in 
1773 under circumstances related in Section 13, 
succeeding, but did not labor long in this congre- 
gation. He removed to Dutch Buffalo Creek 
Church, now better known as St. John's Lutheran 
Church, Cabarrus County. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Godfrey Arndt, who had charge of Organ 
Church at the same time, but soon removed to the 
west side of the Catawba River. 

The Lutherans at Salisbury were energetic par- 
ticipators in the Revolutionary struggle, arraying 
themselves on the side of liberty and independence, 


as can be seen by referring to Wheeler's History 
of North Carolina, where the names of Beard, 
Barringer, Beeknian, Mull and others, frequently 
occur in connection with those who labored and 
fought for their country's welfare and honor. 

During this trying period the Lutheran church 
in Salisbury was vacant for a few years, but was 
visited by Revs. Nussmann and Arndt as often as 
the circumstances of the country would admit. 

Section 11. Early History of Organ Churchy 
Rowan County^ N. C. 

The proper name of this congregation is " Zion's 
Church," but there are few persons, even among 
its members, who are acquainted with its true 
name. The fact that it was, until recently, the 
only Lutheran church in North Carolina which 
was possessed of such an instrument of music, has 
given it this sobriquet, by which it is generally 
known and so called in all the records of the Lu- 
theran Church in the State. The old organ — a 
relic of the past — is still there, but its voice is no 
longer heard in the worship of the congregation ; 
like the voices of its contemporaries, who are now 
mouldering in the adjoining graveyard, its spirit 
of music is fled, and the external remains, encom- 
passing a number of broken and disarranged pipes, 
are all that is left to remind us of a former age, a 
former congregation, and of a master whom it 
once honored. How forcibly, under such circum- 


stances, do the following lines of Moore's Melo- 
dies strike the mind ! 

"The harp that once, through Tara's halls, 
The soul of music shed, 
Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls, 
As if that soul were fled." 

The histor}^ of this congregation is gathered 
from the old German church-book, which is still 
carefully preserved, and the historic records are 
made therein by one of the first pastors, Rev. C. 
A. G. Storch, from which a correct idea may be 
obtained of the past transactions of the people 
who worshiped there. 

The first German settlers of that portion of Rowan 
County, along Second Creek, came from Pennsyl- 
vania, and were members of the Lutheran and 
German Reformed Churches, but in numbers far 
too few to erect a church for the sole use of either 
denomination ; hence they concluded to build a 
temporary house of worship to be owned by them- 
selves jointly, and which was called " The Hickory 
Church." According to the statement of the late 
Rev. J. A. Linn, this church occupied the site on 
which St. Peter's Lutheran Church now stands, 
and was built by permission on the land of Mr. 
FuUenwider, who, however, never gave the two 
congregations a title for this spot of ground, as 
the church was considered a temporary building 
only, to be occupied alternately by both these de- 
nominations, each of which expected to erect their 
own house of worship at a later period. The term 


"Hickory Church" also indicates of what perish- 
able material this house of worship was built, and 
was in keeping with the original idea. It was 
soon left unoccupied, and in course of a few years 
it crumbled into ruins. More than half a century 
later a want for a church to be built on this same 
site was again felt, when St. Peter's Lutheran 
Church was organized, and a more durable build- 
ing was erected. 

As was the case with all the iirst German set- 
tlers in North Carolina, who did not bring their 
pastor with them, so likewise were the Lutheran 
members of the Hickory Church destitute of the 
means of grace for some length of time, and as no 
other hope of obtaining a regularly ordained min- 
ister of the Gospel presented itself, the members 
were resolved to send to Germany for a pastor. 
In this manner they secured the services of Rev. 
Adolph Nussmann as their pastor, and Gottfried 
Arndt as their schoolteacher. 

The new pastor preached but one year in the 
Hickory Church to both denominations, after 
which some dissension arose, and a majority of the 
Lutherans then resolved to build a church for 
themselves, and in this manner originated Zion's 
Church, better known as Organ Church. The 
members of the German Reformed Church soon 
followed the example of their Lutheran brethren, 
and likewise built a new church on another loca- 
tion, which they named Grace Church, but is 
more frequently called "The Lower Stone 
Church," on account of its position lower down 


the stream above mentioned, and built of the same 
material as Organ Church. 

Before the building of Organ Church was quite 
completed, Rev. A. Nussmann left this congrega- 
tion, and went as pastor to Buffalo Creek Church, 
in Cabarrus County. 

The congregation, which now had a church but 
110 pastor, sent their schoolteacher, Gottfried Arndt, 
to be ordained to the office of the ministry, in the 
year 1775. He served them through the trying 
period of the Revolution, until 1786, when he 
moved to the Catawba River, residing in Lincoln 
County, and labored in that field to the close of 
his life. 

Section 12. Early History of St. John's Church, 
Cabarrus Comity, N. C. 

Cabarrus County is known in the early records 
as Mecklenburg County, in which it was included, 
but was formed into a separate county in the year 
1792. The eastern portion of it was settled en- 
tirely by Germans, the most of whom came from 

During the Revolutionary War, a number of 
Hessian soldiers deserted from the British army 
at Savannah, after the siege of that place, and 
found their way to the German settlement on 
Dutch Buffalo Creek, intermarried with these 
settlers, and were thus permanently located there. 
They, in a measure, supplied the loss of so many 
young men in that settlement, who had sacrificed 


their lives in the service of their country. This col- 
ony sutfered severely during that dark and bloody 
period. Although no regular army assailed these 
Germans, or passed through their settlement, yet 
they had to contend much with the Tories, whilst 
many of their young men enlisted as soldiers in the 
American army. One family, named Schwartz- 
walder(Blackwelder), had seven sons, four of whom 
were in the battle of Camden, South Carolina, and 
two or three of them found soldiers' graves upon 
that battlefield, having lost their lives in the service 
of their country. Others shared the same fate, 
whilst those at home had several skirmishes with 
the Tories. The following account of the action, 
which one of these early settlers took in the war 
for independence, is given by one of his grand- 
sons, and may not be uninteresting: 

"John Paul Barringer, who took an active part 
in all public matters, was known as Captain Bar- 
ringer long before the Revolution, and during this 
war, though too old for regular service, took the 
lead against the Tories in his section, and so odi- 
ous did he become to them from his efficient and 
unceasing efforts against them, that they surprised 
him in his bed at night, and posted him off as a 
prisoner to Camden, where he remained in con- 
finement several months, if not during the re- 
mainder of the war. In the meantime the Tories 
stole and destroyed most of his property, and left 
his family, then afflicted with small-pox, in a most 
helpless and distressing condition." 

In this manner did the greater number of these 


German settlers sufter, inasmuch as a special ha- 
tred was manifested towards them by their enemies 
during the war, since they were residents of that 
patriotic county, whose citizens had first declared 
their sentiments of independence in the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration, May 20th, 1775. Some one or 
two German names from this section of that county 
may be distinguished as signers of that Declara- 

Governor Tryon, wdio came to this part of North 
Carolina on a visit, with the view of again con- 
ciliating matters in favor of the existing govern- 
ment, some few years before the Eevolution, when 
the Regulators had enlivened the minds of the 
people against the tyrannical authorities of the 
Province, arrived in the settlement on Dutch Buf- 
falo Creek, and lodged with Captain Barringer, 
who was well known for his influence and hospi- 

"The stor}- is," continues his grandson, "that 
the Governor appeared in full uniform, with a 
cocked hat and sword, drank freely of the Cap- 
tain's rich wine, which was' always kept on hand, 
condescended to try his skill in mowing the green 
meadows of Dutch Buffalo, and left fully per- 
suaded, so kind and generous was the entertain- 
ment, that he had not a stancher friend in all the 
country as ' the gallant Dutchman.' But in this 
he was, of course, sadly disappointed." 

In the old church record-book, and in the old 
minutes of the ITorth Carolina Synod, the congre- 
gation of St. John's is known as "Dutch Buffalo 


Creek Church," because its members were princi- 
pally located along that stream of water, and be- 
cause their first place of worship and their first 
graveyard had its location near the same creek, 
three miles distant from its present situation. The 
first church edifice was, of course, exceedingly 
plain, made of unhewn logs, and served the people 
the double purpose of a schoolhouse and place of 
worship. Both the German Reformed and Lu- 
therans worshiped in the same building for a 
certain period of time, after which a more com- 
modious building was erected for the united wor- 
ship of the two denominations, about half a mile 
removed from the location of the present church 
edifice. This second building, in point of archi- 
tectural style, was but little better than the former, 
except that it was somewhat larger, and fitted for 
the exclusive use of Divine worship. 

About the year 1771, the members of the Lu- 
theran Church, at the suggestion of Captain John 
Paul Barringer, separated themselves from their 
German Reformed brethren, and built their own 
church on the site of the upper portion of the 
present graveyard. The work was undertaken by 
Daniel Jarrett, whilst Captain Barringer acted as 
the building committee. This church was built 
chiefly at his own expense, and out of gratitude to 
him the congregation had a pew constructed for 
the special benefit of himself and family, which 
was somewhat raised above the others, located in a 
prominent place in tlie church, and inclosed. He 
was a true-hearted and thorough Lutheran, devot- 


edh' attached to his church, and seemed to have 
been a defender of the rights of the German set- 
tlers there, and a leading man among them. 

It was not until the year 1774, that tlie congre- 
gation obtained their tirst pastor, who had been 
laboring about a year and some months at Organ 
Churcli and in Salisbury, and who had been 
brought to America by a deputation sent from 
Organ and St. John's Churches to Germany, in 
1773. He located himself about one and a half 
miles east of St. John's Church, on a tract of land 
of his own entry or purchase, and labored faith- 
fully all the remaining days of his life among this 
people. The congregation also secured about the 
same time the services of a Mr. Friesland as their 

On the 22d of October, 1782, three benevolent 
members of the church council, Jacob Fegert, 
Marx Haus, and Jacob Thierae, paid the sum of 
fifty shillings, the accustomed rate, for one hun- 
dred acres of government land, on a portion of 
which the church had already been built, and en- 
tered it "in trust for the congregation of Dutch 
Bufialo Meeting-House." This wise procedure 
manifested considerable forethought in those first 
members of the church, for the land is now valu- 
able, and has been of much service to the congre- 

A short time before the close of the war, which 
had already so sadly affected all the peaceful pur- 
suits of life, and disarranged much of the atiairs 
of the church, when the prospect of peace and pros- 


perity reanimated all hearts, a constitution was 
adopted for the government of this congregation. 
It is written in the German language, and in Pas- 
tor ISTussmann's handwriting, inscribed in the an- 
tiquated church-book, still carefully preserved. 

This constitution was compiled, as stated by 
Rev. Nussmann, from the "Kirchenordnung of 
our Evangelical brethren in Smyrna, and the one 
used in England and Holland, but made suitable 
to the circumstances of our countr}-." From this 
constitution, which is exceedingly strict, both in 
doctrine and discipline, the following facts are 
gathered : 

1. That the church was placed under the super- 
vision of the Consistory of Hanover and the Uni- 
versity of Gottingen, and that, whenever the 
congregation should be in want of a pastor, ap- 
plication was to be made to that Consistory or 
University. However, in case of war or other 
untoward circumstances, when correspondence 
would necessarily be interrupted, the congrega- 
tion was then to apply to the ministry in connec- 
tion with the Pennsylvania Synod. 

2. That the pastor was bound to confess himself 
with heart ayid mouth to the symbolical books of our 
Evavgelical Church. 

3. That the pastor was to be in regular corres- 
pondence with the brethren of the same faith in 
Europe; that he was to send them minute reports 
of church matters every six weeks, asking aid and 
counsel whenever the circumstances required it, 
as soon as the long-wished-for peace would once 


more open conveniences for correspondence be- 
tween Europe and America. 

4. A regular support for the pastor and school- 
teacher was expected from the members, and be- 
fore the}^ could engage the services of either, it 
was made binding upon them to state the positive 
annual amount of salary for their support in the 
written call. A portion of the schoolteacher's 
salary consisted in the use of a certain amount of 
good land, which tlie members were to cultivate 
for him, and also to gather the grain, hay, (fee, 
into his barn, when the proper season arrived. 

5. Provision was also made for orphan children 
and such other persons, as were in needy circum- 

6. All marriages had to be proclaimed, accord- 
ing to the custom of the country, three Sundays 
in succession before the marriage could take place, 
and none except the minister was allowed to per- 
form the ceremony. 

7. The church council were usually designated, 
according to the recommendation of this constitu- 
tion, as adjunct executors in all wills and testa- 
ments, for the purpose of taking special care of 
the children of the deceased in their religious 

8. The following order of service for public 
worship in the sanctuary was established: 

a. A hymn of praise. 

h. A collect, or the epistle for the day. 

c. The principal hymn. 

d. Reading of the Scriptures. 


e. The creed, or a short Sunday hymn. 

/. The sermon. 

g. The singing of a few verses. 

h. A short catechetical exercise. 

i. A long prayer, suitable either to the catechi- 
zation, sermon, or other circumstances. 

k. The benediction. 

I. The concluding verse of the principal hymn. 

9. The liturgy adopted by this congregation 
was the one used in the German Lutheran Court 
Chapel of St. James, i*i London ; and the Marburg 
hymn-book, which was reprinted for the use of the 
churches in Germantown and Philadelphia, was 
also introduced in the worship of this congregation. 

Section 13. The Delegation sent from North Caro- 
lina to Europe for Pastors and Teachers^ and 
the subsequent organization of the Helmstaedt 
Mission Society. 

The German settlements in the interior of I^orth 
Carolina, although commenced in the year 1750, 
were of very gradual growth, owing to the pecu- 
liar manner in which they were made. They 
were not favored with shiploads of emigrants 
direct from Germany; their increase of colonists 
depended on the overland route, made in wagons 
and on foot, from the Province of Pennsylvania. 
It took all of fifteen or twenty years before these 
settlers were sufficiently numerous to form them- 
selves into congregations, but after these congre- 


gallons were organized, the urgent want of the 
regular administration of the word and sacraments 
was also felt. The slow but gradual increase of 
these German settlements will account for the ap- 
parent tardiness which these settlers manifested 
in sending for ministers of the Gospel, and the 
manner in which they journeyed to North Caro- 
lina made it almost impossible for them to take 
their pastors with them. But after the harvest 
was ripe for the sickle, where to obtain pastors 
for their newly organized congregations, that was 
a question not easily answered. The Synod of 
Pennsylvania had no ministers to spare, for even 
in that favored Province the want of ministers 
was greatly felt, having to apply constantly to the 
Church in Germany to supply the wants of their 
ever-increasing German population and churches, 
and to go ftirther South for ministerial help was 
utterly useless, for there the want and scarcity was 
still greater. 

In view of this great want, felt everywhere 
among the Germans in America at this time. Dr. 
Muhlenberg expresses himself as follows (Evang. 
Review, vol. i, p. 414): "True, enough teachers 
and false apostles may be found, who pervert the 
word of God, and manufacture the most baneful 
sects with it! how necessary, useful, and con- 
solatory would it not be, if we were able to erect 
a long-wished-for institution, in which Catechets 
could be trained who would be capable and willing 
to teach school during the week, and to deliver a 
discourse (Vortrag) on the Lord's day. It would 


not be necessary to torment such subjects many- 
years with foreign languages; it would be suffi- 
cient if they possessed mother wit, a compendious 
knowledge and experience of the marrow and sap 
of theology, could write a tolerable hand, under- 
stood their vernacular (German) and the English 
tongues, and the elements of Latin. They should 
also possess a robust bodily constitution, able to 
endure every kind of food and weather, and espe- 
cially have a heart that sincerely loves Jesus and 
his lambs. 

"In America there are schools, gymnasiums, 
academies, and universities enough (and their 
number is multiplying with the increased taste) 
for lawyers, notaries, physicians, philosophers, 
candidates for benefices, critics, orators, sea cap- 
tains, merchants, artists, &c., &c., but who helps 
the half-dead man that has fallen among thieves, 
and lies bleeding? Priests and Levites pass by on 
the other side, for their law forbids them to touch 
anything unclean. And if occasionally some be 
found who profess themselves Samaritans, they 
have, notwithstanding, ofttimes unrighteous ob- 
jects; bind up, it is true, the wounds of the help- 
less suiferer, and set him on their own beast, but, 
at the same time, expect as a recompense to own 
him entirely and to lead him to their sectarian inn, 
when the proverb is verified, ' The remedy is worse 
than the disease,' as can be shown by many ex- 
amples. This matter belongs to the pia desideria 
(pious desires), which are more easily accomplished 
in theory than in practice." 


The newly organized Lutheran congregations 
in North Carolina had only one other resource 
remaining, and that was — to send to Europe for 
pastors and teachers for this new and promising 
field of labor among the Germans in this Prov- 
ince; and these congregations were not slow in 
making this resource available, as may be seen by 
examining the records of the old church-book be- 
longing to Organ Church. They well knew that 
to send letters or petitions to Europe for pastors 
and teachers would accomplish but little, hence 
they resolved to send a delegation, who could 
make personal appeals to the hearts of their 
brethren of the same faith, describe the wants of 
the churches in North Carolina, and answer any 
question relative to the country in which they re- 
sided, support of the pastor, &c. Accordingly, 
in the year 1772, Christopher Rintelmann, from 
Organ Church, in Rowan County, and Christopher 
Layrle, from St. John's Church, in Mecklenburg 
County, were sent as a delegation to Europe, for 
the purpose of applying to the Consistory Council 
(Consistorialrath) of Hanover, in Germany, for a 
supply of ministers of the gospel and school- 
teachers, for the various Lutheran congregations 
then organized in North Carolina. The reason 
is also stated, why the delegation w^ere instructed 
to apply to the proper authorities in Hanover in 
preference to any other place or kingdom: "Be- 
cause at that time North Carolina, as well as all 
the other free American States, was under the 


jurisdiction of the king of England, wlio was at 
the same time elector of Hanover." 

These commissioners traveled first to London, 
and from thence tliej' journeyed to Hanover, and 
there, in accordance with their instructions, to 
bring at least one pastor and a schoolteacher with 
them, and through the kind efforts of "the late 
Consistory counsellor. Gotten," they obtained the 
Rev. Adolph Nussmann as their pastor, and Mr. 
Gottfried Arndt as schoolteacher; both of whom 
arrived safely in North Carolina in 1773. 

But this was not all the good which these com- 
missioners effected, for by their faithful represen- 
tations of the condition and want of the churches, 
the Lutheran congregations in North Carolina, as 
already seen from the constitution of St. John's 
Church, were placed under the supervision of the 
Consistory of Hanover and the University of 
Gottingen, from which they were promised and 
expected both pecuniary assistance and a further 
supply of ministers and teachers; and had it not 
been that the Revolutionary War broke out shortly 
afterwards, which stopped all communication with 
Europe for a period of nearly eight years, there 
is no calculating how much the Lutheran Church 
in the Carolinas would have been benefited by 
the arrangement made with the parent Church in 
Hanover. Even after the war ended, as will be 
seen in the next chapter, the money that had been 
collected in Hanover for St. John's Church, which 
was feared to have been lost or forfeited on ac- 
count of the action which the Germans in North 


Carolina took in the war, was nevertheless paid 
over to that congregation, according to the origi- 
nal intent of the donors. 

One effect, however, the Revolutionary War 
did have upon the Consistory of Hanover and 
the University of Gottingen, although the cause 
or reason is not stated; the supervision of the 
Lutheran Church in North Carolina was placed 
in the hands of the professors of the Julius Charles 
University of Helmstaedt, in the Duchy of Bruns- 
wick. Doubtless the parent Church in Hanover 
became indifferent to the wants of the Lutheran 
congregations in North Carolina, because the re- 
volt of the American Colonies was against the 
reicrnino; house of Hanovei-, who was, as already 
seen, at the same time king of Great Britain, 
which may have occasioned tlie transfer of the 
care of the North Carolina mission lield to the 
Duchy of Brunswick. 

Btv. John Caspar VcUhusen, D.D., theological 
professor of the Julius Charles University, in 
Helmstaedt, and abbot of the cloister of Marien- 
thal, became the leading spirit of this newly- 
formed mission society, organized for the super- 
vision and care of the Lutheran churches in North 
Carolina; with him were associated the Rev. Prof. 
Henke, and the Professors Crell, Kliigel, and 
Bruns. The labors of this society, if formed be- 
fore the close of the Revolutionary War, were in- 
terrupted during that stormy period, when all 
communication between Europe and America 
ceased, but became exceedingly efficient for the 


welfare of tlie Korth Carolina mission field soon 
after peace was again established, and to this 
Ilelnastaedt mission society is all the honor due, 
for having saved the Lutheran Church in North 
Carolina from sinking into decay, if not from 
total annihihition. It commenced, or recom- 
TTienced, its labors for the Korth Carolina mission 
field on the 14th of October, 1786. 

Section IJf.. The Labors of Bevs. Nussman and Arndt 
in North Carolina. 

The Lutheran Church in North Carolina was 
peculiarly fortunate in obtaining the services of 
so learned, devoted and self-sacrificing a Chris- 
tian minister as was its first pastor, the Rev. 
Adolph Nussmann. His praise was in all the 
churches; men did him honor who had never 
known him, but heard of his influence and suc- 
cessful labors among the German settlers. Rev. 
Dr. Caruthers, a Presbyterian minister, speaks of 
him in the highest terms of praise. Rev. Dr. 
Velthusen in Germany does the same. ISTussmann 
was indeed a man who might have filled with 
honor the highest position in any Church or liter- 
ary institution, but was content to labor for the 
cause of Christ, and to sacrifice himself among 
the unambitious but honest German agriculturists 
of North Carolina. 

He located himself at first in Rowan County, 
near Second Creek, and served Organ and Salis- 
bury Churches, whilst the newly arrived teacher, 


J. G. Arndt, occupied himself in giving instruc- 
tion to the children and youth. 

After having taken a survey of the jBeld of min- 
isterial labor in the interior of the Province, Rev. 
Nussmann perceived that it was already ripe for 
the harvest, and that he could effect but little by 
himself; the demands upon his time and energy 
would be far too great, were he to endeavor to 
supply all the Lutheran churches, then existing in 
that Province, with the appointed means of grace, 
and to labor simply as a missionary, organizing 
congregations, preaching and administering the 
sacraments among and in all of them, would effect 
but little good, unless these churches could be 
soon supplied with pastors: a number of congre- 
gations were already organized, and were hunger- 
ing after the bread of life. 

His only alternative was to have the teacher 
Ai'ndt ordained, who indeed had received an ex- 
cellent education in Germany, where much is re- 
quired of a teacher, and make him a co-laborer 
in this hopeful lield; so, after having properly 
arranged all Church affairs in Rowan County, he 
resigned the charge into the hands of Rev. Arndt, 
and removed to St. John's Church, in Mecklen- 
burg Count}', where he labored industriously and 
faithfully all the remaining 3'ears of his life. He 
also made a number of missionating tours to 
Davidson, Guilford, Orange, Stokes and For- 
sythe Counties, "strengthening the things that 
remained," organizing Lutheran congregations, 


and serving them occasionally, particularly in the 
two last-mentioned counties. 

Rev. Arndt's labors were chiefly coniined to 
Rowan County until after the close of the Revo- 
lutionary War, when, in 1786, he removed to 
Lincoln County, and became the acknowledged 
founder of the Lutheran Church west of the 
Catawba River. 

It must not be supposed that ^STussmann's labors, 
coniined to the wants of St. John's Church, would 
be comparatively light, except when he made mis- 
sionary visits to other counties — nothing is farther 
from the truth. It w^as the custom in those co- 
lonial times, when the population was sparse, to 
have but one church centrally located in a county 
or district, and the people would come from a 
great distance to attend divine service, and attach 
themselves to the congregation, the bounds of 
which often embraced a territory within the radius 
of fifty miles, except where it came near to another 
church of the same faith in an adjoining county. 
This was the case with St. John's Church, out of 
which sprang a number of other congregations, 
located now in the same and different counties, 
all of which were faithfully and regularly supplied 
with the word and sacraments by Pastor iS^uss- 
mann, until alter his death the necessitj' arose 
for organizing new and separate churches. The 
same may likewise be said of the labors of Rev. 
Arndt, inasmuch as Rowan County embraced at 
that time all the territory of Davie, Iredell, and 
Davidson Counties. 


Fifteen years did these two faithful servants of 
God labor alone, under many diliiculties and pri- 
vations, and through all the stormj' period of the 
Eevolution, before any additional laborers Avere 
sent to their assistance; however, they succeeded, 
by the blessing of God, in preserving life among 
those congregations that were remotely located 
from them, and in building up those of which 
they were the regular pastors. 

Dr. Caruthers states, that in connection with 
the occasional labors of Rev. Nussmann among 
the German settlers of Guilford and Orange, the 
Rev. Mr. Beuthahn, a German Reformed minister, 
organized congregations in that territory, and 
preached for them, but supported himself princi- 
pally by teaching a German school in the south- 
east corner of Guilford Count3\ Many of these 
congregations held the church property jointly 
with the Lutherans, and each denomination had 
alternate use of these churches. 

Section 15. Character of the Lutheran ministry in 
the Carolinas previous to the Revolutionary War ; 
their 'piety .^ learning., firm adherence to the Con- 
fessions of their Church, faithfulness in the dis- 
charge of their ministerial duties ; liturgical 
worship^ ^c. 

The testimony of all the ancient records of the 
ante-revolutionary period, concerning the charac- 
ter of the early Lutheran ministry in the Carolinas, 


is SO excellent and so impartially written, even by 
those who were in no way connected with the 
Lutheran Church, that it is refreshing to read 
them ; God be praised, that, in the period of the 
founding of our Church in these two provinces, so 
excellent a beginning was made, the best and the 
most competent men were sent by the parent 
Church in Europe to labor in this tield; and whilst 
the great want of ministers at that time did bring 
into the field some, who were not so distinguished 
for their learning, and others, like Revs. Wartman 
and Daser, who were possessed of characteristics 
calculated to interfere with their usefulness, never- 
theless, the majorit}- of the Lutheran ministers of 
that period, and who may be regarded as the early 
fatliers of their Church, and certainly the best 
entitled to that distinction, were men of the noblest 
traits of character, and efficient in accomplishing 
a vast amount of good. Their faith and piety 
were made manifest without seeking public noto- 
riety, and the noblest monument reared to their 
memory are the works which followed them, which 
still speak to their praise, though many of them 
HOW slumber in unknown graves. 

They were men of learning, and might have 
filled positions of honor and usefulness in their 
native country ; but, possessed of the true mission- 
ary spirit, they sacrificed all temporal advantages, 
in order that they might labor for the welfare of 
the souls of their neglected brethren in America, 
and build up the Church in that section of the 
country to which they had been sent. And when 


they arrived, great were the privations and hard- 
ships which they had to endure, and which can 
never be fully estimated without contemplating 
all the circumstances of colonial times; they not 
only felt the absence of relatives, friends of their 
youth, college and university associates, but also 
the want of frequent intercourse with ministerial 
brethren, of men of learning and refinement, of 
the literature of the day, of the comforts of ad- 
vanced civilization, and even of good roads and 
conveniences for travelling. They were isolated 
and, so to speak, walled-in by the primeval forests, 
and were subjected to the constant intercourse 
with persons who, whilst they respected, esteemed 
and loved their ministers, never could enter into 
their feelings of refinement, nor appreciate any 
intellectual conversation. 

The early records also indicate, that the Lutheran 
ministers of that period were firm believers in the 
doctrines of their Church, and unconditional ad- 
herents to the manner in which these doctrines 
were set forth in the Symbolical books. For 
proof of this we are directed first to the Urlsperger 
Reports. Eev, Bolzius makes the following record 
in his journal, under date, May 15, 1734: " This 
morning we returned to Habercorn, where we 
administered the Lord's Supper to two sick per- 
sons, who rejoiced that their souls were refreshed 
with the eating and drinking the body and blood 
of Christ. We held a short preparatory discourse 
on the words: 'Whosoever will come unto me, I 
will in no wise cast out,' to which they attentively 


listened with tears of contrition," &c. A1thonf;^]i 
tlie Symbolical Books are not mentioned in this 
extract of Rev, Bolzius' diary, yet the distinctive 
belief of the Lutheran Church in reference to the 
Lord's Supper is set forth, plainly indicating the 
faith of these Ebenezer pastors. It is also admitted 
that Rev. Bolzius did not reside in Carolina, but 
at that time he occasionallj' visited Charleston and 
Purysburg:, and labored among the Germans re- 
siding there; and the extract, as above given, oc- 
curs in his diary of a journey made to Charleston 
for this very purpose. 

The next testimony on this subject is given in 
the journal of Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg. During his 
visit to Charleston, a petition of the members of 
the vacant Lutheran congregation in that city for a 
pastor was sent to Europe, in which they describe 
the kind of pastor they were desirous to obtain, 
and in which description the following clause oc- 
curs: "Who is able and willing to administer the 
Holy Sacraments agreeably to the articles of our 
unaltered Augsburg Confession." Whilst it is ad- 
mitted that the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg is the author 
of that petition, it was nevertheless undersigned 
by all, or nearly all, of the members of St. John's 
Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina. 
After the Revolutionary War this congregation 
formed a union with Roman Catholics and Ger- 
man Reformed, as reported by Rev. Dr. Velthusen, 
"but from the beginning it was not so." 

Another decided testimony is furnished from 
the first constitution of St. John's Church, Meck- 


leiiburg (Cabarrus) Countj-, ITorth Carolina, writ- 
ten by the founder of the Lutheran Church in that 
Province, Rev. Adolph ITussmann, which reads as 
follows: "Every pastor of this church is bound to 
confess himself with heart aud mouth to the Sym- 
bolical Books of our Evangelical Ciuirch." From 
the same constitution we also learn that the wor- 
ship in that congregation was liturgical, as it was, 
indeed, in all the Lutheran churches in the Caro- 
linas at that early period, conforming very closely 
to the usages of the Lutheran Church in Germany. 
The early fathers of tlie Lutheran Church in 
the Caroliuas were conscientious and faithful in 
the discharge of their ministerial duties, perform- 
ing labors for the welfare of the Church even out- 
side of their own congregations, and were always 
ready in word and doctrine to lead souls to Christ. 
They generally devoted all their time to the work 
committed to their charge. Some of them had a 
very meagre support, especially in the rural dis- 
tricts, where the salary consisted principally in the 
productions of the soil, which the members of 
their congregations brought to them, and where 
this was insufficient for the support of themselves 
and families, they labored with their own hands 
on their farms, or on lands belonging to their 


Section 16. Gradual Improvement of the Condition of 
the German Colonies ayid of their Churches in 
the Carolinas, and bright Prospects for the Fu- 

The German colonies of North and South Caro- 
lina were now firmly established. The people had 
nothing more to fear from the incursions of the 
Indians, who had mostly been driven beyond the 
Alleghany Mountains; the whole Atlantic slope, 
from New England to Georgia, was in the posses- 
sion of the white settlers, who could quietly and 
safely remain at home, and enrich themselves by 
the cultivation of the soih 

The peculiar adaptation of the German colonists 
to agricultural pursuits was soon rewarded by thrift 
and abundance. They became attached to their 
new homes, and their children intermarrying with 
each other, bound the settlers together in bonds 
of relationship, as well as of friendship. Their 
love for their former homes beyond the sea and in 
other American provinces was lost, in course of 
time, in the feeling of general prosperity, whilst 
those, who were "to the manor born," knew and 
loved no country so well, as the one in which they 
resided. The trials, v;ant and hardships of early 
colonization were at an end, and bright prospects 
for the future appeared to greet every settler, who 
was willing to labor, and to manage his affairs 

The Lutheran Church in the Carolinas likewise 
presented hopeful prospects for the future at this 


period immediately preceding the Revolutionary 
War. Congregations were being organized, and 
churches were erected wherever the number of 
settlers was sufficiently large to warrant them in 
taking these steps; often they did not always wait 
for the aid of ministerial counsel, but took the 
necessary steps themselves. The scarcity of min- 
isterial labor was still greatly felt, yet the German 
settlers who had no pastors, were occasionally vis- 
ited by the pastors of their own faith in more for- 
tunate congregations; besides, the parent Church 
in the Fatherland had now become interested in 
their spirituallj^ destitute condition, and the pros- 
pect was good that all the churches would shortly 
be supplied with either pastors or missionaries. 
This hope, or rather this dependence, whilst it 
promised the Germans in the Carolinas a speedy 
supply of the means of grace, exerted, nevertheless, 
an unwholesome influence upon them. No effort 
was made to organize a synod for the purpose of 
regulating their Church affairs; some of their min- 
isters labored in an independent and isolated 
sphere, whilst others were under the control of 
the parent Church in Germany, to which they re- 
ported regularly, and from which they received 
aid, direction and counsel. Nor did they feel the 
necessity of establishing an institution of learning 
to educate ministers of their own in America, and 
thus be enabled to fill the vacant churches with 
pastors, which, if properly managed, could have 
been done with but little outlay of money in those 


days of economy and thrift, had they not luid the 
prospect of receiving more ministers from Europe. 
Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg foresaw this evil and its 
consequent effects, but whilst he lamented the 
Vv'ant of such a literary institution, he made no 
personal effort to accomplish tlie good work, or 
was prevented from so doing by the indifference 
of the Church in regard to this matter. Not long 
after that time the Revolutionary War commenced, 
when it was too late to make the attempt, for the 
mind, heart and wants of the colonists were set 
in another direction. 

Section 17. The Effect of the Revolutionary War 
upon the German Settlements and their Chu7'ches. 

War is one of the most destructive calamities 
with which any people can be afflicted, bearing 
many evils in its train, and seriously affecting all 
the affairs and interests of civil, social and ecclesi- 
astical life. Especially was this the case with the 
Revolutionary War in its effect upon the Ameri- 
can people, who had but recently emerged from 
all the evils and hardships of early colonization, 
and who had as yet no independent national exist- 
ence, no regular army and nav}' ; and although the 
war was not altogether an unexpected event, yet 
when it did break out, it found the Colonies but 
little prepared for it, and consequently must have 
been productive of much suffering and many evils. 

The effect of the war upon the German settle- 
ments was the same as on all the other Colonies. 


It arrested all progress, it interrupted the pursuit 
of every peaceful art, except that which was nec- 
essary to support life. Many a plowshare rusted 
away in its unfinished furrow, many a field lay 
fallow for a long time, little improvement was 
made anywhere. The strength of manhood, which 
was needed at home for the development of the 
resources of the country, was more urgently re- 
quired to fill up the rank and file of the army; 
and the women of that period were obliged to per- 
form, to a certain extent, the hard labor that was 
needed to cultivate the soil, and to gather and 
prepare its productions for home consumption, 
whilst the long winter evenings were spent in 
making articles of clothing for the family and for 
the relatives in the army. 

War had its sad eft'ect also upon the faith and 
morals of the people. When it frequently occurs 
that brother is arraj-ed against brother, and one 
neighborhood known to be in open hostility to 
the other, when it was lawful for the adherents 
of royalty, called Tories, to rob and plunder, and 
even to destroy human life at pleasure, and re- 
prisals on the American or Whig side were like- 
wise not wanting, it can be readily imagined what 
the state of piety and morals must have been at 
such times of almost general anarchy. When law 
and order, in times of peace, can scarcely restrain 
the passions of men, what must have been the con- 
dition of societj' during the prevalence of a war for 
the establishment of a new government, which 
afflicted our country for so long a time, and con- 


cerniiig whieli, to a large extent, the opinions and 
feelings of the people were divided! 

Upon the diiferent churches the war had a most 
deleterious effect; it greatly reduced their number 
of membership; it caused those who remained at 
home to become careless and indifferent about 
their spiritual welfare; many of the churches in 
the cities were used as hospitals for the sick and 
wounded, and the congregations were more or 
less scattered to where the people were less ex- 
posed to the devastations of the hostile army; 
whilst in the country the danger of being robbed 
and plundered during absence from home, in 
attendance upon divine service, almost emptied 
the various churches of worshipers; all that the 
minister of the gospel could then do was to visit 
his flock as often as time and opportunity per- 
mitted, laboring only in hope of the dawn of a 
better day, and the speedy return of peace and 
prosperity. No congregations could think of 
making improvements on their churches and 
schools, or of building new houses of worship; 
it was even more than could be accomplished to 
hold their own, and "to strengthen the things 
which remained, that were ready to die." The 
close of the war witnessed churches in ruins, con- 
gregations dispersed; some of them so effectually 
died out that they were never again resuscitated, 
whilst others were so M'eakened and had grown 
so indifferent, that with the greatest difficulty they 
were revived into a new though lingering life. 
This was particularly the case with the Lutheran 


Church ill the Carolinas; it had sufJl-red much in 
the days of its early planting, but it suflered still 
more during the dark period of the Revolutionary 
War, and approached very near to becoming en- 
tirely extinct. 

The ministers themselves were often harassed, 
persecuted, and at times in danger of their lives. 
Rev. Christian Streitt, pastor of St. John's Lu- 
theran Church, Charleston, South Carolina, was 
taken prisoner by the British soldiers, and was 
never again permitted to return, but found a field 
of labor elsewhere at the close of the war. "Rev. 
Mr. Martin, many of whose descendants are still 
living, on his refusal to pray for the king, was 
driven from his church, and his property was con- 
fiscated. He was for a time placed under arrest, 
and was afterwards compelled to leave the city, 
to which he did not return until the close of the 
war." "His house," writes his great-grand- 
daughter, " had twice, during the Revolutionary 
War, been burned by our own troops, fearing that 
the dwelling might furnish a cover to the enemy's 
approach." This was doubtless done before the 
British succeeded in occupying the city. Rev. 
Nussmann in North Carolina fared no better, 
although no regular army passed through the 
country where he resided; but he was pursued 
by Tories, who threatened to take his life. Aged 
and defenceless as he was, he could do nothing 
better than to seek refuge in fleeing to a retreat 
near his home, where he was hid from their view, 
and thus escaped. During all this dark period 


of time the German ministers struggled single- 
handed and alone, but all were as faithful in tlie 
discharge of their duties, as the times and circum- 
stances would permit. God also wonderfully pre- 
served their lives, for it is not positively known 
that a single Lutheran minister in the Carolinas 
died during the war. Rev. J. G. Friederichs passed 
from the stage of action some time shortly pre- 
vious to, or during the Revolution, but it is not 
certainly known when God took him to his rest; 
and Rev. L. Hochheimer's name also disappears 
from the records of that period. 

Another sad effect of the war upon the churches 
in the Carolinas was the impossibility of having 
any correspondence with the parent Church in 
Europe, owing to the interruption of all commer- 
cial intercourse with foreign nations. This <le- 
prived the congregations of the sympathy and aid 
of their brethren in the Fatherland, and termi- 
nated the supply of ministers, books and dona- 
tions in money for the good of the Church in 
these two Provinces as long as the war lasted. In 
short, the removals, the deaths, the changes and 
the sufferings that were caused by this war of 
England with her colonies in America can never 
be fully described, and will never be known, in 
all their details, by any human being this side of 




Section 1. State of the German Colonies and of the 
Lutheran Church at the Close of the Revolution. 

The conflict of arms had ceased; the smoke 
and din of battle were seen and heard no more; 
peace again spread its benign influence over our 
long-afilicted country; the independence of the 
American Colonies was at last achieved — acknowl- 
edged even by England, and civil and religious 
liberty was the well-earned reward of the people, 
who had patiently struggled and sufl^ered for eight 
long years. Prosperity again commenced to 
dawn upon the land, when all the energies of the 
people were directed to the development of its 
resources, and industry and economy soon re- 
stored the healthy financial condition of its in- 

But there is another side to that picture which 
is generally overlooked. War had left its deep 


traces of evil upon the virtues and morals of the 
people, who had become more or less degenerated 
b}' the evil influences which a long war and a 
change of government generally exert upon man- 
kind. The German people, especially in the 
rural districts, were not so greatly affected by 
these influences of the war as were others, owing 
to their isolated condition on account of lan- 
guage, and their temperate and industrious habits 
kept them more closely confined to their homes; 
nevertheless, a general indiflerence to all matters 
of religion prevailed almost everywhere, for the 
people were no longer hungry for the bread of 
life, but regarded the acquisition of wealth, or the 
repair of their former condition of competency, as 
of primary importance. 

Old landmarks of government had been entirely 
overthrown, and the people were for five years 
politically unsettled in mind, ere a solid and stable 
government was formed and established. State 
governments existed, without which the whole 
land would have been subjected to all the terrors 
of anarchy; but one can easily imagine how little 
restraint these governments could enforce, and 
what protection they could warrant, as long as 
every political arrangement was regarded as 
merely provisional. 

Foreign immigration, particularly into the 
Southern States, was, for a time, almost entirely 

But the worst consequences of the success of 
the Revolutionary War were the almost deifica- 


tion of Liberty and the rapid rise of infidelity, 
rationalism and religious indifference. A proph- 
ecy was made by one of the wisest statesmen of 
that time or shortly afterwards, that in fifty years 
there would not a single copy of the Bible be 
found in this country. Nor was the influence of 
the success of the Revolution confined to America. 
France soon became dissatisfied with its monarch- 
ical government, and ran wild in its demands for 
liberty. It had its desire, but its reign of terror, 
which followed close upon the heels of American 
independence, became warning enough to all, that 
liberty, however excellent it is, when properly re- 
strained by the virtue of its possessors and whole- 
some laws, becomes a dangerous plaything in the 
hands of incompetent, selfish and wicked men. 
How significant is the cry of one of the victims 
under the guillotine: "O Liberty, Liberty, how 
many crimes are conmiitted in thy name!" 

With this period we may also date the beginning 
of rationalism in the Lutheran Church in'America; 
old landmarks of the Lutheran faith were set aside, 
or formally confessed with a mental reservation, 
church discipline was not generally, properly and 
impartially enforced, ancient church usages were 
abandoned; our Church, thus despoiled of her 
glory and strength, was made to correspond with 
the spirit of American libert}^ and to assimilate 
itself to other denominations, and an anxious seek- 
ing after temporal advantage became manifest 
even among some of those, who were the acknowl- 
edged shepherds of the flock. 


The spirit of the age was skeptical, selfish, and 
prone to deify a virtue and morality entirely 
disconnected from the religion of our Savior. 
Priestcraft, under which reproachful term the 
gospel ministry of all denominations was under- 
stood, was so generally dreaded and so frequently 
denounced, that it is a matter of surprise that 
ministers of the gospel could effect any good at 
all. But one extreme is usually followed by 
another, and generally by its opposite. The re- 
vival of 1800, which swept over the entire land, 
no doubt accomplished good in checking the grow- 
ing evil of infidelity and religious unconcern, for 
it taught men that there is a future retribution; 
but its spirit was legal, and it became the parent 
of much fanaticism and Pharisaism, establishing 
an ethical kind of religion, which cut off' some of 
the most tender cords of faith and love, that draw 
the human heart near to the Savior. An emo- 
tional religion became prevalent; religious expe- 
rience exclianged places with Christ, and a subjec- 
tive faith was substituted for the objective; but 
as a more extended account of this great revival 
will be furnished in another section of this chapter, 
it is unnecessary to enlai'ge here. 

The Lutheran ministers in the Carolinas, who 
survived all the vicissitudes of the Revolutionary 
War, as far as can be ascertained, were Revs. Nuss- 
mann and Arndt in North Carolina, and Revs. 
Martin and Daser in South Carolina; concerning 
Revs. Friederichs and Hochheimer nothing is 
known positively; their names do not occur in any 


of the extant records of tliat period; what became 
of tliem, and when they died, must now remain, 
as it is feared, a matter of mere conjecture. Rev. 
Theus, the German Reformed minister in South 
Carolina, still lived, and continued to labor faith- 
fully in his Master's vineyard. The names of four 
other German ministers in South Carolina appear 
in view four or five years later, but it is probable 
that they began to labor in that field only after 
peace was restored. 

Section S. Reorgamzation of Ecclesiastical affair's in 
the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas. 

On the 26th of March, 1784, St. John's Lutheran 
Church in Charleston, upon the application of its 
members, made in 1783, obtained a charter of 
incorporation, under the changed name and title 
of" The Lutheran Church of German Protestants," 
from the State legislature, which then held its 
sessions in Charleston. This appears to have been 
the first eftbrt that was made at reorganization of 
ecclesiastical afl:airs in the Lutheran Church under 
the new form of civil government in the Carolinas. 

Rev. Frederick Daser was still the pastor, and 
continued in charge of that congregation until 
July, 1786; there is undoubted testimony on that 
point, firstly, from the extract of the records of 
the church-book, published by Mr. Jacob F, Schir- 
mer, who states: "We find the name of Mr. F. 
Daser as pastor up to July, 1786, when he resigned 


his office;" secondly, from the Helnistaedt Reports, 
in which the author mentions having received a 
letter from Eev. Daser, and states : " We learn 
from his letter of the 20th of June, 1787, that he 
has now left Charleston since August, 1786, and 
has moved to another congregation, composed of 
English and German people, in Orangeburg Dis- 
trict, seventj miles further inland." 

Rev. John Nicliolas Martin was again recalled, 
and became the pastor of this church for the third 
time, but labored only one year, until the new 
minister from Germany arrived, when, on account 
of the infirmities of age, he withdrew from the 
active duties of the ministry. The family memoir, 
furnished by one of liis descendants, states : " Al- 
though aged, and having lost his former physical 
vigor, liis congregation still clung to him with 
warm afl:ection. Tliey urged him in 1783 (1786) 
to resume his pastoral relations, until a stated 
minister could be procured from Germany. Upon 
the arrival of his successor, Rev, John C. Fabei', 
he was released from further service, with a vote 
of thanks from the church for the fidelity with 
which he had ministered to their spiritual interests. 
He lived several years, after his withdrawal from 
the active duties of the ministry, on the little farm 
with which there were so many associations con- 
nected." This farm was situated about a mile 
from Charleston, on w'hich the revolutionary inci- 
dents occurred, which were noticed in one of the 
preceding sections. 

Concerning the other Lutheran congregations 


ill the interior of South Carolina, very little is 
known until 1787, excepting that the Orangeburg 
District charge was fortunate enough to have 
received Rev. F. Daser for their pastor in August, 
1786, and who, doubtless, remained there to the 
close of his life. 

In Rev. A. IS'ussmann's principal congregation, 
St. John's, Mecklenburg (Cabarrus) County, N. C, 
the want of a better house of worship was felt after 
the war, when the congregation had again become 
thoroughly organized. On the 6th of ISTovember, 
1784, a beginning was made " for the purpose of 
rebuilding St. John's Church." It was resolved 
to erect the new church on the same site where 
the old one stood, in the inclosure of the present 
graveyard, near the upper part of it. The sub- 
scription list, taken in the currency of English 
money, and ranging from ten pounds to three 
shillings, is prefaced by the following pious wish : 
" May the good God help us, so that our under- 
taking may succeed well in peace and unanimity, 
and that every man may do his part as he would 
wish others to do towards himself." The whole 
subscription amounted to about X172J. 

The church edifice was completed the following 
year, and was solemnly dedicated to the service of 
the triune God on the fourth of July, 1785, but 
with what ceremonies is not stated. Soon after 
another subscription was taken, for the purpose of 
purchasing a large gilt silver goblet from their 
pastor for communion service, which is still used 
for the same purpose. 


In the Organ and Salisl)ury Churclies matters 
remained unimproved, and those congregations 
hecame vacant soon after the restoration of peace, 
by the removal of Rev. J. G. Arndt to Lincoln 
County, where a new and promising field awaited 
him, and where he accomplished much good. 
Concerning the other German Lutheran settle- 
ments in North Carolina nothing much can be 
said, inasmuch as they never enjoyed the regular 
services of their own pastor until 1788, but were 
visited by Revs. Nussmann and Arndt as frequently 
as the attendance upon the wants of their own 
regular congregatious would permit them. 

Section 3. Arrival of Rev. John Charles Faher — Re- 
union of the North Carolina Churches with the 
Parent Church in Germany — The North Caro- 
lina Catechism-., published by Rev. Dr. Velthusen., 
and Rev. Daser's Report to the Hehnstaedt Fa- 

In the year 1787, the Rev. John Charles Faber, 
having received and accepted a call from the Lu- 
theran Church in Charleston, South Carolina, 
" arrived from Germany and took charge of the 
church." He continued to labor there for thirteen 
years, when, during the year 1800., his health failed 
him, and he resigned liis office as pastor of that con- 
gregation. "The Rev. Mr. Pogson," an Episcopal 
clergyman, "officiated on Sundays for a short time, 
and on his retiring Mr. Faber consented to serve 
the church as far as his strength would allow." 


According to the testimony of Rev. Dr. Velt- 
husen, in his preface to the North Carolina Cate- 
chism, Rev. J. C. Faber must have Labored with 
great acceptance and success in Charleston, induc- 
ing many of the Germans of other religious per- 
suasions to unite with the Lutherans in building 
up their church. Dr. V. says, "This congrega- 
tion may be looked upon as an example of Chris- 
tian harmony, for it is composed of a union of 
Lutherans, German Reformed and Catholics, all 
of whom live, according to the testimony of their 
pastor, the Rev. Mr. Faber, very peaceably toge- 
ther, although they are educated in diflerent prin- 
ciples of religion. They visit the house of God 
faithfully, and contribute equally for the support 
of divine worship." 

A strong elibrt was made at this time by Rev. 
ISTussmann to place the Lutheran Church in North 
Carolina once more in connection with the parent 
Church in Germany, and this time he accomplished 
his purpose. His object was threefold: his con- 
gregation, St. John's, had money on deposit in 
Europe, which had been collected for its benelit 
previous to the breaking out of the Revolutionarj^ 
War, and the amount, £90 sterling, was certainly 
worth the attempt to secure for the benelit of 
that congregation ; besides, devotional books and 
German school-books were greatly needed every- 
wdiere, and, in order to obtain a supply of them, 
application was made to the Mission Society at 
Helmstaedt, Duchy of Brunswick, to send books 
in exchange for the money that was coming to 


thrtt church, which could then be gokl among the 
Germans in Korth Carohna, and more than the 
same amount of money realized from their sale. 
But the greatest necessity of all was a supply of 
German Lutheran miiiisters; accordingly, as is 
stated in Rev. C. A. G. Storch's journal, a call for 
several Lutheran ministers to labor in North Caro- 
lina was sent by Rev. Kussmann to Rev. Dr. Velt- 
husen, in Helmstaedt, Germany, and by this 
means Rev. N. endeavored to preserve tlie Lu- 
theran Church in this State from becoming entirely 
extinct, for in all human probability this would 
have been eventually its fate, if help, in the supply 
of ministers, had been delayed several years longer, 
Avhen Revs. Nussmanu and Arndt were called to 
their long rest. 

For the purpose of takiiig these matters into 
cotisideration, particularly those bearing upon the 
■welfare of St. John's Church, a meeting of the 
church-council was called on the 80th of Septem- 
ber, 1787, which convened at the pastor's house, 
and the following business was transacted: 

As before stated, many charitable persons in 
Europe had safely deposited a considerable amount 
of money in London, some time before the Revo- 
lution, for the benefit of "the congregation at 
Dutch Buffalo Creek, Mecklenburg County," 
which had been appropriated in part for the wel- 
fare of that church, and of which £90, sterling, 
were still remaining on deposit in that city, and 
Avhich, it was feared, this congregation had for- 


feited, on account of the action of its members in 
the Revolution; it was, therefore, 

'■''Resolved, That if those benefactors wouhl still 
have the kindness to permit this amount to be ap- 
propriated to the welfare of this congregation, as 
was at first intended, that the money should alwa3's 
be considered as a fund belonging solely to the 

" Resolved, That from the interest of this fund 
the yearly salary of the pastor shall be supple- 

" Resolved, That no part of the principal shall 
be touched without the consent of the donors." 

This fund had accumulated in 1843 to fifteen 
hundred dollars, and was then all consumed, con- 
trary to this resolution, in erecting the present 
church edifice, in which the members of St. John's 
Church now worship. 

^'■Resolved, That this amount of funds shall not 
be sent in money, but, as the congregation is de- 
sirous of obtaining books, especially those pub- 
lished by those five learned philanthropists in 
Helmstaedt, Revs. Abbots Velthusen and Henke, 
and the Professors Crell, Kliigel and Bruns, for 
the benefit of the Ciiristian religion in America; 
it is ordered that a part be printed by St. Michael's 
Day, and the other part by next Easter Day, and 
it is requested that the first four numbers be pur- 
chased, and strongly but not expensively bound, 
and then be sent over to us. 

"■Resolved, That the whole Society, or a part of 
the members by order of the Society, be permitted 


to' appropriate the whole or a part of this money 
in the purchase of those expected books, wliich 
are to be sent to us. 

'^ Eesolred, That these resolutions be inscribed 
in the church-book. 

"■ Besolved, That the chest, in which these books 
are to be sent, shall be directed M. C. D. B. C," 
supposed to signify Mecklenburg County, Dutch 
Butialo Creek. 

This abstract of the proceedings of St. John's 
church council, held at the titne and place above- 
mentioned, is taken from the old church-book, 
still extant and written in the German language. 

The efibrts of Rev. Nussmann and his congre- 
gation were crowned with success; the money was 
secured, the needed books were sent, and in com- 
pliance with the request of Rev. Nussmann, a sec- 
ond edition of one of those books, named at first 
"The Ilelmstaedt Catechism," was published, and 
received the title "North Carolina Catechism." A 
copy of its title-page is inserted here in its original 
language, for the benefit of all those who under- 
stand the German: 

"lN"ordcarolinischer Katechismus, oder Christ- 
licher Religionsunterricht nach Einleitung der 
heiligen Schiift, entworfen von Johann Caspar 
Velthusen, Doctor und ordentlichem Lehrer der 
Theologie, erstem Prediger in Helmstaedt, und 
General Superintend; audi Abte des Klosters 

It is a book containing 254 pages, published in 
1788, in the city of Leipzig, by Siegfried Lebrecht 


Crusius, and also incloses Luther's smaller cate- 
chism in its pages. It informs us of the degree 
of interest Avhich the Church in the Fatherland 
took in our ecclesiastical affairs in this section of 
our country. Its chief importance at this time is 
its historical value, giving us an insight in the 
manner in which the practical affairs of our 
churches in the Carolinas were conducted at the 
time of its publication. This is furnished us in 
its preface, in which Dr. Yelthusen reports some 
interesting facts concerning the Lutheran Church 
in North Carolina and Charleston, informing us 
of the departure of Rev. C. A. G. Storch (Stork) 
from Ilelmstaedt to his future field of labor in 
North Carolina. 

The preface to this "North Carolina Catechism " 
reads as follows : " This second edition corresponds 
verbatim with the first, which I then denominated 
the Ilelmstaedt Catechism, because it is likewise 
necessary for the use of the Catechetical Institute 
of this place. 

"In the meantime two very strong congrega- 
tions in North Carolina have most feelingly de- 
clared themselves willing to accept with gladness 
the preachers which we expect to send out to them. 
Rev. Mr. Storch is already upon the sea on his way 

" We have also the assurance from other por- 
tions of America, that the choice of our books of 
instruction are suitable to their wants. Besides, 
various of these books have also been introduced 
in Charleston, by the approval and support of the 


congregation, for the instruction of tlieir youth." 
(Here follows the description of the condition of 
the Lutheran Church in Charleston, already quoted 
on another page.) "I have, therefore, given the 
above title to this Catechism from motives of love 
and regard to my friend, Rev. Nussmaun, as such 
has been his desire from the beginning. May 
God bless the use of this book, my dear brethren, 
for your and your children's everlasting salvation. 
"Helmstaedt, May 1st, 1788." 

From one of the Helmstaedt Reports we are 
informed how these books and letters intended 
for Rev. Nussmann were sent to him. Dr. Yelt- 
husen says: "We had formerly sent everything 
which was intended to reach Rev. Mr. !N'ussmann, 
as we were requested, to the address of Rev. Mr. 
Daser, but who has now left Charleston, and has 
moved to Orangeburg District, where he must 
await such opportunities as the country market- 
wagons aflbrd, before Rev. Nussmann could re- 
ceive our letters, sent over through the kindness 
of friends in London, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, 
Hamburg, Altona and Bremen." 

Rev. Mr. Daser also mentions a fact in his letter, 
which is worthy of notice, and assists us in obtain- 
ing an insight into the condition of the Lutheran 
Church in the interior of Soutft Carolina at that 

Dr. Velthusen states : " Rev. Mr. Daser men- 
tions two congregations in South Carolina that 
are in search of a pastor, but the assurances were 
not sufficiently distinct and satisfactory to propose 


this call to one, whose welfare at the present time 
is even dearer to us than onr own, or even to 
permit any one to make a journey upon such an 
uncertainty; for we have determined upon the 
principle, never to send any one as a preacher to 
America, except under such circumstances which 
would induce each one of us cheerfully to make 
this journey ourselves, if our individual circum- 
stances would permit, in dependence upon God 
and upon the good cause; for we despise, with all 
our hearts, every uncalled-for emigration from the 
Fatherland, and all wandering ahout in the world 
as adventurers." 

These two vacant churches in South Carolina 
must have heen the one in Barnwell District, and 
Salem Church at Sandy Run, Lexington District, 
so supposed from the fact that all the other charges 
in that State appear to have been supplied with 
pastors that same year, when the Corpus Evan- 
gelicum was organized; and also, that Rev. Daser, 
residing in Orangeburg District at the time he 
wrote, was nearest to these two congregations, and 
was doubtless specially interested in their welfare. 

Section 4- The Corpus Evangelicum, or Unio Eccle- 
siastica in South Carolina, and the Ordination 
of Rev. J. G^ Bamberg. 

We have now arrived at that period in the his- 
tory of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas, 
when the first attempt was made, in connection 
with the German Reformed ministers, to organize 


some kind of ecclesiastical body, that should have 
the supervision of all the German churches in the 
interior of the State of South Carolina. 

This body was organized in Zion's Church, Lex- 
ington District (County), November 13th, 1787, 
and consisted of Lutheran and German Reformed 
ministers, together with lay deputies from the 
churches belonging to both denominations. It 
had the double name of Corpus Evangelicura and 
Unio Ecclesiastica, doubtless so given with the 
view that neither denomination could have occa- 
sion to object to the title and to its undenomina- 
tional character. Its principal object was to make 
special arrangement for the proper incorporation 
of all the German churches by legislative enact- 
ment, which were located in the interior of the 
State; the Lutheran church in the city of Charles- 
ton having already secured its charter of incorpo- 
ration. The ordination of a candidate to the office 
of the ministry indicated that the performance of 
this duty seemed to be also one of its objects; and 
the general oversight and welfare of all the churches 
in its connection, as was manifested by the pres- 
ence of lay delegates, claimed a large share of the 
attention of that body. 

Tiie Lutheran congregation in Charleston never 
connected itself with that body; neither did the 
two Lutheran ministers. Revs. Faber and Martin, 
who resided there; but for what reason is not 

The Corpus Evangelicum was short-lived, as 
might have been expected, and as all such mixed 


ecclesiastical bodies must necessarily be. A iiinon 
of denominations cannot be otherwise than false, 
where the united parties are not agreed either in 
doctrine or practice, for each party feels that it is 
not laboring specially for the upbuilding of its 
own denomination, and thus zeal and energy are 
paralyzed, and the heart grows weak. Such a 
union becomes the pareijt of indifforentism. 

It is a Utopian dream ever to expect a union 
of all orthodox Christian denominations in this 
world, and every attempt to effect a union of this 
kind must finally become inoperative. Royal 
edicts, as in Prussia, may for a long time keep 
two or more denominations in an organized eccle- 
siastical connection, and galvanize such a union 
into a certain kind of life; but no sooner are such 
edicts revoked, than the former state of things is 
restored, with, perhaps, the forming of a third 
denomination where once but two existed, thus 
making the division still greater. 

It is admitted that this is taking but a philo- 
sophical view of the case. The question, Is it 
right in the sight of God? is quite another matter, 
which need not now be discussed, as we have at 
present to deal only with historical facts. It is 
well known that such an ecclesiastical union was 
formed in South Carolina — an account of which 
may be found in Rev. Dr. Ilazelius' History of 
the American Lutheran Church, pp. 118-121, 
which, however, is not here inserted, because the 
constitution and report of the proceedings of that 
body are preferred, as translated by Dr. Ilazelius, 


and inscribed in the church book of St. Peter's 
congregation, near Lexington Court House, South 
CaroUna, in vvliicli church-book the orginal Ger- 
man copy was found. 

Constitution of the Corpus Evangelicum. 

Whereas our legislature, in virtue of a petition, 
has incorporated the major part of our Evangeli- 
cal Zion in this free State, consisting of fifteen 
congregations, as a lawful society, with full power 
to constitute and make such by-laws, orders, and 
regulations as they may deem proper for the wel- 
fare of such a society, and to administer a salutary 
church discipline; therefore, the undersigned met 
on the 12th day of August, 1788, in the Lutheran 
Salem's Church, Sandy Run, and resolved that 
the following articles shall be signed and sealed 
by us, and be kept inviolably by every member 
of the fifteen evangelical churches, as a general 
Church discipline, and that every person, who is 
desirous of becoming a member of this Church, 
shall sign and observe these regulations, as fol- 

Article L All the Christian congregations, in- 
corporated as aforesaid, shall form one corpus 
evangelicorum under the title: Unio Ecclesiastica 
of the German Protestant Churches in the State 
of South Carolina. Each and every congregation 
is depending on this corpus, by which all things 
concernino; Churcii and relio;ion shall be managed 


and directed, and the free course of the gospel be 
promoted within its bounds. 

Article II. Wliereas it would be highly detri- 
mental, if members of the Lutheran and Reformed 
Confessions, who in this State live near each 
other, and attend the same churches, should be 
separated, therefore we have agreed to this eccle- 
siastical union, by which, however, it is not to be 
understood that any member of either confession 
should forsake his confession, but that both Lu- 
theran and Reformed, who are members of one 
or the other incorporated churches, and who have 
hitherto united in the attendance on worship, shall 
continue to enjoy the same rights and privileges, 
without the least i-eproaehes in consequence of 
their respective confessions. 

Article III. Each of the united evangelical 
congregations agrees herewith, in accordance to 
the design expressed in their petition to the legis- 
lature, to establish and preserve among them a 
Directory of their churches as long as a majority 
of the fifteen churches agree to the same, which 
Directory shall consist of the ministers of said con- 
gregations and two delegates, suitable lay-members 
of each of these churches. Under the general 
superintendence of this Directory all afiairs re- 
lating to churches shall be judged and regulated; 
as for instance, the reception and dismission of 
preachers, their election, examination, ordination, 
and induction, the establishment and regulation 
of churches and schools, where there are none at 
present, the improvement of such as are in exist- 


ence, the manner of Divine service, so that uni- 
formity may exist in this matter, the collections in 
churches, and the proposition in what manner a 
fund may be collected gradually for several neces- 
sary expenses, and, in general, whatever may be 
of importance for the furtherance and welfare of 
the whole body, as well as of each individual 

Article IY. The officers of this Ecclesiastical 
Directory consist of a president, chosen from the 
ministers, a church council, selected from the 
deputies of the respective congregations, a secre- 
tary, and a warden; which officers are to be 
chosen yearly, on the second Wednesday of Jan- 
uary, by the plurality of the votes of the wdiole 
Directory; and the place of meeting may be 
changed, provided it is a convenient and central 

Article V. Whenever a member of these in- 
corporated churches should be cited before this 
Directory, such member promises to appear before 
the same, unless prevented by some extraordinary 
hindrance; and any member chosen to till an 
office in the Director}- engages to accept the office 
and to perform its duties, unless very special cir- 
cumstances should prevent him from so doing. 

Article VI, Every congregation is to reply in 
writing to the Director}-, and to give an account 
of the state of their church. In all cases of im- 
portance seek advice from the Director}-; but 
each incorporate church elects yearly on Easter. 
Monday the necessary church officers, viz. : two 


elders, foor wardens, a secretar}^ and a cliurcli 
treasurer. The officers of the last year are to 
give an account of the state of the church prop- 
erty to the newly-elected officers, and deliver to 
them all and every part thereof. And it is here- 
with agreed that all the church officers shall take 
an oath before a magistrate, that they will faith- 
fully and honestly administer the property of the 

Article VII. The Directory is to keep a book 
of record of all its regulations and ordinances. 
But each congregation shall keep its own minutes 
and church register through the medium of their 
ministers and secretaries, and it shall be the duty 
of the latter to register all the regulations concern- 
ing the temporalities of the church made by the 
vestry and ministry concerning the same. The 
books, which are to be kept by the minister, shall 
be mentioned below. 

Article VIII. Wherever the major part of the 
members of a congregation should belong to the 
Reformed Church, such a liturgy, formula, and 
catechism are to be used as the Reformed Church 
in the Palatinate or Switzerland make use of; but 
where the divine service has hitherto been per- 
formed according to the ceremonies of the Lu- 
theran Church, the Wiirtemberg or Halle formula 
shall be adopted. The Marburg Ilymnbook, in 
its second edition, remains in use in our churches 
of both confessions. 

. Article IX. Every congregation has the un- 
doubted right to elect, call, and to approve of its 


own minister; but whenever a parish is vacant, it 
shall be the duty of its officers to apply to the Direc- 
tory in this case, as in all cases of importance, to 
propose a suitable candidate, and being approved 
by the congregation, and they promise to give him 
a support, it shall be the duty of the Directory to 
de})utize two ordained ministers to install the new 
preacher in his parish. 

Article X. Every congregation promises here- 
with, and obligates itself, to make up a salary by 
subscription, according to its ability, and regularly 
to pay the same; likewise to treat its minister 
with respect,, and not to dismiss him from its ser- 
vice wnthout a proper cause. ISTevertheless, the 
minister shall have the right and privilege to 
accept a call from any other congregation, if 
Providence should so direct. Each congregation, 
likewise, fixes the contingent fees of the minister 
according to their respective abilities. 

Article XL The preacher, in any of these in- 
corporated congregations, promises on his part, 
and binds himself before God and the Church, to 
administer his holy office, to adorn it by an unim- 
peachable walk and conversation. In the discharge 
of the duties of his holy office, whether public or 
private, he shall ap})ear in his ministerial dress, 
which is to be provided by the congregation. He 
shall preach every Lord's day an evangelical and 
edifying sermon, and afterwards catechize the 
youth, except when baptism, communion, or a 
marriage is to be celebrated, or in case that he 
has to visit the sick. He shall yearly keep a fast 


and praver day in his congregation, preach a har- 
vest sermon, and celebrate in Ijis church the high 
festivals of Easter Sunday and Monday, Pentecost 
Sunday and Monday, Ascension Day and Christ- 
mas Day, and other festivals of the Christian 
Church, such as Good Friday, Kew Year, &c. 
He likewise promises to continue his theological 
studies, and not to depart from the principles of 
our holy religion, and to warn his hearers against 
the sects which divide the Church, and to endeavor 
to prevent the growing evil. He shall also ad- 
monish his household and children to walk in the 
fear of God, and in every respect is he bound as a 
faithful steward of God to act conscientiously in 
his public and private vocation. Unless it is abso- 
lutely necessary, he shall not absent himself too 
far from his congregation, and shall submit to 
every regulation which either has been made or 
may be made by the Directory. 

He shall, at least once every year, make a state- 
ment to tiie Directory of his parochial duties, 
according to a formula which he is to receive. 
He shall frequently visit the schools, and seriously 
admonish the parents to educate their children in 
the nurture and admonition of the Lord. He 
shall be diligent in exposing, and warning against, 
the vices and immoralities which may creep or 
prevail in congregations. In regard to marriages, 
and everything connected with the same, he is to 
act with circumspection, and he shall endeavor to 
l^reserve good morals, peace, and harmony, both 
in the Church and families. 


Every quarter lie shall call a meeting of the 
church officers, to counsel with them concerning 
the temporal and spiritual state of the congrega- 
tion, examine the account of the church treasurer, 
and keep an exact account of these proceedings in 
his own book, as the secretary has to preserve a 
similar account in his. If hitherto no register of 
baptisms, communicants, confirmations, marriages, 
and deaths has been kept in a congregation, the 
minister is to make diligent search in his congre- 
gation, whether any records of former times may 
be discovered, and if not, he shall henceforth keep 
such a record, a model of which shall be sent to 
them by the president. Every minister, w^io is 
cited to appear before the Directory to answer to 
any accusation which may be brought against him, 
is bound to appear before the same, and to submit 
to the decision thereof. 

Article XII. A copy of this act and church 
discipline shall be made and deposited in each of 
our united and incorporated congregations; this 
copy shall be subscribed and sealed by each mem- 
ber, and it shall frequently be read to the congre- 
gation. Whosoever desires to become a member 
of the church or Directory has to subscribe and 
seal this discipline before he can be admitted to a 
vote in any election held by the church. 

Article XIII. We herewith agree to keep a 
box in every church, into which every attendant 
on divine worship may cast his contribution, ac- 
cording to his ability and good will. The amount 
of these contributions shall yearly be declared 


before tlie Directory. This money is to be applied 
for the purchase of baptismal and communion ves- 
sels; ministerial gowns, however, are to be pro- 
vided by private collections in the congregation. 

Article XIV. We will make application by 
letter to our brethren in the faith in Europe to 
consider our weak state, and especially to supply 
us with ministers and schoolmasters. 

Article XV. As far as it is possible we will 
aid the poor in our congregations. 

Article XVI. We shall not interfere in cases 
which, according to law, ought to come before our 
civil magistrates, and in all respects submit to the 
laws of our countrj-. 

Article XVII. If any person in the congrega- 
tion should have a complaint against his minister, 
he is to make it known to the church council and 
wardens, and if these officers are unable to bring 
the difficult}^ to an amicable settlement, they are 
bound forthwith to acquaint the president with 
the circumstances by a written communication, 
who is then to take the matter in hand. 

Article XVIII. All the fVimilies of our united 
evangelical congregations bind ourselves solemnly 
to attend regularly divine service agreeable to our 
duty; to labor earnestly for the propagation of our 
holy religion; frequently to attend the means of 
grace; to avoid sectarianism as much as possible; 
and to walk carefully according to the prescription 
of pure doctrine. 

Article XIX. Our united zealous endeavor 
shall be directed to promote the welfare of our 


Church, the extension of the religion of Jesus, as 
well as of our Zion; and with the adoption of this 
discipline we make a beginning of this endeavor. 
May God furtlier grant his richest blessing. 

Article XX. Should it hereafter be considered 
necessary, after due reflection, to change, abro- 
gate, or disannul any of these Articles of Disci- 
pline, or add anything to the same by the Church 
assembled in Directory, such resolution shall be 
added as a lawful by-law to these regulations, and 
which member soever shall wilfully resist these 
rules, and will in nowise agree to the same, can- 
not tind fault with the Church to which lie has 
hitherto belonged, nor with the Directory, if he 
shall be deprived of the benetits and claims to 

Acted and unanimously resolved and confirmed 
by the Directory, August 8th, 1788; which we, 
who have been present at this Church meeting, 
confirm with our seals and subscription of our 


Fkiederich Daser, a.m., President ]yro teyn. [l.s.] 
Christian Theus. [l.s.] 

J. G. Bamberg. [l.s.] 

Friederich August Wallberg. [l.s.] 
Carl Friederich Froelich. [l.s.] 




Philip Berghoch. 


JoHANK George Koeller. 


Peter Michler, 


Johannes Gartmann. 


George Gortmann. 


Jacob Buchmann. 


Leonhard B. Buch. 


Johannes Schwaiqart. 


John Jacob Stiefel. 


Johann Philip Zauerwein. 


Matthias Sen. 


Christopher Schlagel. 


Heinrich Koch. 


Johann Balthaser Mark. 


Proceedings of the Corpus Evangelicum in 
South Carolina. 

On the 13tli of November, 1787, tlie undersigned 
ministers assembled themselves in Zion's Church, 
on Twelve-mile Creek, after due notice had been 
given, and united themselves from that day into 
a ministerial society. The constitution proposed 
by Rev. Mr. Wallberg was laid before the meet- 
ing and adopted, and Frederick Daser was chosen 
Senior of the ministry, and appointed the second 
Sunday of January, 1788, as the day on which 
they would again meet at the same place, to take 
into consideration the various petitions signed by 
ditferent German Protestant congregations, and 
further to regulate the affairs of their societj'. In 
coniirmation whereof the ministers signed their 


Friederich Daser, Christiati Theus, Joliu George 
Bamberg, M. Carl Binnicher, Friederich August 
Wallberg, Friederich Joseph Wallern, Carl Fried- 
erich Froelich. 

Actum, January 8th, 1788. — The undersigned 
ministers assembled as members of the Minis- 
terium in Zion's Church, on Twelve-mile Creek. 
Fred. Aug. Wallberg was unanimously elected 
Secretary, and all the Evangelical Lutheran min- 
isters were sworn on the Symbolical Books. The 
subscription of the petition for incorporation of 
the difterent congregations was laid before the 
Ministerium. Bethel Church and the new congre- 
gation of St. Martin's wished to have more time 
for consideration of the subject. 

Resolved, That the President should inform the 
members by a circular of the time of our next 

Signed by Revs. Daser, Wallberg, Bamberg, 
Froelich, and Theus. 

Actum, January 9th, 1788. — Rev. Messrs. Wall- 
berg and Bambei'g moved that the subscriptions 
of Bethel Church and of the new St. Martin's 
Church should be added to the subscriptions of 
the other churches, and laid before the General 
Assembly of this State, which motion was approved 
and accepted by Rev. Senior Daser. 

As it had been mentioned the preceding day 
that Mr. Bamberg had for some time performed 
ecclesiastical duties, and had received a call as 
minister from several congregations, and as it was 


known to the Ministerium that he had studied 
theology but had never been ordained, and as he 
had petitioned for an examination and ordination, 
it was 

Resohed, That the Rev. President and Secretary 
examine Mr. Bamberg this day; and he, the said 
Bamberg, being approved of in said examination, 
was this day ordained in Zion's Church, in the 
presence of a numerous audience and his church 

Fredh. Aug. "Wallberg, 


Adum^ Sandy Hun, August 12th, 1788. — Revs. 
Messrs. Senior Daser, Theus, Bamberg, and Wall- 
berg assembled in Salem Church at Sandy Run, 
with the deputies of the respective congregations. 
It was 

Resolved, That Bethlehem Church should hence- 
forth be known under the name of " The German 
Reformed Church at Fust's Ford." 

The act of incorporation passed by the General 
Assembly of this State was read; and the Church 
regulations or discipline proposed by President 
Baser was likewise read and adopted in its nine- 
teen articles, signed and sealed. 

Resolved, To hold the next session in Zion's 
Church, January 14th, 1789. 

Actum., January 19th, 1789. — Revs. President 
Baser, Theus, Bamberg, .Wallern, and Secretary 
"Wallberg met in Zion's Church. 

After prayer and sermon, the conference was 


opened. The Cbiirdi regulations, as adopted, 
signed, and sealed, were read once more without 

Next session is to be held in Salem Church, 
Sandy Run, on the second Wednesday in the 
month of August. Pastor Wallern was appointed 
to preach on said occasion. 

Eev. Senior Daser was again unanimously 
chosen President, and "VYallberg, Secretary. 
George Hook was appointed President of the lay 
members of the Directory. 

Notice of the Translator. — The records of the suc- 
ceeding sessions of the Directory are partly torn, 
and partly so badly written that it is impossible 
to arrange them in any kind of order. 

The Directory seems to have met as late as the 
year 1794; at least, so far the records go which I 
have seen. 

Signed, Ernest L. Hazelius, 

Principal of the Theological Seminary, Lexington, S. C. 

The seven German ministers of the Gospel who 
formed this Corpus Evangelicum were located as 

Rev. Frederick Daser, A.3J., at St. Matthew's 
Church, Orangeburg District, South Carolina. 
He was a Lutheran minister. 

Hev. Christian Theiis, on the west side of the 
Congaree River, eight miles below Columbia, 
South Carolina. He was a German Reformed 

Mev. John George Bamberg labored until 1798 in 


Lexington District, South Carolina, and was pas- 
tor ofZion's Churcli, as the records of that church 
indicate, when he resigned and located himself in 
Barnwell District, South Carolina, where he re- 
mained to the close of his life. He was a Lutheran 
minister, and died during the year 1800. 

Rev. Frederick August Wallberg labored among 
the churches in Lexington District before Bam- 
berg's time of service, probably about the time 
the Corpus Evangelicum was organized. He was 
a Lutheran minister, and is supposed to have lived 
in the Fork of the Saluda and Broad Kivers to the 
close of his life. 

Rev. Carl Friederich Froelich, according to J. C. 
Hope's statement, was a German Reformed min- 
ister, but where he lived and labored is not known. 

Rev. Frederick Joseph Wallern was the pastor of 
the churches in JS'ewberry District, South Caro- 
lina. He was a Lutheran minister, and died about 
the year 1816. 

Rev. 31. Carl Biiinic her, according to J. C. Hope's 
statement, was a Lutheran minister, but where he 
labored is not positively known. It is presumed, 
however, that he was the pastor of the Hard Labor 
Creek congregation, Abbeville District, South 
Carolina, and probably also served the church on 
Slippery Creek, Ninety-six District. 

From the constitution and proceedings of this 
Corpus Evangelicum we learn many interesting 
facts, namely : 

1. That the Lutheran ministers in South Caro- 
lina at that time held the Symbolical Books of the 


Lutheran Church in very higli esteem, the records 
sa}^ : "All the Evangelical Lutheran ministers 
Avere sworn upon the Symbolical Books;" that is, 
they were sworn to teach and preach its doctrines. 

2. They were likewise churchly in conducting 
public vvorsliip, &c., as is manifested by their ob- 
servance of all the festivals of theLutheran Church, 
cateclietical instruction, confirnnition, and opposi- 
tion to the inroads made upon the Church by the 
surrounding sects. 

S. They still adhered to the ancient custom of 
wearing the gow^n, both in "public and private," 
in the ^scharge of all the duties of the ministerial 

4. They were very strict in the enforcement of 
discipline, both among the ministers and lay mem- 
bers; and made provision for the support of the 
poor in their midst. 

5. Parochial schools likewise claimed the atten- 
tion of this body; and the keeping of church rec- 
ords was made the duty both of the pastor and sec- 
retary of each congregation. 

Section 5. The act of incorporation of the fifteen Ger- 
man churches in the interior of South Carolina. 

No. 1414. An Act for Ixcorporating divers Eeligious 
Societies therein named. 

^Vhereas, by the constitution of this State, passed 
the nineteenth day of March, one thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-eight, it is declared that all 
denominations of Christian Protestants in this 


State shall enjoy equal religious and civil privi- 
leges; and that whenever iifteeu or more male 
persons, not under twenty- one years of age, pro- 
fessing the Christian Protestant religion, agree to 
unite themselves in a society for the purpose of 
religious worship, they shall (on complying with 
the terms thereinafter mentioned), be constituted 
a cliurch, and be esteemed and regarded in law, 
as of the established religion of this State, and on 
petition to the legislature shall be entitled to be 
incorporated and to equal privileges; and that 
evei-y society of Christians so formed shall give 
themselves a name or denomination by which they 
shall be called or known in law. 

And whereas, the name of "Hopewell," in the 
Long Cane settlement, in the county of Abbeville 
and State aforesaid; and the Presbyterian congre- 
gation or society of Christian Protestants of 
"Indian Town," in Georgetown District; and 
also the several congregations and societies of 
Christian Protestants, styling themselves by the 
general appellation of "The Ecclesiastical Union 
of the several German Protestant congregations in 
the back part of the State of South Carolina ;" and 
by the particular names of: 

«' The Frederician Church, on Cattel's Creek;" 
"The German Calvinistic Church of St. John, on the Four- 
"The German Lutheran Church of St. Matthew, in Amelia 

Township ;" 
" The German Lutheran Church of Salem, on Sandy Eun ;" 
"Tlie German Lutheran Church of Mt. Zion, on Twelve-milo 
Creek ;" 


"The German Lutlieran Church of Bethel, on High Hill 

" The German Lutheran Church of St. Peter, on Eighteen- 
mile Creek ;'* 
"The German Lutheran Church of St. Martin ;" 
"The German Lutheran Church of Bethlehem, on Forest's 

(Fust's) Ford;" 
" The German Protestant Church of Bethan}', on Green Creek ;" 
"The German Protestant Church of Appii Forum, Cedar 

" The German Protestant Church dedicated to Queen Charlotte, 

on Slippery Creek ;" 
"The German Lutheran Church of St. George, on Hard Labor 

Creek ;" 
"The German Lutheran Church of St. Jacob, on Wateree 

Creek ;" 
"The German Protestant Church of St. George, on Indian 

Field Swamp ;" 

have petitioned the legislature of tliis State, pray- 
ing to be incorporated, and setting forth that they 
have severally coinplied with the terras required 
by the constitution as preparatory thereunto, and 
the allegations in the said petitions appearing to 
be true. 

I. Be it therefore enacted, by the honorable, the 
Senate and the House of Representatives, now met 
and sitting in General Assembly, and by the au- 
thority of the same. That the several and respec- 
tive societies hereinbefore mentioned, and the sev- 
eral persons who now are, or shall hereafter 
become members of the said societies, respectively, 
and their successors, officers, and members of each 
of the said societies, shall be, and they are hereby 
declared, respectively, to be a body corporate, in 
law, in deed, and in name, by the respective names 


and styles of: (Here follows a repetition of the 
names of all the churches above-mentioned.) And 
by their said respective names shall, severally, 
have perpetual succession of officers and members, 
and a common seal, with power to change, alter, 
break, and make new the same, as often as tliey, 
the said corporations, shall severally judge expe- 
dient; and each and evet-y of the said corporations 
respectively are hereby- vested with all the powers, 
privileges, and advantages which are specified and 
expressed in "the Act for incorporating divers 
religious societies therein named," passed the 
twenty-sixth day of March, one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-four. 

II. A?ui be it further enacted, by the authority 
aforesaid, That this act shall be deemed and taken 
as a public act, and notice shall be taken thereof 
in all courts of justice and elsewhere in this State; 
and the same may be given in evidence on tlie 
trial of any issue or cause, without being specially 

In the Senate, Friday, the twenty-ninth of Feb- 
ruary, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-eight, and in the twelfth year 
of the independence of the United States of 

John Lloyd, 

President of the Senate. 

John Julius Pringle, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

1. The question now arises: Were there any other 
German churches in South Carolina besides these 


fiftooii, incorporated by the above act of the legis- 
hitiire, and the Lutheran Church in Charleston? 

With the single exception of tiie German Re- 
formed St. John's Church on the Congaree liiver, 
of which Kev. Theus was tiie pastor at one time, 
there is no knowledge of any other German Church 
in the State at that time; but why it was not 
incorporated, or what had become of it, is not 
known. It has now long since ceased to exist. 

2. Of these fifteen German Churches nine were 
Lutheran; seven of these Lutheran Churches are 
in existence at the present day, the other two are, 
St. Martin's, of which no record can be found in 
any of the minutes of Lutheran synods; and St. 
George's Church on Hard Labor Creek, Abbeville 
District, which had already ceased to exist in 1811, 
according to the missionary report of Rev. R. J. 

3. The other six churches are: [a.) The Freder- 
ician Church on Cattel's Creek, which was located 
in Orangeburg District. According to Drs. Jamie- 
son's and Shecut's statement in the Appendix of 
Ramsay's History of South Carolina, this church 
was erected in 1778, and named after Andrew 
Frederick, "who was its principal founder;" it is 
called bj' them a Presbyterian Church, but this is 
an error; it was doubtless a German Reformed 
Church. It has long since ceased to exist. 

(6.) The German Calvinistic Church of St. John, 
on tlie Fourhole Creek, was also located in Orange- 
burg District, which has likewise ceased to exist. 
There are four Lutheran Churches now in that 


part of Orangeburg County: St. Matthew's, Mt. 
Lebanon, Pine Grove, and Trinity, which have, 
doubtless, absorbed the principal part of the de- 
scendants of these two German Reformed Churches, 
whilst others have connected themselves with other 

(c.) The German Protestant Church of Bethany 
on Green Creek cannot be located by the writer, 
nor are an}' traces of it to be found at the present 
time; if, as is supposed, it was located in Newberry 
District, its material must have been absorbed by 
the Lutheran Church or other denominations. 

{d.) The German Protestant Church of Appii 
Forum, on Cedar Creek, was located in Richland 
District, near the Fairtield line. Its history has 
already been given. The congregation and its 
house of worship are long since no more, and the 
material has been absorbed in the Methodist 

{e.) The German Protestant Church, dedicated 
to Queen Charlotte, on Slippery Creek, Ninety-six 
District, had its location either in Abbeville or 
Edgefield District, which comprise part of the 
territory of what was then known as Ninety-six 
District. This church has likewise long since 
passed out of existence. 

(/.) The German Protestant Church of St. 
George, on Indian Field Swamp, was located in 
Barnwell District, fifty miles from Charleston, is 
known no more under that name. There are two 
Lutheran Churches in that vicinity at the present 


4. If these fifteen German Churches comi)rise(l 
tlie entire Gernmn element in the interior of South 
Carolina in the year 1788, then, as a matter of 
course, all other Lutheran Churches, uot mentioned 
in this act of incorporation, must have been organ- 
ized at a subsequent period. This fact will enable 
any future writer on the subject to unravel their 
history the more readily. 

Section 6. Arrival of Revs. Bernhardt., Starch and 
Roschen in North Carolina, A.D. 1787 and 1788. 

In the year 1787 Rev. Nussmann's heart was 
gladdened in being permitted to welcome another 
laborer into the mission field of the Lutheran 
Church in North Carolina. This was the Rev. 
Christian Eberhard Bernhardt, a native of Stutt- 
gard, in the kingdom of Wiirtemberg. He was 
ordained in his native country', and came to Amer- 
ica in the year 1786. lie lauded at Savannah, and 
then proceeded to Ebenezer, Georgia, where he 
remained twelve months. In 1787 he went to 
Rowan County, N. C, and labored among the 
churches there one year, doubtless in that part of 
the county east of the Yadkin River, now known 
as Davidson County. In 1788 he took charge of 
the congregations in Stokes and Forsy the Counties, 
which had been organized and frequently visited 
by Rev. Nussmann ; here Rev. Bernhardt was 
married, but the records do not mention the name 
of his Avife. One year later he removed to Guil- 
ford County, where he remained to the close of 


the year 1800, when lie accepted the call to be- 
come the pastor of Zioii's and several other Lu- 
theran churches in Lexington District, S. C. Tiiis 
account has been furnished by his daughter-in- 
law, the widow of the late Rev. David Bernhardt. 

In September, 1788, Rev. JSTussmann, the faith- 
ful pioneer and father of the Lutheran Church in 
IsTorth Carolina, was permitted to grasp the hand 
of another brother in the ministry, who was sent to 
his assistance bj- the Ilelmstaedt Mission Society, 
namelj': the Rev. Carl August Gottlieb Storch, 
whose early history is best described by himself 
in his manuscript journal, an extract of which has 
been translated and published in the Evangelical 
Review, vol. viii, pp. 398-404. However, we will 
let Rev. Storch speak for himself, simply giving 
his remarks an English translation. 

"I, Carl August Gottlieb Storch, was born in 
Helmstaedt, Duchy of Brunswick, June 16th, 
1764; my father's name was George Friederich 
Storch, a native of the city of Danneberg and mer- 
chant in Ilelmstaedt: my mother's name was Von 
Asseburg. In the year 1779 I was confirmed by 
Rev. Abbot* Velthusen, after which I went three 
years to the high school of Helmstaedt, when I 
was declared by the Director, Professor Winde- 
burg, fitted to enter the University, and in the 
year 1782, 1 became a student of the University of 
Helmstaedt. Having devoted myself three years 
to theological sciences, I was recommended in 

* The word "Abbot" is the title of an office. 


1785 by Rev. Abbot Velthiisen to the tutorship of 
a young nobleman, Von Hodenberg, who resided 
with Major Von Scheither in Gisthorn, where I 
remained only one year, because the young noble- 
man, Von Hodenberg, was elected to the position 
of page in Hanover; whereupon I became the 
teacher of Mr. Friese's children, a merchant of 
Fresenhede, near Bremen. Having remained 
there two years, I received the call and order from 
Eev. Abbot Velthusen to go as a pastor to North 
Carolina, whereupon I was examined and ordained 
to the ministry, and journeyed in Maj-, 1788, from 
Germany, and arrived in America about the end 
of June of the same year. God be praised that 
he has thus far wonderfully and paternally led me, 
and safely preserved me in the midst of dangers. 
I selected my first residence in Salisbury, and 
commenced to board with Lewis Beard on the 8th 
of November, 1788." 

On another page of his journal. Rev. Storch 
makes the following record : " April 16th, 1788. 
I left Fresenhede and journeyed to North Caro- 
lina, in North America. The cause of my making 
this distant and dangerous journey was as follows : 
Rev. Adolpli Nussmann, who was sent as a min- 
ister from Germany to North Carolina in the year 
1773, and who is still living, greatly desired Rev. 
Abbot Velthusen to send him several assistant 
ministers, when Rev. Velthusen selected and per- 
suaded me to undertake this journey. Upon the 
ducal consent and command I was examined by 
the five Helmstaedt professors, and ordained as a 


minister for ITortb Carolina by Abbot Yeltbusen. 
All tbe expenses of my journey were paid, and, 
upon request, I received the written assurance 
from my ruler of the land, that, if I should return 
after a few years, I should still receive ray promo- 
tion. Under those circumstances, and in reliance 
upon God, I went to sea on the 4th of May, 1788, 
and arrived safely in America, landing in Balti- 
more on the 27th of June of the same year. The 
whole journey lasted seven weeks and five days. 
In Baltimore I met with a kind and friendly re- 
ception, and after having enjoyed a delightful stay 
of six weeks in that city, I journeyed by water to 
Charleston in six days. In Charleston I remained 
fourteen days, purchased a horse for eleven pounds 
sterling, and rode to Kev. ISTussmann's residence, 
making a circuit of about 300 English miles, and 
arrived there at the beginning of the month of 
September, 1788. Rev. Nussmann serves a con- 
gregation at Buffalo Creek. After having re- 
cruited myself, we made arrangements Avith the 
congregations that desired to have me as their 
pastor. Three congregations elected and called 
me, namely : the one in Salisbury, where I first 
took up my residence; the second, named Organ 
Church, on Second Creek, ten miles from Salis- 
bury; and the third, Pine Church, which, how- 
ever, I had to resign, and now onlj- serve two con- 
gregations, Salisbury and Organ Church, which 
have promised me in writing £80 North Carolina 
currenc}", paper money; the funeral sermons and 
marriages are paid extra, usually with one dollar. 


I commenced mj ministry on the twenty-third 
Sunday after Trinity, and at Salisbury the Sunday 
following. On the 7th of January, 1789, I com- 
menced to preach in the Irish settlement once 
every month, for which I am promised £13 or £14 
IvTorth Carolina currency." 

The high esteem in which Rev. Storch was held 
in his native country can best be seen from the 
account given by Rev. Dr. Velthusen, in one of 
the Helmstaedt Reports, of the ordination and 
subsequent departure of Rev. Storch to North 
Carolina. Dr. Velthusen says: 

" On the 12th day of March, 1788, the candi- 
date, Carl August Gottlieb Storch, was ordained, 
under the highest ducal patronage, to the gospel 
ministry as an assistant preacher for ISTorth Caro- 
lina. The ordination address has been published 
under the title, 'Address and Prayer at the Con- 
secration of Mr. Carl A. G. Storch as an Evan- 
gelical Assistant Preacher for North Carolina, &c. 
One and a half sheets, to be had at the book-store 
of our publications.' 

"He has been sent away with the most gracious 
assurances and best wishes of his Fatherland, that 
should he, in the lapse of several years, have good 
occasion to return to the same, after having faith- 
fully discharged his official duties among our 
brethren in the faith in that country, he may find 
an open situation as teacher in his Fatherland. 

"He was born in Helmstaedt, and was educated 
under our immediate auspices. During the years 
which he spent as tutor, we received repeated as- 


snraiices of his capacity and fidelity as a teacher 
from those who had opportunity to observe him 
daily, and had also heard him preach, where he 
is still held in gracious remembrance. In addi- 
tion to that, at an appointed examination, con- 
ducted in the strictest manner, we have found 
him well prepared and fitted for his ofiice, and 
the public evidences of his capacity for preaching 
and catechizing which he has rendered have given 
cause of universal satisfaction. The family in 
which he last served as tutor were very unwilling 
to part with him ; and after having taken his de- 
parture from us on his way to America, he re- 
turned to this friendly family, in order that he 
might be in the vicinity of Bremen, and await 
the sailing of the vessel which is to take him to 
Baltimore. It will now wholly depend on the 
aflectionate reception which our brethren in the 
faith in America, and the citizens generally, espe- 
cially in North Carolina, will bestow upon him, 
in what manner we shall hereafter aid them in 
their necessary church affairs." 

A few months after the arrival of Rev. Storch 
came the Rev. Arnold Roschen, who was likewise 
sent to North Carolina by the Helmstaedt Mission 
Society. He was a native of the city of Bremen, 
educated by the Rev. Pastor Nicolai, of that city — 
that is, as is supposed, under his auspices; and, 
on the eve of his departure to America, married a 
lady of Bremen, doubtless with the view that he 
might become permanently settled, and be con- 
tented in his new home. 


All these facts are gathered from the Ilelm- 
staedt Reports, in which there is found also a 
published letter, which Rev. Roschen wrote to 
his friend and preceptor. Rev. Nicolal, giving him 
an account of his journej^ to America, kind and 
hospitable reception at Charleston, and safe ar- 
rival in his field of labor in that part of Rowan 
County, now known as Davidson County. Rev. 
Roschen writes as follows: 

" North Carolina, Rowan County, near Abbot's Creek ; in 
the midst of the forests of North America, sixty-six 
miles from the Blue Ridge Mountains, eighteen miles 
from Salem ; from April 29th to June 2 1st, 1789. 

"Our journey was a fortunate one, although it 
lasted twelve weeks from shore to shore. With 
the exception of two heavy showers in the Chan- 
nel, which soon passed over, we did not have a 
single storm upon our long journey by sea; on 
the contrary, the weather was as good as our 
friends wished for us at our departure. True, 
sea-sickness did often and long inconvenience us, 
but not in such a manner, as that we have to com- 
plain greatly concerning it. The want of good 
water and of necessary refreshments was the hard- 
est to bear. After the ISTew World came to our 
view — a joy which cannot be described with words 
— the wind became very unpropitious to us. The 
great number of vessels that were gathered around 
us made the crossing along the coast very danger- 
ous; and here we would have been lost without 
hope, when we thought that we had overcome all 
difficulties, had not Providence miraculously saved 


US. After a few days we arrived safely over the 
bar — a sand-bank which incloses the ship-channel, 
and in which there are but three openings where 
a vessel can enter, but which do not permit an 
entrance without the aid of a pilot. Here a new 
and glorious prospect awaited us. Life and com- 
motion, a coming together and crossing of so 
many kinds of vessels, on all sides the loud and 
resounding song of the sailors, a lovely day, the 
view of Charleston, the islands that lay around 
us, the trees which had not yet shed their foliage, 
the negroes and their apparel, the language — in 
short, everything that we saw here, and particu- 
larly the long-wished-for termination of our jour- 
ney by sea — awakened within us impressions and 
feelings which we had never experienced before. 
On the same evening, November 28th, 1788, we 
were already brought to shore, and entered into 
the house of a German; but we did not remain 
there long. The merchant, Mr. Gabel (a native 
of Bremen, who had also kindly entertained our 
Storch, and had in various ways offered his hand 
to our (mission) institute, says Dr. Velthusen), 
heard that same evening of our arrival, sent a 
friend to us with reproaches, that we had passed 
the house of our countryman, and desired us to 
move into his dwelling immediately, if we wished 
to be regarded as his friends. He oflered us sev- 
eral rooms, received us in a noble manner, and 
spoke to us very obligingly. At the same time 
he commanded his negroes to look upon us as 
their masters, so that we wanted for nothing. 


"I found an upright friend in Rev. Mr. Faber, 
the German minister, who treated me, during the 
ten weeks that we Inid to remain here, in such a 
manner, as any one could liave desired under the 
circumstances. He besought me to conduct Divine 
service with him, and to preach whenever it would 
be ao-reeable to me. In this manner I preached 
here about five times. Upon the whole, I must 
acknowledge that all the Germans endeavored to 
make the place, which is in itself a very charm- 
ing one, as agreeable to us as possible, although 
the obligations became very costly to us; for every- 
thing, even the smallest article, is very dear here, 
so much so that I and my wife could live very 
well in my native city on the amount that has to 
be expended here for extras. 

"At length the wagons, sent by our congrega- 
tions, came for my things, and horses for us to 
ride — for everj^ person rides here — and we two 
began our journey of 300 J^orth Carolina miles 
on horseback, which was at first very fatiguing. 
It w-as very hard for me to leave Charleston; I 
had many opportunities there of becoming profit- 
ably associated, and I found at times very noble 
friends, whose magnanimity astonished me. At 
the first moment of my stay there, I was delighted 
at the banishment of all ceremonies, which among 
us are regarded so sacredly. Besides that, we 
heard such dreadful reports of the people where 
my congregations are situated, which, however, 
God be praised! arose from the fact, that in 


Charleston the citizens are as badly informed as 
in Germany concerning this country. 

"We were accompanied several miles on our 
journey by our friends ; our way then went through 
a great part of South to ISTorth Carolina. This 
overland journey lasted fourteen days, and was 
^very wearisome, as may be readily supposed. 
Sometimes we slept at night at a plantation, where 
we were friendly received and kindly treated; at 
other times we lodged with a new settler, Avhere 
seven or eight people rested in the same room be- 
side us, among whom, at times, were sick and 
dying persons, and our repose became very un- 
pleasant; then again we slept under a tree ; and 
sometimes under a wagon and in the rain ; nev- 
ertheless, we had generally very pleasant weather. 

"We passed through three American towns, 
which, on account of the small number of houses, 
would scarcely be considered by us as villages. 
Among these was Camden, which is yery hand- 
somely built, containing about thirty houses, and 
is distant about 150 miles from Ciiarleston, where 
we lodged for the night with a German from 
Hamburg, named Schiitt, whose brother lives in 
Charleston and is in good circumstances. 

"At length we arrived in Salisbury, where 
Pastor Storch resides, whom I especially esteem 
and love as a friend, and who rendered me very 
important services, where we were as kindly re- 
ceived as we could have expected. Upon the first 
intelligence of our arrival, the deacons of one of 
the nearest of my congregations, together with 


some wealthy planters residing there, came to the 
town to welcome us. The people here know noth- 
ing of compliments, but express their opinions 
in a manner that indicates good thinking facul- 
ties. They informed us that we would not find a 
dwelling-house as yet prepared for us, because, 
upon consultation, it was thought best to wait 
until my arrival, so that I could myself direct the* 
building of the same. And now the whole train 
moved along, increased by Pastor Storch's accom- 
panying us, until we came to the place appointed 
for me, situated on Abbot's Creek, a small stream 
that empties itself about twelve miles distant into 
the Yadkin River. A deacon of my central con- 
gregation took us to his home, where we remained 
several months, until we moved to our own plan- 
tation of two hundred acres of land, Avhich we 
have purchased advantageously, assisted by sev- 
eral upright planters of this place ; we were ad- 
vised to take this step by Pastor ITussmann, who 
came to meet us in Salisbury, in which advice 
Rev. Storch also joined. 

" As soon as we arrived, the deacons out of three 
congregations came and visited us. A fourth con- 
gregation, which is now almost the largest, also 
placed itself under my ministry. So now I am 
the pastor of four churches. The people from all 
parts of the country brought us abundantly flour, 
corn, haras, sausages, dried fruit, chickens, tur- 
keys, geese, &c., so much so, that there has been 
scarcely any necessity to spend one farthing for 
our housekeeping up to this time." 


According to these statements, it may be seen 
that the Lord of the vineyard had now five laborers 
in the Lutheran Church in North Carolina, namely, 
Eevs. Nussmann, Arndt, Bernhardt, Storch, and 
Roschen, and they were "workmen that needed 
not to be ashamed," for they were all talented 
men, and filled with the spirit of their Master; 
besides, they were men of the most profound 
learning; even Arndt had received an excellent 
education, although he came to this country in 
the capacity of a school teacher, and all had been 
brought up in the most refined society, and might 
liave been an acquisition and an honor to any col- 
lege or university in the land; but because they 
were Germans, and spoke a foreign language, 
little was ever known of them by the general in- 
habitants of the State; however, they were so 
much the better known, and the more highly 
esteemed by the people among whom they lived, 
and for whose spiritual welfare they labored. 

Section 7. The Helmstaedt 3Iission Society — Letters 
from Revs. Nussniann^ Storch, and Roschen, 
'published in the Helmstaedt Reports, indicating 
the condition of the Lutheran Church in North 
Carolina during the years 1788 and 1789. 

The Lutheran Church is at present tolerably 
familiar with the titles of two extensive German 
publications, denominated "The Halle Reports" 
and "The Urlsperger Reports;" however, it is 
not generally known that a similar work, although 


not so extensive, and therefore, perhaps, more 
readable, entitled "The Helnistaedt Reports," to 
which frequent allusion has been made, had like- 
wise been published for the purpose of imparting 
information to European readers, concerning the 
state of some of our Lutheran mission stations in 

The missionary spirit in the Lutheran Church 
was engendered more than two centuries ago, and 
soon after the close of the Thirty Years' War. 
Various mission societies have been formed in 
Europe, under a variety of appellations, but all 
having the same object in view, that of spreading 
the knowledge and benefits of the Christian reli- 
gion in foreign lands. The difi'erent mission fields 
appear to have been properly apportioned and 
selected by the numerous societies over all Prot- 
estant Europe. 

Among the various fields of labor of our pious 
German foreftithers, America was not forgotten, 
and the Lutheran Church in Europe was foremost 
in the ranks in her efforts to provide for the spir- 
itual welfare of her people on this continent and 
its adjacent islands. ISTot only were faithful and 
self-sacrificing missionaries sent, their salaries 
paid them by charitable donations of Christians in 
the Fatherland, but also churches, school-houses, 
and sometimes orphan asylums were both erected 
and supported by these munificent contributions. 
Books of worship and devotion, as well as of edu- 
cation and instruction, were sent gratuitously in 
great numbers to our forefathers in America. 


In point of time the Swedish Delaware-River 
Mission was the first enterprise of this kind ; its 
object was the planting of the Lutheran Church 
systematically and firmly in America, not men- 
tioning the Danish Lutheran mission in Green- 
land, and the difi'erent missions on some of the 
islands along the Atlantic coast of America. 

]^ext in order was the Ebenezer Mission in 
Georgia, with which we are tolerably familiar, and 
the extensive minute reports of its missionaries, 
which were sent to the parent society in Augsburg, 
and cover about six thousand quarto pages of 
printed matter, were all published by the Rev. 
Dr. Urlsperger, and thus originated " The Urls- 
perger Reports." 

Then the University and Orphan House at Ilalle, 
institutions founded by the celebrated August 
Herrmann Francke, sent missionaries to another 
vacant field farther north, which claimed their 
attention, and the Rev. H. M. Muhlenberg, D.D. 
and others w^ere sent to Pennsylvania, who like- 
wise transmitted the reports of their labors to the 
parent Mission Society, and which were all pub- 
lished under the title of "The Halle" or "The 
Pennsylvania Reports." 

However, between Pennsylvania and Georgia 
there was a large territory still unoccupied, and, 
at a later period, the Professors of the Julius 
Charles University, in the city of Helmstaedt, 
Duchy of Brunswick, became interested in this 
field, midway between the two American missions 
established by Halle and Augsburg, and on this 


wise was North Carolina selected and regarded as 
a hopeful locality for still farther missionary opera- 
tions, and the Rev. John Caspar Velthusen, D.D., 
Professor of Theology in the above-mentioned 
university, with his associates, sent missionaries, 
upon the earnest call of Rev. Nussmann, to labor 
among the Germans in North Carolina. The re- 
ports which these missionaries sent to the parent 
society in Helmstaedt, were also published, and 
were denominated "The Helmstaedt or North 
Carolina Reports," which, until recently, were no 
longer known to exist. 

From an article in one of these published re- 
ports, we are informed that " up to the present 
time (March 13th, 1788), the net proceeds of dona- 
tions and funds advanced upon the publication of 
our (their) seven advertised books of instruction, 
amount already to 1238 rix-dollars, 13 groschen, 
and 8 pfennigs." This was the beginning of a 
treasury for the welfare of the North Carolina 
mission field; in other of the reports, acknowl- 
edgments of additional donations, and the names 
of the donors occur. Dr. Velthusen goes on to 
state : 

"For nearly a year past it appeared that we would 
not be able to carry out our purpose in so short a 
time, namely, the sending of well-qualified preach- 
ers to North Carolina." (Here follows what has 
been stated already in another section.) " Our 
spirits were likewise revived by the statement of 
several other trustworthy friends, who had been 
in Virginia, as well as to the borders of North 


Carolina, and who were unanimous in praising 
the Christian willingness of our evangelical breth- 
ren in the faith in that country to provide liber- 
ally for those preachers sent to them, so that they 
need want for nothing, provided they were in any 
way worthy of their confidence." 

In the following pages of this narrative Dr. Velt- 
husen mentions the names and acts of kindness of 
several friends of the mission enterprise who re- 
sided in 'New York, Baltimore and Virginia; be- 
sides, the delay of the publication of several works 
for the benefit of the mission, occasioned by the 
call and removal of Prof. Kliigel to Halle; the 
names and character of the works intended for 
publication; the delay of the publication of a geo- 
graphical work until the reception of more recent 
information from Charleston ; list of donors to the 
mission cause in which the Professors had em- 
barked, &c. ; the whole of which is dated and 
signed by them as follows: 

"Helmstaedt, at the Ducal Brunswick-Llineburg 
Julius-Charles University, March 13th, 1788. 

"J. C. Velthusen, Professor of Theology, and 

"H. P. C. Hencke, Professor of Theology, and 

"L. Crell, Professor of Medical Science and 
Philosophical Mineralogy and Mining. 

"G. S. Klligel, Professor of Philosophy and 

"P. J. Bruns, Professor of the History of Phil- 
osophy and Literature." 


A Lettei'from Rev. A. Nussmann to Rev. Dr. 

North Carolina, Mecklenburg County, 

Buffalo Creek, November 12th, 1788. 

Honorable Abbot, my best Friend: 

The indications of Providence develop them- 
selves more and more visihly in this religious 
work, SO that God's finger is made manifest here 
in the work for the welfare of his people. In 
Charleston a warm interest is taken in our affairs. 
Rev. Mr. Faber is an active man. Rev. Storch's 
sickness gave me much uneasiness and sorrow, for 
I love him on account of his learning, virtue, spirit 
and friendship, which had already commenced in 
Germany. All persons who see and hear him, 
love and honor him. But even in this respect has 
God helped us, — Rev. Storch is again restored; 
and may God preserve his health in future, so that 
whether I live or die, my expectations concerning 
him may be realized. 

A change has taken place concerning his call to 
the congregation in Guilford County; Providence 
has directed othervpise. Storch felt at that time 
so feeble, that he believed himself to be unable to 
make the long journey on horseback, which was 
necessary to reach his field of labor. Besides, he 
would have then been one hundred miles distant 
from me, and in a wilderness where no messen- 
ger can be obtained. These difficulties were at 
once removed by God. A call was extended to him 
from three vacant congregations, Salisbury, Pine 
Church and Second Creek, with the written as- 


surance of a salary of £110, and hi a few days after- 
wards £14 more from a congregation seven miles 
distant from Salisbury, which he will have to 
serve during the week-day. These congregations, 
through their deacons, promised to pay the freight 
on his things, which will be about two Spanish dol- 
lars for every 100 pounds, but they could not pay 
his traveling expenses from Baltimore to Charles- 
ton. It is a hard matter to take everything out of 
the pocket of a private man, in a country where the 
congregation have as yet nothing of their own. 

A book printing establishment would be of the 
greatest benefit to religion, and which could read- 
ily obtain assistance here, if we only had the type. 
The capital necessary for such an establishment 
could not only be kept up, but also improved, for 
there is no German printing office from Georgia 
to Maryland, and not even a good English one in 
N'orth Carolina. If we only had one, then we 
could suit ourselves to circumstances, and print 
those publications immediately, w^iich are the 
most necessary ; the transportation from Germany 
is so slow, and the want in a new country so 
urgent, that one dare not wait long to meet this 

An organ is also necessary, as it must be our 
chief concern to reinstate church music. In the 
last sixteen years I have had an oversight of several 
hundred square miles, partly by personal visits 
and partly through reliable intelligence, and I have 
found that in proportion to the music, which the 
people were able to conduct, congregations spring 


up, increase, flourish, decay, fall into ruin. An im- 
provement, therefore, must be made; lifty copies 
of an excellent singing-book, judiciouslj^ scattered 
in schools and families, would soon secure its adop- 
tion as a school and family singing-book; after- 
wards it would come into general use through 
the country. 

The 370 rix-dollars should, according to the in- 
tent of the donors, be a permanent investment for 
the benefit of religion, principally in the congre- 
gations from Rocky River to Salisbur3\ This would 
be satisfactory to all, and would re-establish and 
preserve peace and quietude. God, who has so often 
and visibly aided us in these matters, and brought 
forth great results out of small things; who has 
alwaj^s arranged matters difterently to what I had 
imagined, but always better than my expectations, 
will also help here, and through his wisdom direct 
everything in such a manner, so that the four phi- 
lanthropists, your assistants, in connection with 
all those upright persons who have aided the good 
cause, may experience joy in their work. 

I am, &c., 

Your most devoted friend, 

Adolph Kussmann. 

Report of Rev. C. A. G. Storch, dated 3fay £8th, 

This report was sent to the Helmstaedt Mission 
Society, from which Dr. Yelthusen makes the fol- 
lowing extracts. 

"Rev. Storch, as well as Rev. Roschen, are both 



satisliecl in the midst of their congregations. Rev. 
S. mentions, that of Ins three congregations, Organ 
Church, on Second Creek, is the strongest, and 
consists of eighty-seven families. He praises the 
people, who treat him with love and respect, and 
supply him with the necessaries of life." (Here 
the salary, &c., is again stated, much the same as 
in Nussmann's report.) "His congregation is 
building a house for him, and have oiFered him a 
loan for the purpose of purchasing a plantation, 
without which one cannot succeed there. He still 
lives in Salisbury, where an academj^ has been es- 
tablished, in Avhich there are some students, who 
receive instruction in Hebrew from him. In ad- 
dition to that duty, he has also established a small 
German school, so that the j'outh may accustom 
themselves to a purer German language. He ex- 
pects to confirm about fifty children next harvest 
season. He says that Rev. Roschen is likewise 
treated with love and respect; that he has four 
congregations, and receives from them about £100, 
current paper money; that he resides about eigh- 
teen miles from him, on the other side of a broad 
river; has already purchased a plantation, and is 
accustoming himself well to the climate and mode 
of living in that country." 

JRcpGvt of Rev. Arnold Roschen. 

"In my middle congregation I have confirmed 
twenty-four persons; in the congregation situated 
towards the Yadkin River I confirmed twelve, 


and in tlie others I Lave this duty yet before me." 
(Mere Ibllows a lengthy description of the cus- 
tomary funeral ceremonies.) "Marriages are here 
performed in two modes; the one, according to 
the rules of the Church, requires to be announced 
three times; the other is managed as follows: 
The groom gets a certilicate from Salisbury, rides, 
accompanied by his friends, with his bride to the 
minister, or, if there is none in the place, to the 
magistrate, where the marriage takes place. The 
first questions of the minister are. Whether he 
has taken his bride without her parents' knowl- 
edge ? — this occurs frequently — and, Wliether the 
parents have given their consent? If any one has 
stolen his bride, and has a license from Salisbury, 
then the objections of the parents avail nothing. 
Upon the whole, in this free country, a son, w^hen- 
ever he has arrived at his twenty-first year, and a 
daughter, as soon as she is eighteen years old, is 
no longer under the parents' control. Persons 
generally marry very young, because they need 
not be much concerned for the future. He that 
will work, can soon have a plantation ; and poor 
people are not to be met here at all. A person 
can often meet with families that have thirteen to 
fourteen children, nearly all living. I myself am 
acquainted with a planter here, who has had a 
family of twenty-three children, born of one 
mother, and who, with the exception of two, are 
all living and well. 

"My catechumens, whom I have instructed 
three days in every week for seven weeks, con- 


sist partly of married persons, some of tlieni as 
old as thirty years, and young persons from six- 
teen to twenty years of age. Among other things, 
I advise them not to intermarry with persons of 
other nationalities, because such mixed marriages 
are generally unhappy, and sometimes occasion 
murder and homicide, and because the English in 
these regions belong to no religious denomina- 
tion, and do not permit their children to be bap- 
tized, nor send them to school. 

"Rev. Storch and I recently passed by the 
court-house in Salisbury, at the moment when a 
man was standing in the pillory. A German 
called to us to stop awhile, and see how the 
Americans punish rogues and thieves. Upon my 
asking him, 'The criminal is certainly not a Ger- 
man?' I received the literally true reply, 'Never 
has a German stood in the pillory in Salisbury; 
nor has ever a German been hung in this place.' 

"Most persons are well satisfied with their plan- 
tations in this country. I recently visited a member 
of my congregation, and inquired of him how he 
was getting along. To which he replied, 'Were 
we to complain, God would have to punish us. 
We have need of nothing, and possess a large 
surplus above our wants. We are enjoying good 
health, and everything is in good order on our 
plantations; and since we are possessed of such an 
abundance so soon after the war, we must cer- 
tainly become wealthy if God continues to give 
us peace.' 

" So far as my situation as planter is concerned. 


I can say nothing else than tliat I am very fortu- 
nate and happ3', and it would cost nie a great 
struggle on this account, as well as that I am be- 
loved and respected as pastor by ray congregation, 
to exchange my present location with any other. 
I pray God, that he would not separate Storch and 
myself, for he is now also beginning to feel satis- 
fied. Not long ago, when I had service in my 
npper congregation, I was surrounded bj' the 
elders and deacons, who besought me never to 
leave them. A certain Colonel declared, that he 
would never again be connected with the church, 
if I were to move away. I can assure you that I 
will not abandon these congregations so easily as 
persons in Germany doubtless imagine. We min- 
isters are treated with a respect, which is shown 
to no other person. There is no difference in 
rank acknowledged here, and yet no one has ever 
spoken with me, who did not hold his hat in 
his hand. I must say the same of Storch; he is 
treated with such love and respect by his congre- 
gations, as few ministers in Germany are treated. 
"At first Storch, in his hypochondria, looked 
upon all things in a false light; besides, his ar- 
rival in America was unpropitious" (that is, he 
was laid upon a bed of sickness soon after his 
arrival in North Carolina); "now he speaks difi:er- 
ently. Nussmann, who is a good and upright 
man, lives upon his plantation in very moderate 
circumstances. Arndt, formerly a catechet, now 
a preacher, possesses two fine plantations, is 
wealthy, and edifies his people by his life and 


conduct. We all preach in black clothes and 
collar, but mostly without a gown, and oftentimes 
in our overcoat, during bad weather in winter. 

"I endeavor to make the Divine service as im- 
pressive as possible, and suitable to the occasion, 
but as simple as I can. I dare not make my dis- 
course shorter than three-quarters of an hour, be- 
cause there are members, who have to ride eighteen 
miles to church, and in each church there is ser- 
vice only once every four weeks. Baptisms take 
place after the sermon, and in the presence of the 
whole congregation. Whenever the communion 
is administered on Sunday, the preparatory ser- 
vice takes place on Friday or Saturday preceding. 
Nothing is known here of private confession." 

This interesting report of Rev. Roschen is quite 
lengthy, and has been somewhat abridged, because 
it alludes to customs that would require a lengthy 
explanation, before they would be properly under- 
stood by the general reader, and because some 
things are reported of his own personal affairs, 
which would not be interesting to any one at the 
present time. 

Rev. Dr. Yelthusen yet adds, that a letter had 
arrived from Mr. Gabel in Charleston, South Car- 
olina, fourteen days ago, corroborating the above 
church intelligence. Mr. Gabel, who is on a visit 
to Bremen, writes, that he had left Nussmann 
well and hearty in Charleston (doubtless Rev. 
Nussmann was on a visit there at the time); that 
Storch has no inclination to return to Germany, and 


assures ns that Roschen is well satisfied, and that 
he will have good profit in a few years from the 
tract of land which he purchased there. Mr. 
Gabel likewise states, that in his journey through 
Georgia he met with the pastor at Ebenezer, Rev. 
Mr. Bergmann, and found him in a situation in 
which he may be well satisfied. 

Section 8. Further Intelligence from St. John's cind 
Organ Churches ; and a Ministerial Assembly 
in North Carolina called to Ordain the Rev. 
Robert Johnson Miller. 

Extract from the old German (St. John's) 
Church-book. — "January 16th, 1790, the church 
council held a meeting, when the following mem- 
bers were present: Paul Barringer, Peter Quill- 
mann, George Meissenheimer, Daniel Jarrett, 
Matthew Meyer, ISTicholas Reitenhauer, Jacob 
Fegert, Andreas Stanch, Ulrich Diirr, Jacob Bast, 
and the pastor, Adolph IsTussmann. Paul Bar- 
ringer, Sr., was chosen chairman of the council. 
The object of the meeting was to promote a 
greater degree of union and true sincerity in 
matters of religion, both in schools and churches. 

"It was resolved, that the doors of the church 
shall no longer be closed before the commence- 
ment of the Lord's day services; but as soon as 
one-half of the congregation shall have been as- 
sembled, the doors shall then be opened, and at 
ten o'clock the services of the sanctuary shall 
commence; and those persons who shall be guilty 


of making disturbance during worship shall be 
reported to the magistrate. The services shall 
also commence in future without any further call- 
ing in of those persons who remain outside. 

'■^Resolved, That at the celebration of the Lord's 
Supper, alms shall be gathered at the doors. The 
members of the congregation are furthermore re- 
quested to celebrate their marriages in the church, 
at which time of rejoicing they and their benevo- 
lent guests are desired to contribute alms to the 
church, and to lay their mites upon the altar, as 
is customary in many places in our Evangelical 

'•''Resolved, That whenever slanderous reports are 
circulated, which might cause dissensions in the 
church, they shall be made known to our Presi- 
dent, Paul Barringer, who shall investigate the 
matter, and shall decide in such a way, as shall 
best promote the interests of true religion and the 

'■'■Resolved, That persons bringing their children 
to the church to be baptized, must make the fact 
known before service, name the sponsors, the day 
of the child's birth, the names of the parents, so 
that it may be recorded in the church-book." 

Pastor Storch commenced his labors at Organ 
Church, October 26th, 1788; and in Salisbury on 
the Sunday following, November 2d, being the 
23d and 24th Sundays after Trinity. A very con- 
cise constitution was introduced and adopted on the 
following New Year's Day, 1789, whi'^h, however, 
contains nothing of special interest to the general 


reader, except that it indicates how much our fore- 
fathers felt and hibored for the order, discipline 
and consequent welfare of their congregations. 

Organ Church alone promised their pastor an 
annual salary of £40, N'orth Carolina currency, 
and the number of those members, who subscribed 
this amount, and undersigned the new constitu- 
tion, amounted to seventy-eight persons. 

In the year 1791, the present massive and, as 
was then considered, large and commodious stone 
church was erected, having large galleries on each 
side, except where the pulpit stands; and ai\ organ, 
excellent in its day, built by one of the members, 
Mr. Steigerwalt, was placed in the centre of the 
long gallery, and opposite the pulpit. The pulpit, 
as a matter of course, was goblet-shaped, with a 
sounding-board overhead, and has but recently 
been removed when the church was repaired. 
Those time-honored relics are fast passing away 
by the encroachments of our novelty-seeking age. 

The first English Lutheran preacher in North 
Carolina was the Rev. Robert Johnson Miller, 
who was a Scotchman by birth, a native of Bal- 
dovia, Angusshire, near Dundee, born July 11th, 
1758, the third son of George and Margaret Miller. 
His parents designed him to study for the min- 
istry, and for this purpose sent him to the Dundee 
classical school. After he had completed his edu- 
cation there, and before he entered the ministry, 
he migrated to America, and arrived in Charles- 
town, Massachusetts, A.D. 1774. His brother, an 
East and AVest India merchant of that place, had 



invited him from Scotland to reside with him, 
with whom he labored as an assistant in his busi- 
ness for some time. 

It now happened that his adopted country be- 
came involved in the Revohitionarj struggle, when 
he at once declared himself a friend of libert}^, and 
as soon as General Greene passed through Boston 
with his army, young Miller enlisted as a Revo- 
lutionary soldier. He was engaged in the battles 
of Long Island, where he received a flesh wound 
in the face, of Brandy wine, White Plains, and the 
siege of Valley Forge; but God preserved his life 
in all these engagements, as he had a more glori- 
ous work in store for him. With the arm}' he 
traveled to the South, where he remained after 
peace was declared and the army disbanded. 

He now remembered his duty to God, his for- 
mer vows, and his pi-eparation for the ministry, 
and applied for license to preach the Gospel in con- 
nection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, as 
the minutes of the Methodist Conference plainly 
indicate; and thus authorized, he commenced 
preaching in the western counties of North Caro- 
lina, traveling often one hundred miles to meet 
his appointments. 

Although licensed to preach by the Methodist 
Episcopal Conference, yet not having the authority 
to administer the sacraments, his people of White 
Haven Church, in Lincoln County, sent a petition 
to the Lutheran pastors of Cabarrus and Rowan 
Counties, with high recommendations, praying 
that he might be ordained by them, which was 


accordingly done at St. John's Church, Cabarrus 
County, on the 20th of May, 1794. The ordina- 
tion certificate is still extant, although much muti- 
lated, and inasmuch as it contains some interesting 
historical facts, it is here inserted: 


" Whereas, A great number of Christian people 
in Lincoln County have formed themselves into a 
society by the name of White Haven Church, and 
also having formed a vestry: We, the subscribers, 
having been urged by the pressing call from the 
said Church to ordain a minister for the good of 
their children, and for the enjoyment of ye gospel 
ordinances among them, from us, the ministers of 
the Lutheran Church in North Carolina, have sol- 
emnly ordained," (here much of the certificate is 
torn away and lost) "according to ye infallible 
word of God, administer ye sacraments, and to 
have ye care of souls; he always being obliged to 
obey ye Eules, ordinances and customs of ye 
Christian Society, called ye Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America. Given under our hands and 
seals, ]>Torth Carolina, Cabarrus County, May 20th, 

"Signed by Adolphus JSTussmann, Senior, Jo- 
hann Gottfriedt Arendt, Arnold Roschen, Chris- 
topher Bernhardt, and Charles Storch." 

On the reverse side of this certificate the Lu- 
theran ministers gave their reasons why they had 
ordained a man who was attached to the Episcopal 
Church as a minister of that denomination. 


As all the Luther^vn ministers were present at 
the ordination of Rev. li. J. Miller, there must 
have been a sjnodical or conferential meeting of 
some kind held at that time, as such actus minis- 
teriaks are performed generally on those occasions. 
This conclusion is substantiated by the fact that 
Miller went to St. John's Church with the view to 
be examined and ordain.ed, in accordance with the 
petition of his congregation; and Rev. Nussmann's 
name is signed to the certificate of ordination as 
Senior, an office honorably conferred by such a body 
at that time. It is, therefore, but reasonable to 
conclude that the first ecclesiastical assembly of the 
Lutheran Church in North Carolina was held in 
St. John's Church, Cabarrus County, in the month 
of May, 1794, and that the first minister ordained 
by that Lutheran Ministerium was the Rev. R. J. 

Section 9. Death of Revs. Nussmann and Martin — 
Resignation of Rev. John Charles Faher — Re- 
moval of Rev. Bernhardt to South Carolina — 
Return of Rev. Roschen to Germany — Arrival 
of Revs. Paul and Philip Henkel. 

Rev. ITussmann's labors in North Carolina ex- 
tended over a period of more than twenty years, 
remaining faithfully at his post until God called 
him to his rest. He was the pioneer minister of 
the Lutheran Church in the State, and commenced 
his labors among his people in the daj^s of their 
colonial hardships and trials; he had been with 


tbem through all the devastating influe)ices of a 
most sanguinary war; he liacl seen tlieni rise again 
to comparative comfort and prosperity under the 
new government; he had ministered to tliem in all 
circumstances of life, and had himself experienced 
many trials and afflictions through which he was 
called to pass. All denominations of Christians, 
that had ever heard of him, mention his name with 
honor and praise. " Caruther's Life of Rev. David 
Caldwell, D.D.," a Presbyterian work, speaks of 
^ussmann as having "labored faithfully in pov- 
erty and privations." Dr. Velthusen, in the Ilelm- 
staedt Reports, says: "The intelligence which I 
have received from strangers concerning Nuss- 
mann, of which there is not the slightest intima- 
tion to be found in his own letters, informs us, that 
his faithfulness in his ministerial office is so great, 
that he places his temporal welfare and the care 
of his children's worldly prosperity too far in the 
background, and is more earnestly concerned for 
the building up of the Church, than for the success 
of his planting interests." 

During his ministry he had suffered many pri- 
vations, as he had never received an adequate sup- 
port for himself and family; and during the Revo- 
lutionary War, he was often in despair of his life 
on account of his liberal principles. At one time 
he was obliged to secrete himself in the tall under- 
growth along the banks of a small stream near his 
house, in order to escape the fury of the Tories, 
w^ho had prowled about destroying valuable lives, 
and robbing persons of their property and daily 


bread. The Helnistaedt Mission Society sent him 
a selection of valuable books for his library, and 
other publications to be disposed of for liis benefit, 
but it is doubtful whether he realized much from 
the sale of them. It is known, that some of these 
books were donated by him to indigent persons. 

An anecdote is related of him by Christopher 
Melchor, Esq., that on one occasion, when he re- 
ceived but one dollar for a marriage fee, and some 
person remarked, that the sum was rather a small 
one, he good-humoredly remarked: "It is small 
if the wife proves to be a good one, but if other- 
wise, it is sufficiently large." 

Shortly after Rev. Nussraann came to this coun- 
try, he was united in marriage to Barbara Layrle, 
a daughter of Christopher Layrle, one of the depu- 
ties sent to Germany to bring pastors and teachers 
to North Carolina; with her he lived in blissful 
harmony, and was the father of several sons and 
daughters, none of whom are now living; but his 
grandchildren and descendants to the fifth gen- 
eration are still to be met with in Central North 
Carolina, respected by all who are acquainted 
with them. 

Pastor Nussmann had for some time been af- 
flicted with a cancer on his neck, and it became 
evident that it would terminate in his death, yet he 
bore his affiiction meekly and with Christian forti- 
tude, when on the 3d of November, 1794, his 
family and friends were called to witness the de- 
parture of a faithful husband, father and pastor. 
It was a severe loss to his congregation; he was 


their first pastor, and had hxbored long and faith- 
fully for them ; and how they would now be sup- 
plied with the means of grace, was a question not 
easily answered. His memory is still cherished 
by the members of St. John's Church, who have 
placed a new marble tombstone at the head of his 
grave; the former one, an ancient-looking blue 
stone slab, upon which time had done its work, is 
now safely and sacredly deposited in St. John's 
Church, and still bears the following German in- 
scription: "Christusist mein Leben, Sterben ist 
mein Gewinn. Das Andenken der Gerechten 
bleibet im Segen. Hier ruheii die Gebeine des 
treuen Predigers, Adolph Nussmann, in Deutsch- 
land geboren, im August, 1739, gestorben den 3ten 
ISTovember, 1794 " ("For me to live is Christ, to 
die is gain. The memory of the righteous is 
blessed. Here repose the remains of the faithful 
preacher, Adolphus J^ussmann, born in Germany, 
August, 1739, died :N'ovember 3d, 1794.") He was 
aged 55 years, 3 months, and some days. 

Besides having labored in Cabarrus County, he 
also performed missionary duty in several German 
settlements in the northern part of JSTorth Carolina, 
as before stated. The following record is taken 
from the minutes of the ]N"orth Carolina Synod of 
1831: "The Rev. Mr. JSTussmann, weak as he was, 
established two congregations in Surry, now Stokes 
County, and instructed and confirmed old and 
young; these churches have not yet died out." 
More could not be said to his praise than, that he 
lived the life of a pious and useful Christian, and 


died in the triumphs of that Gospel, which he 
faithfully preached. 

A few months after Nussmann's death, God 
called another and once active laborer in the Lu- 
theran Church in the Carolinas to his rest; this 
was the Kev, John Nicholas Martin, who had be- 
come aged and iniirm, and was no longer able to 
perform any active duties of the gospel ministry., 
but who still took a deep interest in the welfare of 
the Church. "He was born at Zweibriicken 
(Deux-Ponts), in Rhenish Bavaria, and emigrated 
to North America about the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. He was then a married man with 
several children. The colony, after some delay, 
settled in Anson County, near South Carolina. 
From this point Rev. Martin, with the larger por- 
tion of his congregation, removed to a district be- 
tween the Broad and Saluda Rivers," but labored 
mostly in Charleston, as pastor of St. John's 
Church, where he finally made his permanent 
home on a farm located about a mile from the city; 
"there he closed his honored and useful life, July 
27th, 1795." His descendants are numerous, the 
most of whom are still attached to the Lutheran 
Church, and are devoted members of the same. 

In the year 1800, the Lutheran Church in Char- 
leston became vacant by the resignation of Rev. 
John Charles Faber, on account of the failure of 
his health. According to Ramsay's History of 
South Carolina, vol. ii,p. 23, reprinted edition. Rev. 
Faber's successor was Rev. Matthew Frederic, but 
no such name occurs in any of the records of the 


Church now accessible, and it is exceedingly 
doubtful whether Dr. Ramsay's statement is cor- 
rect. The statement of the vestry of that church, 
made a few years ago, and extracted from the old 
church-book, is as follows: "Rev. Mr. Pogson 
officiated on Sundays for a short time, and on his 
retiring, Mr. Faber consented to serve the church 
as far as his strength would allow." No other 
minister's name is mentioned until Mr. Faber's 
successor, the younger Faber, is introduced in the 
narrative as the regular pastor. The vacancy con- 
tinued five years. 

At the close of the year 1800, Rev. C. E. Bern- 
hardt received and accepted the call as pastor of 
the Saluda charge, in Lexington District, South 
Carolina, to which place he removed with his 
family from Guilford Count}-, North Carolina; by 
this removal another vacancy was created in the 
Lutheran Church of that State. But this was not 
the only charge which suffered iu this manner; 
the Rev. Arnold Roschen, who was, at first, so well 
satisfied with his field of labor, and had no other 
thought but that of continuing there the remainder 
of his life, now changed his mind, when his heart 
yearned for his Fatherland, and he returned to 
Germany about the year 1800; however, his place 
was soon occupied by the arrival of Rev. Paul 
Henkel, whose name occurs in the Halle Reports 
as a catechet laboring in Virginia, but who was 
afterwards ordained by the Ministerium of Penn- 

Li the year 1801, the Rev. Philip Ilenkel, a son 


of Rev. Paul Ilenkel, came to North Carolina, and 
took charge of the Guilford pastorate, made vacant 
by the removal of Rev. Bernhardt to South Caro- 
lina. It is stated in the Helmstaedt Reports, that 
a third minister was to have been sent by Helm- 
staedt Mission Society to North Carolina; he is 
spoken of as "a candidate of a noble heart and 
excellent attainments," but for some reason or 
other he never came to America. 

Section 10. St. Jolm's Church, Cabarrus Counts/, 
iV. C, after Rev. Nussmanrts death — Report of 
Rev. Storch to Dr. Velthusen — Decline of the 
German Reformed Church in South Carolina. 

After the death of Pastor Nussmann, St John's 
Church remained vacant for two years, after which 
time it was supplied temporarily one year with the 
labors of Rev. Storch, so his journal informs us, 
and in 1797 the Rev. Adam Nicholas Marcard, who 
had been laboring in the vicinity, at Cold Water 
Creek, a newly organized church, became the 
pastor of St. John's Church, and labored there 
nearly three years, and then also removed to 
South Carolina. It must be said to his credit, 
that the records of the church during his time 
were neatly made by himself, being both ample 
and well arranged. 

As no other pastor could be obtained. Rev. 
Storch took charge of this congregation, and 
served it in connection with his other churches. 


He was a faithful laborer, and iiitrochiced many 
wholesome reforms, but his health failed him, 
and recommended that the congregation elect 
another pastor, when they called the Rev. John 
Ilenkel, from Virginia, who accepted the call in 
1803, and was on the point of moving to North 
Carolina, when God called him from time to eter- 
nity. There was now no other alternative left but 
for Rev. Storch to continue his labors among this 
people, and he remained their pastor until the year 
1821, laboring as faithfully as his health would 

The condition of the Lutheran Church in North 
Carolina at this time is reported in a letter of Rev. 
Storch to Rev. Dr. Velthusen, dated " Salisbury, 
N. C, February 25th, 1803," and published in one 
of the Doctor's works. Pastor Storch writes: 

"It is now nearly three years that I live in very 
sad circumstances ; not only have I suffered during 
this time from various severe attacks of sickness, 
which had brought ray body near to death, but 
likewise from an apparently incurable disease of 
the eyes, which seems to baffle all medical skill, 
and made it impossible for me either to read or 
write. I am, however, quite restored from my 
sickness of last fall, a disease similar to yellow fever, 
and which rages in this entire vicinity with great 
mortality. I now feel tolerably strong, and my 
eyes are somewhat better ; nevertheless, according 
to the opinion of the physician, I need not expect 
any permanent restoration of my health in this 


climate. However, we have an eternity before us, 
where we will be always well. 

" The present condition of this country is re- 
markable, both in a political and religious aspect. 
Party spirit is risen to a fearful height. Infidelity 
prevails to a great extent, both among the higher 
and lower classes of society. 

" I still serve my old congregations, and I con- 
tinue to preach the doctrines of Jesus Christ, the 
crucified, in simplicity, and have happily experi- 
enced the power of his grace upon myself and 
others. The prevalence of infidelity, the contempt 
of the best of all religions, its usages and servants, 
the increase of irreligion and crime, as remarked, 
have occasioned me many sad hours. Neverthe- 
less I have found consolation and courage in the 
thought : 

'So long as Christ protects His Church, 
May hell its rage continue ;' 

and I held fast to my faith, convinced that truth 
and religion will at last mightily raise up their 
head and prevail. 

" The congregations at the Catawba River are 
without a preacher. The faithful brother, Ahrend, 
has become totally blind. It is a sad calamity for 
that good man and the churches. The Buffalo 
Creek congregation (St. John's) is likewise unpro- 
vided for; however, it has at present the hope of 
obtaining the services of a brother of Paul Henkel, 
the successor of our Roschen. Rev. Bernhardt 
has left his situation in Guilford, and is now serv- 
ing for the past two years several congregations 


in South Carolina. The congregations in Guil- 
ford County are now served by a son of Rev. Paul 
Henkel. Rev. Magister Faber has resigned his 
pastoral office in Charleston some three years ago; 
the congregation has extended a call to me, con- 
nected with very ftivorable offers; but I could not 
accept it. Mr. Faber continues to preach for them 
as long as the congregation has no other pastor. 
I am rejoiced that Pastor Roschen has again been 
appointed to a charge (in Germany), and I heartily 
wish that, with enduring health, he may long con- 
tinue to be useful to the Church." 

During this period the German Reformed Church 
in South Carolina commenced to decline; all the 
old ministers had departed this life, and no new 
pastors were obtained to take charge of the vacant, 
churches. The Rev. A. Loretz, from ll'Torth Caro- 
lina, and perhaps some others, visited these con- 
gregations about once or twice a year, preached, 
and administered the sacraments; but as the jour- 
ney always embraced several hundred miles, and 
was made with much difficulty at that time, these 
visits became less frequent from time to time, 
until they ceased entirelj^, and the denomination 
became extinct in that State ; the members were 
at length absorbed by other professions of faith, a 
large proportion of which connected themselves 
with the Lutheran Church, particularly where the 
houses of worship were held jointly by Lutheran 
and German Reformed congreo-ations. 


'Section 11. The great religious revival of the years 
1800 and 1801., which swept over the United 
States ; reports of Rev. Storch and Henkel con- 
cerning it. 

On the subject of revivals the opinion of the 
Lutheran Church of America has been, and is still, 
divided, both as to whether such revivals are right 
or wrong in themselves, and again, among those 
who favor these revivals, as to the proper mode of 
conducting them. 

These revivals of religion, that is to say, what is 
generally understood by that name, so far as the 
Lutheran Church is concerned, are purely an 
'American feature, ingrafted upon a portion of the 
Lutheran Church in this country, and has nothing 
in common with what is called ^^ Pietism. '^ in Ger- 

At this late period of time, and with an experi- 
ence of more than half a century, the Church can- 
not be regarded an uninformed stranger to this 
"new measure;" the opinion of all our ministers 
and members is now generally confirmed as to the 
effects of these revivals. 

'Not desiring to discuss the merits of this re- 
vival question at this point of the history of our 
Church in the Carolinas, because it would be out 
of place in point of time, revivals not having been 
then introduced in our churches, it is, nevertheless, 
peculiarly interesting to read what our forefathers 
thought of them more tlian seventy years ago, 


when the great revival of 1800 and 1801 swept 
over this entire countrj-, and the subject was pre- 
sented to their minds for the first time. 

Eev. Storch writes: "By the side of tliis pesti- 
lence (infidelity), there prevails now, for over a 
year, a something, I know not what to name it, 
and I should not like to say Fanaticism. Christians 
of every denomination assemble themselves in the 
forest, numbering four, six and sometimes ten 
thousand persons; they erect tents, sing, pray and 
preach, day and night, for five, six and eight days. 
I have been an eye-witness to scenes in such large 
assemblies, which I cannot explain. I beheld 
young and old, feeble and strong, white and black, 
in short, people of every age, position and circum- 
stances, as though they were struck by lightning, 
speechless and motionless; and, when they had 
somewhat recovered, they could be heard shriek- 
ing bitterly, and supplicating God for mercy and 

"After they had thus spent three, and many 
even more, hours, they rose up, praised God, and 
commenced to pray in such a manner, as they never 
were wont to do, exhorting sinners to come to 
Jesus, &c. Many of those, who were thus exer- 
cised, were ungodly persons before, and we can 
now discover a remarkable change in them. Even 
deists have been brought to confess Christ in this 
way. Thus this thing continues even to this hour. 

"Opinions are various in regard to it; many, 
even ministers, denominate it the work of the 
devil; others again would explain it in a natural 


way, or in accordance with some physical law; 
whilst others look upon it as the work of God. 
Please give rae your opinion and explanation. 
This thing has occasioned me no little uneasiness. 
In our German congregations nothing of this kind 
has yet been manifested. Besides that, it is not 
known to me that something like it has taken 
place in Germany; but in England and Ireland 
there are similar occurrences. The inclosed pub- 
lished accounts will, therefore, not be uninterest- 
ing to you ; the facts are like those which I have 
seen myself. The authors of these accounts are 
generally respectable men and worthy of belief." 

This account of Rev. Storch, dated February 
25th, 1803, was sent to Rev. Dr. Velthnsen in Ger- 
many, who published it in his "Maurerey und 
Christenthum Gegeneinanderuebergestellt," vol. i, 
pp. 64-70. 

In the German minutes of a Virginia Conference, 
held in 1806, in the new Roeder's Church, in Rock- 
ingham Coanty, Rev. Paul Henkel writes on this 
subject as follows: 

" Towards the close of the year 1801, there oc- 
curred a mighty waking up of religion among the 
English people in Guilford and Orange Counties, 
which caused our German people to understand 
the true worth of the gospel. Both the pastors 
and their people were surprised, for it appeared 
exceedingly strange to those, who were well ac- 
quainted with the order of salvation, that true con- 
version should consist in such a way as declared 
by these people; that true faith should originate 


in siHtli sermons, which caused such cor[)()reul con- 
vulsions, sucli representations of the devil, death 
and hell ; the fearful and awful expressions of light- 
ning, thunder, hail, fire and brimstone against 
the sinner deprived many of tlieir senses,- and 
prostrated them in fainting fits. 

"As the like proceedings were upheld and de- 
fended by 80 man}' Englisli preachers, and as 
manj^ had declared, that by means of such work- 
ings they liad received the true and reliable wit- 
ness of the pardon of their sins and of the new 
birth, many of us hesitated to contradict such 
proceedings, although they were thought so con- 
trary to the doctrines of the gospel. Many pas- 
sages of Scripture were pointed out as opposed to 
these outward manifestations; but many good- 
meaning persons defended them as scriptural, 
whereupon the important question arose among 
them: 'Must we not also experience the same 
thing in order to be saved?' The people became 
anxious and concerned, were much affected and 
distressed, pressed upon their pastors to decide 
this matter for them, who were unwilling to do 
this without due consideration and the fullest as- 

"The German ministers were at first divided in 
their opinions on this subject; nevertheless, it 
drove them to more intimate comnmniou with 
each other in their official acts, and they had thus 
the opportunity to investigate this matter more 
closely. The Lutheran pastors (of ISTorth Caro- 
lina) formed themselves into a Conference (Synod), 



in wliich they and the lay delegates transacted tlie 
usual business of the Church as in other States. 
Each pastor concluded that he would not bear the 
name of an evangelical minister in vain; conse- 
quently the Gospel was preached industriously and 

"The two young pastors, Revs. Dieftenbach and 
Henkel, were surrounded by the fire. Many as- 
saults were made upon them and their congrega- 
tions. But they always stood in good understand- 
ing with each other, and unitedly taught the same 
doctrine, consequently their congregations were 
edified on both sides. Better order was obtained 
among the youth; however, the churches greatly 
lamented that Rev. Philip Henkel felt constrained 
to leave them. Rev. R. J. Miller, an English Lu- 
theran minister, preaches the gospel orderly, with 
effect, earnestness and due consideration. He 
was also much assailed in his teachings by those 
who sought to excite the people to these extraor- 
dinary manifestations of body. Having been or- 
dained by our German brethren, he stands in 
regular connection with them, and always defends 
the doctrines of the Lutlieran Church in a rational 
and acceptable manner." 

The Rev. Dielfenbach, alluded to in the above 
report, was a minister of the German Reformed 


Section 1'2. Organization of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of North Carolina^ A.D. 1S03. 

It is not known precisely at what time the Helm- 
staedt Mission Society either became disbanded, or 
ceased to labor for the welfare of the mission field 
in Korth Carolina. In the year 1788, Professor 
Kliigel was called from the University of llelm- 
staedt to a professorship in the University of 
Ilalle. In 171)0 we find Rev. Dr. Velthusen a 
resident of Rostock, as Oberkirchenrath in the 
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg, an office similar 
to that of superintendent or bishop; and also 
Professor of Theology in the same place. Dr. 
Velthusen, nevertheless, continued to labor in the 
interest of the Lutheran Church in Korth Caro- 
lina, after his removal to Rostock; but the impres- 
sion is, that owing to these, and perhaps other 
changes, the llelmstaedt Mission Society ceased 
to e>dst5 and the Lutheran churches in the State 
were necessitated to struggle on unaided by the 
parent Church in Europe. Correspondence was 
continued for some time between Rev. Storch and 
Dr. Velthusen as late as 1803, v.diich is proved by 
a published letter of Rev. Storch, and inserted in 
the preceding section; but the fact, that it was 
published in one of Dr. Velthusen's individual 
works, and not in a Helmstaedt Report, indicates 
that the Society Avas then no more. 

Rev. Dr. Velthusen was a most learned man 
and a voluminous writer. He was raised to high 
positions in the Lutheran Church in Germany. 


We find, that even in Home's Introduction, a. 
work placed in tlie hands of every English theo- 
logical student, Dr. Velthusen's name occurs as 
one of the authorities referred to and consulted 
by Dr. Home. 

The North Carolina Lutheran ministry, having 
now no dependence upon which they could rely 
other than their own eiforts, and having been re- 
inforced by a number of ministers in that tield, 
but chiefly, on account of the anxiety of inquir- 
ing souls and the distracted state of the Church, 
caused by the breaking out of the revival of 1801, 
resolved to labor more unitedly and in an organ- 
ized capacity, and hence originated the North 
Carolina Synod or Conference, for so were Synods 
then sometimes denominated by our German min- 
isters. This Conference or Synod stood under no 
jurisdiction of any other or higher ecclesiastical 
body, but had the power to exercise sole juris- 
diction for itself from its commencement; "in 
v^'hich," says Rev. Paul Henkel in 1806, " they 
and the lay delegates transacted the usual business 
of the Church as in other States." 

The Lutheran Church in North Carolina felt 
the necessity of organizing a Synod, in order to 
labor for its continuance and future prosperity, 
for there was no Lutheran Synod in all the South- 
ern States. The Pennsylvania Synod, which is 
the oldest Lutheran Synod in America, never ex- 
tended its jurisdiction farther south than Virginia. 
All the Lutheran churches south of that State, had 
been either under the care of a mission society in 


Germany, or stood in an independent position. 
The organization of the Corpus Ecclesiasticnm in 
South Carolina was the only previous attempt to 
bring the German congregations under the care 
of an organized ecclesiastical union, but had ceased 
to exist several years before the North Carolina 
Synod was formed. Hence the Lutheran ministry 
in North Carolina were impressed with the neces- 
sity and advantage of concentrated and organized 
labor for the welfare of the Churcli in a synodical 

In the address to the congregations, published 
in the first minutes of the North Carolina Synod, 
the following excellent thoughts occur: "That 
which you herewith receive for your perusal and 
contemplation is to show you what we, your 
teachers and delegates in Conference assembled, 
have considered, resolved, and shall endeavor to 
introduce as rules of order for the welfare of our 
Church and the furtherance of true godliness. In 
this we have acted according to our best under- 
standing. Ye yourselves will know, that it is 
necessary, if the Christian Church is to be per- 
petuated, that order must be preserved both 
among the ministers and in the congregations. 
Dear brethren, we look to you to assist us in this 
noble undertaking. God's work calls for help; 
the condition of our Church and people calls for 
help; the condition of thousands, both of old and 
young, calls for help; and shall this call of God 
and the cry of so nianj' immortal souls not be 
heard at all, or heard in vain? We have no fear 


of it, but are assured that your heart and mind 
will be united with us in so praiseworthy an un- 
dertaking, so that the instructions and quickening 
influence of the Gospel may be brought to many 
thousands of souls, who have hitherto been neces- 
sarily deprived of the same." Signed by Robert 
J. Miller, Carl Storch, Paulus Henkel, Christo- 
pher Bernhardt, Philip Henkel, Ludwig Markert. 

The first session of the IS^orth Carolina Synod 
vt^as held in the town of Salisbury, on Monday, 
May 2d, 1803. On the preceding Saturday and 
Sunday, the ministers held Divine service and ad- 
ministered the holy communion to a large assem- 
bly in Pine (Union) Church, four miles from Sal- 

The names of the ministers present at that first 
Synod were: Rev. Gottfried Arndt, of Lincoln 
County ; Rev. Robert J. Miller, of the same county ; 
Rev. Carl A. G. Storch, near Salisbury; Rev. 
Paul Henkel, from Abbot's Creek, Rowan (David- 
son) County. These ministers, with a number of 
elders and deacons from most of the congrega- 
tions as lay representatives, formed the North 
Carolina Synod, which is the oldest Lutheran 
Synod in the Southern States, and the third Synod 
in America in point of time, the Pennsylvania and 
'New York Synods having preceded it in their or- 




Section 1. Conditio7i of the Lutheran Church in 
South Carolina in the year 1803. 

"VYe now come to the dark period of the Luth- 
eran Church in South Carolina, a period frequently 
spoken of and greatly lamented by the aged min- 
isters and laymen of our Church, in the presence 
of the writer some twenty or more j^ears ago, when 
such men as Revs. Michael Rauch and George 
Haltiwanger, Sr., were still living, whose memory 
is yet fondly cherished in the Church. 

All the early pastors, who came from the Father- 
land, were dead. Revs. Martin, Daser, Theus, 
Hochheimer, Froelich, Bamberg, Friederichs, 
Wallberg, and others were gathered to their 
fathers, and, with the single exception of the send- 
ing of pastors to the Lutheran Church in Charles- 
ton, no reinforcement of ministers came any longer 


from Germany to South Carolina, and the German 
congre2;ations were generally fast going to destruc- 
tion. Proselyting sects were only too industriously 
engaged in gathering the scattered members of 
our churches into their fold, and some once flour- 
ishing German congregations became irretrievably 
lost to the Church of their fathers. The only sur- 
vivor of the Corpus Evangelicum was the Rev. 
Frederick Joseph Wallern in Newberry District. 
Here and there exhorters arose in the various 
vacant congregations, but they were men of very 
limited education, though zealous and active, and, 
with their restricted influence, they could do but 
little more than preserve a spark of vitality in a 
few scattering churches, which were glad enough 
to be served with such ministrations as these ex- 
horters could bestow upon them. 

A brief review of the condition of the several 
pastoral charges in South Carolina will manifest 
the truth of the above statement, and will indicate 
how sad and mournful was the state of the Lu- 
theran Church at that time, and as far as the Ger- 
man Reformed Church is concerned, it had then 
almost ceased to exist. 

St, John's Church in Charleston was vacant at 
this time; the Rev. J. C. Faber was still Jiving, 
but his health had declined, and was therefore 
necessitated to resign his charge, merely serving 
it as a temporary supply, and as far as his strength 
would allow, until some other pastor could be 
obtained. The congregation extended a pressing- 
call to Rev. Storch of North Carolina, which he. 


however, was obliged to decline, on account of his 
own feeble health and tlie wants of the Church in 
that State. » In February, 1805, the Rev. M. T. 
Charles Faber, a younger brother of the former 
pastor, arrived from Bremen, and became the pas- 
tor of this church. He resigned in 1811, and soon 
afterwards died of the yellow fever. Ministers 
from other denominations were now engaged for 
a term of six months only, according to a rule of 
the church, and the Rev. Mr. Spieren, the Rev. 
Mr. Darnielle, the Rev. Mr. Best, the Rev. Mr. 
Hanckel, and the Rev. Mr. Mills, all ministers of 
the Episcopal Church, at different periods supplied 
the congregation. The}^ received the same remu- 
neration as if they had been stated ministers." 

The Lutheran churches in Barnwell District 
were likewise in a sad condition, as about this 
time, A.D, 1803 or 4, their beloved and eflicient 
pastor, the Rev. J. G. Bamberg, departed this life, 
and they engaged the services of a certain John 
Henry Graff, a native of Saxony, who had been 
ordained to the gospel ministry in 1800, by the 
Rev. Mr. Wallern of Newberry District. Graff 
continued to " work at his trade, being a shoe- 
maker, to support his family," and, as might be 
expected, accomplished very little good, except 
that the churches did not become entirely extinct. 

St. Matthew's Church or pastorate, in Orange- 
burg District, fared very little better; the Rev. J. 
P. Franklow, who said, that he had obtained license 
to preach and baptize from the bishop of the Epis- 
copal Church residing in Charleston, in the year 


1798, but wlio was afterwards licensed by the 
ISTorth Carolina Synod in 1812, and subsequently 
ordained by the same body at its next session, 
served this charge from 1799 to 1814, but whether 
he administered the Lord's Supper, previous to his 
licensure and ordination by the iTorth Carolina 
Synod, is not known. 

The Sandy Run Church had no pastor at all at 
this time, but was visited by Revs. Franklow and 
Bernhardt; the latter officiated there only every 
recurring fifth Sunday in the month, consequently 
this congregation enjoyed the services of a regu- 
larly ordained ministry only four times a year, for 
a long period of time, and had gone down to such 
an extent, that it was necessary to reorganize the 
congregation on the 29th of December, 1811. 

The Lutheran congregations, located on both 
sides of the Saluda River in Lexington District, 
were more fortunate in securing the services of a 
succession of pastors. A year or so after the res- 
ignation of the Rev. J. G. Bamberg, who removed 
to Barnwell District in 1798, the Rev. John Nicho- 
las Marcard, who came from St. John's Church in 
Cabarrus County, North Carolina, became the 
pastor of the Saluda charge, but he did not labor 
long in that portion of the Lord's vineyard; 
whether he died or moved away is not known. 
At the close of the year 1800, the Rev. C. E. 
Bernhardt, from Guilford County, North Carolina, 
became the pastor of the Saluda churches, and 
labored there to the close of his life. He died 
August 27th, 1809. Pie had charge of four con- 


gregations: Zion's, Bethel, St. Peter's, and Salem 
Church on Hollow Creek. He was buried near 
his residence, about one mile distant from the 
present St. Michael's Church ; no tombstone, but 
some dogwood trees mark the spot, where repose 
the remains of this faithful servant of God. These 
churches have always continued in a prosperous 
state to the present time, one of which, Zion's, had 
an organ to assist in the musical part of divine 
worship, as the records indicate, which is, perhaps, 
still remaining in the church, but not now in use. 
In 1805, the organ was put in repair by a gentle- 
man from Ninety-six District, who was paid for 
his services by an amount raised by subscription. 
In 1797, the congregation petitioned the State leg- 
islature to grant them the privilege of establishing 
a public ferry on the Saluda River, " for the con- 
venience and use of the church members on the 
Sabbath-day, when they attend divine service; and 
for passengers, in order to receive funds for the 
support of the church in paying the minister's 
salary, &c., as the funds were not adequate to the 
wants of the church, for the property consisted 
only in land, and the members were too poor to 
defray the ordinary church expenses." "In April 
25th, 1802, a subscription was taken to complete 
the church, that is, to lath and plaster it, to wains- 
cot the pews and window shutters, and to paint 
the outside of the church." The above is an ex- 
tract from the church-book. 

Rev. R. J. Miller, in his missionary report, under 
date of J^ovember 19th, 1811, speaks very highly 


of the Saluda congregations, as follows: "From 
Hollow Creek Church, called Salem, I preached 
through all the German congregations in the neigh- 
borhood until the 28th. It is a pleasure to labor 
here; the people love the Gospel of Jesus and his 

Rev. Wallern labored as pastor in ITewberry 
District, and a Rev. Mr. Winckhouse, who after- 
wards preached occasionally in the Saluda charge, 
made vacant by the death of Rev. C. E. Bernhardt, 
was also a resident of the same District ; but when 
he commenced and ended his labors in Newberry 
is not known to the writer. By means of the 
labors of Revs. Wallern and Winckhouse the New- 
berry churches were preserved from annihilation, 
although Rev. Wallern was a worldly-minded man, 
and attended industriously to his planting and 
other worldly interests, as is still reported of him, 
and at which the Rev. R. J. Miller hints, when he 
said in his missionary report: "I went to the Lu- 
theran minister, Wallern ; found him about his 
farming business; conversed that evening and the 
following day much with him on the state of the 
Church, of religion, and on other subjects, and 
found him a man acquainted with the world." 

The German congregations in Abbeville Dis- 
trict had a sad history at this time. St. George's 
Lutheran Church on Hard Labor Creek was also 
visited by Rev. R. J. Miller in his missionary tour 
in 1811, and the following is his report concerning 
this church: 

" Sunday, November 10th. I preached in a Ger- 


man meeting-house on Hard Labor Creek, where 
my appointments were to commence; here Avas 
formerly a Lutheran congregation, but no remains 
of it are now to be found; here the Methodists and 
Baptists have pulled each other out of the pulpit. 
Every person seemed very attentive; here is full 
proof of the necessity of missionary preaching. 
The former Lutheran minister became a Method- 

The other German congregation in this District, 
incorporated under the title of "The Charlotte 
Church, on Slippery Creek, Ninety-six District," 
has no other now known history, except that of 
its incorporation by the State legislature. 

When we consider all these facts, relating to 
the condition of the Lutheran Church in South 
Carolina at that time, and gathered from the re- 
ports of the then living witnesses, we need not be 
astonished that a number of the German congre- 
gations in that State became entirely extinct; but 
the greater wonder is, that so many of those con- 
gregations struggled on and continued to live 
through that dark and trying period. The few 
charges that M'ere blessed with the continued and 
faithful services of the Gospel ministry were pre- 
served in a flourishing condition, proving fully, 
that nothing but the faithful and proper adminis- 
tration of the word and the sacraments can pre- 
serve the Church, and promote its welfare. 


Section 2. HenkeVs Report on the Condition of the 
Lutheran Church in North Carolina in the year 

From the German minutes of a Virginia Confer- 
ence, held in the New Roeder's Church, in Rock- 
ingham County, A.D. 1806, and published by the 
Rev. Paul Henkel, we gather the following inter- 
esting account of the condition of all the Lutheran 
congregations in the State of North Carolina at 
that time. Rev. Ilenkel writes: 

"As soon as the Germans had located them- 
selves in different parts of North Carolina, they 
became concerned about the regular administra- 
tion of Church worship and ordinances in their 
midst. They soon erected houses of worship ac- 
cording to their ability, which were generally the 
joint property of both the Lutheran and German 
Reformed Christians. 

"In that region, which lies partly in Orange and 
partly in Guilford Counties, there are three Lu- 
theran and three Reformed churches, besides one 
other joint-church, named Frieden's, which is 
served in connection with the others. Since the 
year 1801, Rev. Henry Dieffenbach has served the 
Reformed churches, and in the same year Rev. 
Philip Henkel was called to serve as Lutheran 
pastor, who remained there until 1806, when he 
accepted a call to an enlarged field of labor in 
Lincoln County. 

"In Rowan County (now Davidson) on Abbot's 


Creek, we find three joint and cue Lutheran 
charch on the Sandhills. These were served by 
the Rev. Paul Henkel from the year 1800 to 1805, 
when he was necessitated to resign this charge, on 
account of the failure of his own and his family's 
health; he therefore introduced the Rev. Ludwig 
Markert as candidate preacher into these congre- 
gations, which he was himself compelled to leave. 

"In the vicinity of Salisbury, Rowan County, 
there are three strong Lutheran congregations, 
which have been served by the Rev. Charles Storch 
for nearl}'- twenty years; but under many disad- 
vantages on account of the frequent and severe 
attacks of fever, which prostrated his energies for 
the last ten years, and which apparently had sev- 
eral times brought him near to the grave. His 
numerous official duties lay often heavy upon him 
on account of his ill-health, especially the admin- 
istration of the Lord's Supper to two hundred and 
fifty communicants at one time, so that his feeble 
powers of body were always exhausted after hav- 
ing served all these people. Some twenty years 
past, there was a tolerably strong German congre- 
gation in Salisbury; they had erected a com- 
fortable church for themselves, but as the Ger- 
man people and their language were changed into 
English, the German worship soon became ex- 

"iSTear Buffalo Creek, Cabarrus County, we find 
one of the strongest German Ijutheran churches 
in the whole State; however, since the death of 
their former pastor, Rev. Adolph Kussmaun, 


which occurred some twelve years ago, the con- 
gregation has suifered much, as it is now served by 
Rev. Storch, who moved a httle nearer to this 
congregation. In the year 1803, the Rev. John 
Henkel had been unanimously chosen as the pastor 
of this clxirch, and consented to serve them; he 
made the necessary arrangements to move his 
family from Virginia, but whilst the people were 
waiting for the intelligence when they should send 
for him, they received the message that the Lord 
had called him to his home. This was sad news, not 
only to the congregation, but likewise to the re- 
maining ministers in the State, who lamented the 
want of so many faithful laborers in the Lord's 
vineyard. The few sermons Rev. II. preached, 
whilst on a visit to that church, will long be re- 
membered. It is rejoicing to know, that this peo- 
ple are now blessed with the labors of so faithful 
a pastor. 

"About eighteen miles from Salisbury there is 
another church, which was built by the Germans 
as a joint house of worship, but as they are so 
much intermingled with English settlers, this 
German congregation will also become extinct. 
Many English residents had become members of 
this church. During the visits of Rev. Paul 
Henkel in the fall season, from 1785 to 1789, many 
adult and aged persons v/ere baptized, instructed 
and confirmed, and thus a very strong congrega- 
tion was gathered. Much experimental Christi- 
anity was supposed to exist here; however, hope- 
ful as appearances were outwardly, they were never- 


theless of short duration; many tore themselves 
away from the church, and were divided into diiier- 
ent singnhir persuasions. The Germans became 
degenerated, lead disorderly lives with these other 
settlers, so that at this time a perfect Babel exists; 
foolish pride and many vices prevail. The few 
remaining upright souls are constrained to w^eep 
in silence over this desolation. 

"In Lincoln County there are eight or nine 
congregations, several of which are quite large. 
All these have erected joint houses of worship. 
The Lutheran congregations were served by the 
Rev. Gottfried Arndt for twenty years. Before 
that time he had labored in the vicinity of Salis- 
bury, and even at that time he often traveled 
among these churches, and performed official 
duties, as far as his circumstances would permit. 
He labored faithfully in his calling over the whole 
State, wherever he could liiid German brethren. 
For the last four years he became unfitted for his 
calling, as he met with the misfortune of losing 
his eyesight entirely. He is at present quite an 
aged man, and were it not for his misfortune, he 
might still serve in his holy calling. The greater 
number of his former congregations are now 
served by Rev. Philip Henkel. 

"In Burke County there are also a number of 
Germans, among whom, as yet, no church has 
been built. Rev. Arndt preached there several 
times, so also did the Rev. Paul Henkel, in the 
German and English languages, during his visit 
through that county in 1787. In May, 1804, he 


made another visit among this people in company 
with the German Reformed minister, Rev. Jacob 
Laros. It was their intention to preach several 
days in each congregation, but in this they were 
hindered by the many rains and consequent high 
waters, so that each of them could preach but two 

" In Wilkes County may be found a small Ger- 
man flock in the wilderness, surrounded by human 
beings, who know of nothing so little as of the true 
way of salvation, and who in their own opinions 
are wiser than the Bible itself. These often per- 
secuted the members of this little flock. Rev. 
Paul Henkel visited them twice whilst he was still 
living in North Carolina. During his last visit in 
1805, he instructed and confirmed their youth, and 
administered the Lord's Supper. He informed 
them that he had reason to believe that the Lord 
was in their midst. As it concerns the spiritual 
condition of this church, it may be truly said that 
here, as elsewhere, many having neglected to em- 
brace their opportunity, are still strangers to that 
work of grace, which they should experience in 
their hearts; there are others again to be found, 
who are enlightened by something better than 
their own blind reason, who seek the salvation of 
their souls not in works, but in the merits of their 
Savior, and who strive with all their hearts to be- 
come the followers of Jesus. In this place not so 
many learned and feeling sermons have been 
preached as in other congregations, nevertheless, 
many became savingly acquainted with the doc- 


trines of the gospel from their own experience. 
The labors of traveling ministers had awakened 
attention to the word; serious impressions deeply 
affected their hearts, which resulted in much good, 
and enabled many to declare the things they had 
experienced in their own hearts. 

"The two German Reformed preachers, Revs. 
Jacob Christman and Jacob Laros, who, for the 
last two years, had labored in the State of Ohio, 
were, at the time above mentioned, residing in 
Guilford County. As soon as Rev. J. Christman 
was ordained, he labored in various localities and 
performed many journeys. He was peculiarly 
fitted to impart private instruction in families, 
which duty he performed industriously. Rev. J. 
Laros, who did not labor so extensively, was more 
successful among children and youth in schools 
and catechetical instruction ; he was always very 
edifying in his sermons, and his exemplary walk 
was an ornament to his official duties." (Here fol- 
lows the lengthy report on the revival of 1801, 
which has been given in the 11th section of the 
preceding chapter.) 

"The Evangelical Brethren, that is, the Mora- 
vians, have five German and one English church 
in this State. Their pastors preach the gospel 
with exemplary order and propriety; they are 
always friendly in their deportment towards all 
other orderly pastors. Among these brethren may 
be found many members, who are well acquainted 
with true godliness and experimental Christianity." 


Section 8. Extract from the First Minutes of the 
North Caroliyia Synod, from A.D. 1808 to 1810. 

Immediately upon the organization of the Synod 
of North Carolina, a new life appears to have been 
infused into the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas; 
the various scattered congregations were now 
brought into a closer relationship with each other, 
a uniform church discipline was introduced with 
good and wholesome effect, arrangements were 
made to supply all the vacant congregations with 
the means of grace, and the scattered members 
were visited by missionaries appointed by Synod, 
who organized new congregations wherever it was 
practicable. However, the want of ministers of 
the Gospel was still very great, and in order to 
supply this demand, pious laymen were licensed 
as catechets, who afterwards became candidates 
for the ministry; in this way originated the licen- 
sure system, and the preparation of pious young 
men for the ministry by receiving private instruc- 
tion from some of the older ministers; this arrange- 
ment afterwards received the name of "the home 
student system." The most urgent necessity de- 
manded this departure from the rule of the Lu- 
theran Church in the Fatherland, where an educa- 
tion at the University was necessary, before any one 
could be admitted to the gospel ministry, and 
where a candidate was ordained as soon as he had 
received a call as pastor of a church, without having 
to pass through a state of licensed probation. 


All the Lutheran ministers residing in South 
Carolina connected themselves with the newly or- 
ganized North Carolina Sjniod, with the excep- 
tion of Rev, Faber, in Charleston, who doubtless 
could not attend this or any other Synod, on ac- 
count of the want of public conveyances at that 
time, and the great distance from the place where 
the Synod usually met; also the Rev. F. J. Wal- 
lern, who continued to remain in an independent 
and isolated position as long as he lived; what his 
motives were for so doing is not stated in the re- 
ports of the Synod's missionary, who visited Rev. 
Wallern and his congregations in 1811. 

Rev. C. E. Bernhardt, who labored in Lexing- 
ton District, connected himself at once with the 
North Carolina Synod, and labored in great har- 
mony with his brethren to the close of his life. 
Rev. J. P. Franklow also attended the meetings 
of Synod, and was licensed by that body at its 
spring session of 1812, and ordained the same 
year at its fall session. Rev. Godfrey Dreher was 
presented to that body as a candidate for the min- 
istry, October 23d, 1810, when he was licensed, 
and was afterwards ordained in South Carolina in 
1812, by a committee appointed by Synod for that 
purpose. From all accounts he is still living, 
being now in the sixty-second year of his ministry, 
although no longer able to perform any official 

Revs. Michael Ranch and J. Y. Meetze appeared 
before Synod at a later date; they were both li- 
censed October 19th, 1812, at Lau's Church, Guil- 


ford County. Eev. Ranch was ordained April 
28th, 1819, at St. John's Church, Cabarrus 
County; but Rev. Meetze was not ordained until 
1822, when by the order of Synod he received his 
ordination in South Carolina. All these Lutheran 
ministers, residing in South Carolina, continued 
their connection with the North Carolina Synod 
until 1824, at which time the Synod of South Caro- 
lina was organized. 

At the first session of the North Carolina Synod, 
held in Salisbury, May 2d, 1803, very little busi- 
ness was transacted. The Synod was then simply 
organized, and a resolution was passed, at the sug- 
gestion of Rev. Arndt, that Rev. Paul Henkel 
should visit Rev. Arndt's charge in Lincoln 
County the following August, in order to perform 
the necessary official duties, to which Rev. Arndt 
could not attend, owing to the loss of his eyesight 
and his feeble health. Rev. Henkel attended to 
this duty. 

The second session of Synod was held at 
Lincolnton, N. C, October 17th, 1803, when a 
constitution was adopted, consisting of nine arti- 
cles. They are much the same as are generally 
adopted by all Lutheran Synods. The fourth arti- 
cle requires candidates of the ministry "to under- 
stand the order of the Latin language, and so 
much of Greek as to be able to understand the 
New Testament." Rev. J. G. Arndt was Presi- 
dent, and Rev. R. J. Miller was Secretary of this 
synodical convention. 

The third session of Synod was held at Abbot's 


Creek Church, in Davidson County, October 21st, 
1804. Rev. Paul Henkel was elected President, 
and Rev. Miller, Secretary. Very little business 
was transacted at this session of Synod, because 
nearly all the ministers were unfitted for duty 
on account of sickness. It was resolved that 
a special conference be held at Pine Church, 
Rowan County, the following April, for the pur- 
pose of ordaining Rev. Philip Henkel. John 
Michael Rueckert and Ludwig Markert were li- 
censed as catechets. The next session of Synod 
was held at Organ Church, Rowan County, Octo- 
ber 20th, 1806. Rev. Storch was chosen Presi- 
dent, and Rev. Bernhardt, Secretary. 

There appears to have been no meeting of Synod 
during the years 1807 and 1808, doubtless pre- 
vented by the prevailing sickness during the fall 

In the year 1809, August 7th, the Synod was 
convened in Guilford County, at which meeting 
some additional articles were added to the consti- 
tution. The officers of Synod were. Rev. Charles 
A. Storch, President, and Rev. Ludwig Markert, 

On the 22d of October, 1810, the Synod con- 
vened at Organ Church, at which time a consid- 
erable amount of business was transacted. The 
Rev. C. A. Storch was re-elected President, and 
Rev. Gottlieb Schober was elected Secretary. At 
this meeting there were ten ministers present, and 
the names of the lay delegates were published for 
the first time. Rev. G. Schober was ordained to 


the gospel ministry ; he was a member of the 
Moravian Church, and continued in connection 
with that Church to the close of his life, neverthe- 
less, he became a Lutheran minister, and was 
pastor of several Lutheran congregations in the 
vicinity of Salem, N^. C, where he resided, and 
served those congregations during his life. Revs. 
Storch, Miller and Philip Henkel officiated at his 

"On motion of Rev. Philip Henkel, it was re- 
solved that, inasmuch as awakenings arise in our 
days by means of three days' preaching, and the 
like is to be wished among our brethren in the 
faith, a trial of such preaching be made, with the 
proviso, that three ministers of our connection hold 
those meetings, to which also ministers of the 
Moravian and Reformed Churches, whether Ger- 
man or English, be welcomed; at each of these 
meetings the communion is to be administered." 
The time Avas then appointed when these meetings 
were to be held in each pastoral charge. 

Rev. R. J. Miller was appointed as a traveling 
missionary for the Synod, with the power to or- 
ganize new congregations, and to take up collec- 
tions for this object. 

It was also resolved, that Revs. Storch and 
Schober prepare a pastoral letter to the various 
churches in connection with this Synod, and that 
it be appended to the minutes. 

The candidates, Revs. Jacob Scherer and God- 
frey Dreher, were then licensed to the ministry, 


and the catecliets, J. JNI. Rncckoi-t and Jacob 
Krieson, had tlieir limited licenses renewed. 

The names of all the congregations belonging 
to the Synod, with their pastors, la^' readers, elders 
and deacons, are appended to the minutes; the 
names of these churches are as follows : 

Bev. Siorcli's pastorate: Zion's or Organ; Buffalo 
Creek or St. John's; Irish Settlement, now Luther 
Chapel; Pine, now Union ; Crooked Creek; and 
Bear Creek, now Bethel. 

Hev. MarkerVs pastorate: Pilgrim's; Beck's; 
Schweiszguth (Swicegood), now Sandy Creek; 
Lau's; Friedeu's; Graves, now St. Paul's, Ala- 
mance County. Richland Church was supplied 
by Jacob Krieson as catechet or lay reader. 

Rev. Schober's pastorate: Muddy Creek; and 
Dutchman's Creek. 

Eev. Fhilip llenkeVs pastorate: St. John's; Old 
Church; School-house Church ; Kasner's; Leba- 
non; Emanuel's; Hebron; and Zion's; all in Lin- 
coln County. 

" Various congregations in South Carolina, which 
connected themselves with' our Sj'uod:" Bethel 
Church, on High Hill Creek; St. Peter's; Zion's; 
and a lieformed Cliurch, of which Henry Kuhn, 
Samuel Bockman, and Henry SchuU were the 

A synodial seal was also adopted with certain 

devices, bearing the words " Pax vobis " and 

"Sigil. Minist. Evang. Luth. in Carolia Sept. ct 

Stat, vicin." A lengthy explanation of the de- 



vices and a translation of the Latin words as 
quoted above are given in the minutes. 

Then folhjws the admonitory pastoral letter as 
adopted by the Synod, and prepared by Eevs. 
S torch and Schober. 

Section 4. Missionary tours of Revs, lliller, Frank- 
low and Scherer. 

In order that a correct knowledge might be ob- 
tained concerning the condition of the scattered 
Lutheran congregations and settlements in South 
Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee and Ohio, the 
Synod of JS'orth Carolina sent several exploring 
missionaries into these States, with instructions to 
preach the gospel, administer the sacraments, and 
otherwise to encourage and build up the dispersed 
members of the Lutheran Church in their most 
holy faith. From the published reports of these 
missionaries most valuable information is obtained, 
aiibrding us a portraiture of the condition of the 
Lutheran Church in those States at that time. 

The Rev. Robert Johnson Miller was the first 
one of these missionaries sent by Synod to explore 
the field; he started upon his first tour June 18th, 
1811, passing through Wilkes, Surry and Stokes 
Counties, 'E. C, into Virginia. And, although 
the State of Virginia is not embraced in the his- 
tory of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas, 
nevertheless, a few extracts from Rev. Miller's 
journal of his tour into Virginia and return through 


Tennessee may still be acceptable. Rev. Miller 
states: "I departed from my home in Burke 
County on the 18th day of June, 1811, in conli- 
dence of the protection of God, preached twice in 
"Wilkes County, as often in Surry, four times in 
Stokes, and mostl}^ to large, serious and attentive 
congregations, particularly in Germantown. In 
the first forty 'two miles of my journey in Virginia, 
I found only one small Methodist meeting-house, 
and heard of no settled minister of any denomina- 
tion. From the 27th to the 80th I traveled through 
much spiritual wilderness, where all denominations 
live dispersed, their youth being without any re- 
ligious instruction, and found three families whose 
parents had been Lutherans. 

" Sunday, July 2d. I met preacher Meyer with 
his numerous congregation, and preached to atten- 
tive and serious people ; their teacher (pastor) is 
not appointed or ordained by the Pennsylvania 
Lutheran Ministerium, yet he administers all the 
sacraments; I warned him and his flock against 
such conduct. He informed me that he attended 
six congregations, each of which consisted of from 
25 to 30 families. 

" In 'New Market I preached three times to 
large and serious congregations, and at my de- 
parture Dr. Solomon Ilenkel, in whose house I 
baptized two children, and his brother Ambrose 
presented me with 200 small English catechisms 
to be given to the poor and ignorant, which order 
I afterwards faithfully executed. After having 
crossed the Shenandoah Mountain, I met with 


Moses Henkel, who is a Methodist preacher, and 
a brother of our Rev. Paul Henkel. 

" On the 2d of August, after having passed the 
rough Alleghany Mountain, I found in the neigh- 
borhood of Lewisburg a Lutheran congregation, 
who are attended by the Rev. Mr. Flohr, from 
Wythe County, three times a year. Excepting a 
small congregation on Jackson's Fork of James 
River, there are but few Lutheran families in 
Monroe County, and all are without Christian in- 
struction. In this whole territory, including the 
South Branch of the Potomac, and the counties 
of Pendleton, Bath, Greenbriar, Monroe, Mont- 
gomery and Wythe, there is but one Lutheran 
minister. Aug. 11th. I arrived at Rev. Mr. Flohr's 
in Wythe County; he attends six congregations; 
further up New River there is another numerous 
but divided congregation, where, minister and jus- 
tice, Stanger resides. 

"From here I went by way of Abingdon into 
Sullivan County, Tennessee, where I found some 
German congregations, who are attended by Rev. 
Mr. Smith ; before his arrival here they were at- 
tended by Rev. Mr. Sink, now gone to Kentucky; 
I preached in all congregations and in other places, 
particularly in Blountsville. Aug. 31st. I met with 
Rev. Smith, who has been now ordained by our 
Synod, and found him an honest, upright man ; 
both he and his congregations were glad of the 
opportunity to be connected with our Ministerium; 
I visited as many of Mr. Smith's congregations as 
possible, partly accompanied by him, and on the 


11th of October, after having preaclied at Cove 
Creek to a large and attentive congregation, I 
separated from Rev. Mr. Smith and the good peo- 
ple, wishing them spirit, life, fidelity and zeal, es- 
pecially in the instruction of their youth, so that 
the future race might not be more bewildered, and 
departed on my homeward journey, where I ar- 
rived in safety, after an absence of three months." 

The next tour the Rev. Mr. Miller made into 
the State of South Carolina. He says in his 
journal: "The second part of my journey I began 
on the 4th of November, 1811, and spent the first 
evening about twenty-five miles from home. When 
1 came to Rutherfordton, my appointment to 
preach had not been made. From thence I rode, 
crossing Broad and Green Rivers, through a thinly 
settled country to Spartanburg, South Carolina. 
Saturday, 9th, I arrived at Mr. Robert Smith's, 
on Hard Labor Creek, w^here my appointments 
were to commence, and preached on Sunday in a 
German meeting-house." (This part of the jour- 
nal is omitted, having been given on a preceding 

" On the 13th I preached fourteen miles from 
Savannah River to a serious congregation, chiefly 
Presbyterians. Farther up on Little Saluda River, 
which I passed the next day at a dangerous ford, 
there is a considerable number of our people, 
whom I did not see. Throughout this whole 
country no attention is paid to the religious in- 
struction of youth, except among the Presby- 
terians. In such a condition of things there can, 


of course, be but very little vital religion among 
the people. 

"On the 19th, after sermon in Hallow Creek 
Church, called Salem, I became acquainted with 
a poor man calling himself a preacher, but to all 
appearance destitute of the spirit and temper of 
a Christian, as well as of every qualification to 
preach. I gave him some advice, but received 
very little thanks. From hence I preached in all 
the German congregations throughout the neigh- 
borhood until the 28th. It is a pleasure to labor 
here; the people love the gospel of Jesus and his 

"About forty miles south of this place, I ar- 
rived at one of the first settled congregations in 
all these quarters (St. Matthew's, Orangeburg Dis- 
trict); visited their teacher, Mr. Frauklow; found 
the congregation much decayed, but it might be 
revived and increased if it could be supplied with 
a minister of talents and grace. They have been 
attended for several years past by Mr. Franklow, 
who, as he says, had received license from the 
Bishop of the Church of England to baptize. 

" On my return to the Saluda River I preached, 
December 1st, in the oldest German church iu 
this vicinity to a large and very serious congrega- 
tion, and found the people very desirous to place 
themselves under the care of our Synod. 

"On the 4th, after having preached, I arrived 
again at Brother John Dreher's. This man has 
exerted himself for some years past, in the absence 
of a settled minister, to keep the light of the 


gospel burning. He had divinely pious books 
printed at his own expense, spreads them for a 
low price among the people, and an evident bless- 
ing rests upon his exertions. On Friday, the 6th, 
I went to the Lutheran minister, Wallern, found 
him about his farming business, conversed that 
evening and the following day much with him ou 
the state of the Church, of religion, and on other 
subjects, and found him a man acquainted with 
the world. Sunday, the 8th, I preached in his 
church. He accompanied me also the following 
day to a funeral, where I addressed the people ou 
the subject of death and preparation; he preached 
from Ps. 37 : 18. On the following day I preached 
to a small but, to all appearance, serious people, 
and therewith finished my missionary tour for 
this year. 

"I have to observe that in the counties of Bo- 
tetourt, Augusta and Rockingham, iu Virginia, 
an itinerant minister, qualified to preach both in 
the German and English, would be of great bene- 
fit, and I have no doubt that he would have great 
success in bringing back many of those, who have 
been obliged to leave the Church for the want of 
a minister qualified to administer her ordinances 
to them. The people there are much in want of 
such a minister, and a circuit could be formed on 
that plan, that would work beneficially. Another 
itinerant minister, qualified as above, to travel 
from Broad Eiver westward near to the Savannah 
River, and southward near to Charleston, would be 
employed equally as useful, and there is no doubt 


but that the people would cheerfully contribute 
what would be sufficient for a decent support. 
Oh! that the Lord would give us three or four 
young ministers, endowed with grace and talents, 
and gifted to preach in both languages, much 
could then be done for his Church. The congre- 
gations there now are sensibly mouldering away 
for the want of such preachers. Among the old 
Germans there is a standing still ; their youth 
learn and speak English ; if a teacher speaks 
German, it is to them like the sound of the 
church-bell. But the affair is the Lord's. 

" On my whole tour I have baptized this year 
two adults and sixty children, preached sixtj'-seven 
times, traveled three thousand miles, and received 
$70.44 for m}- support, without asking for a cent 
in any way, and arrived home in health and safety. 
Honor, thanks and praise be to the Lord," 

On page 11 of the minutes of the North Caro- 
lina Synod for 1812, the following record may be 
found: "The Rev. Mr. Franklow was hereupon 
requested to make one or more visits in a part of 
South Carolina called Saltketcher, there to in- 
quire into the situation of the residue of our mem- 
bers, who formerly had a well-regulated congre- 
gation, and report the result of his inquiries to 
the next Synod." 

This duty Rev. Franklow performed faithfully, 
and reported at length, which report was greatly 
abbreviated and inserted in the minutes; but the 
original document having been found some twelve 
years ago among Rev. G. Shober's papers, in a 


garret of one of his gran d child re n in Salem, North 
Carolina, it is now presented, and reads as follows: 

"Sunday, March 28th, 1813. I set out on my 
journey from my church after Divine service, and 
arrived in the evening at Mr. Moss', on Edisto 
River. Here I made an appointment to preach 
in a new Methodist meeting-house on my return 
on Thursday, April 8th. The next day I crossed 
the Little Saltketcher through a long swamp and 
deep water, and came in the evening to Mr. 
Shobert, a church-warden of St. Bartholomew's 
Church. I made my appointment to preach in 
this church on Friday, April 2d, and on Sunday 
and Monday following at St. Nicholas Church, 
and again at St, Bartholomew's on mj' return on 
Tuesday, April 6th. 

"March 31st. To-day I was introduced to sev- 
eral members of the church, when I was informed 
that they had a minister, who had lived and 
preached nine years among them, named John 
Henry Graff, a native of Saxony, in Germany, 
and who labored there ever since the death of 
Rev. Mr. Bamberg, Graff was ordained b}^ the 
Rev. Mr. Wallern to the ministry of the Gospel. 
For two years the members of St. Bartholomew's 
Church had not employed Graff" any longer as 
their pastor, and in St. iSTichoias Church his time 
expires in three weeks. I found that the minister 
and people were opposed to each other, and upon 
inquiry as to the cause of this division, I was in- 
formed that Mr. Graft" could not speak the English 
language so as to be understood, and tliat his 



sermons were three and four hours long; that he 
had no energy and life in his discourse; that he 
spoke too low to be heard distinctly; in short, 
that they would engage him no longer as their 
pastor. Mr. Shobert desired me to go and see 
him, which I had intended to do. 

"April 1st. I visited Mr. Graff, and stayed sev- 
eral hours with him. I found him at home, ex- 
pecting to see me, from the report of some of his 
neighbors that a strange minister was come to 
visit him and the congregations. He received 
me in a friendly manner, and I found him well 
informed in religion and the Scriptures. He told 
me of the dislike which his congregations had 
against him, which he said proceeded from the 
family in which his daughter had married, who 
was then a widow, and now they were maliciously 
afiected towards him. He showed me his letter 
of ordination, signed by Rev, Mr. Wallern and 
church-wardens, dated September, 1800. He 
works at his trade, being a shoemaker, to support 
his family. 

" April 2d. I went to St. Bartholomew's Church, 
which is in sight of their minister's house, and 
preached in the German and English languages to 
a small but attentive congregation, one of whom, 
Mr. Copel, asked me to baptize a child for him on 
my return next Tuesday. I was surprised, and 
told him I did not wish to do it, as they had a 
minister; to which he replied, that Graff was no 
longer their minister, as he had not been engaged 
in that church these two years, and that if I would 


not baptize his child, Mr. Graff should not do it. 
The next day I crossed the Big Saltketcher at 
Rivers' Ford, nearly three-quarters of a mile wide, 
and very deep, and arrived at Mr. Jacob Hardee's, 
one of the wardens of St. Nicholas Church. He 
has a mill, and by that means most of the people 
were informed that divine service would be per- 
formed the next da}'. 

"Sunday, April 4th. I went to St. Nicholas and 
preached to a serious congregation; the people 
were very attentive, both to the German and Eng- 
lish discourses. After service I published, as I 
had promised, that the Lord's Supper would be 
administered on Easter Sunday by their minister, 
but not one offered to give in their names, and 
wished that I should administer it to them on that 
day; to which I replied that it was impossible, as 
I had two appointments to fill, one at Sandy Run 
next Sunday, and at my own church on Easter 
Day. They then begged me to visit them again, 
and administer the sacraments, as Mr. Graff was 
not worthy to administer any sacrament. I told 
them that, if possible, I would pay them another 
visit in the fall, and would make my appointments 
by letter before I came. On Monday I preached 
again at St. Nicholas, to a tolerably full congrega- 
tion, part of the members having been prevented 
from attending on account of the session of Barn- 
well court, which commenced this day. The 
people complained that whilst Mr. Graff lived 
among them, no other minister would come to be 
their pastor. 


" Tuesda}', April 6th. After having crossed 
Broxtoii's Ford in a canoe, and swimming my 
horse, I arrived yesterdaj^at my old lodging-place, 
Mr. Shobert's. I went to-day to St. Bartholomew's 
Church, where I met Mr. GraiF, wlio promised to 
preach in English after my discourse. He in- 
formed me that a neighbor of his baptized children 
without license or authority, and that the people 
emploj'cd him in preference to Mr. Graff's attend- 
ing upon this duty. After my discourse Mr. Graff" 
preached in the German instead of the English 
language, although it was contrary to his promise 
and the people's expressed desire. After service 
I baptized Mr. Copel's child, rather than suffer it 
to be baptized by au improper person. Here I 
took my leave of this people, exhorting them to 
reconciliation and unity with their minister. They 
answered that this could not be, but that they 
were now as lost sheep without a shepherd ; that 
they went to hear the word of God among the 
Methodists and Baptists, but w^ould not join them, 
as they wished to keep to the religion of tlieir 
fathers. They hoped that some good minister 
would soon be their pastor, and begged me to 
state their condition before the Lutheran Synod, 
and that they would appoint me or some other 
minister to visit them again. 

" April 7th. I went to Mr. Moss with the hope 
of filling my appointment at the Edisto Methodist 
Meeting-house, when I was informed that they 
objected to me, on account of my being a Lutheran 
minister. The next day I went to Sandy liun, in 


accordance with my promise, where I met Eevs. 
Dreher and Henkel. We preached to a numerous 
assembly; and on Sunday friend Dreher and I 
administered the Lord's Supper to many commu- 
nicants in the presence of a large assembly. I 
arrived at home, thanks to God, safe and well, 
and found my family in good health, although my 
horse could scarcely carry me home." 

Rev. Jacob Scherer's missionary tour was made 
within the State of Ohio, where a great number 
of families, who had emigrated from Korth Caro- 
lina, were then residing, and for whose spiritual 
welfare the Synod of North Carolina was much 

Rev. Scherer accompanied Rev. Miller into 
Virginia, who then made a second tour through 
that State, in 1813, as far down the Shenandoah 
Valley as Winchester, and whose lengthy report 
is published in the minutes of that year. In Pen- 
dleton County, Revs. Scherer and Miller separated 
from each other, each one taking his journey as 
prescribed by Synod. 

Rev. Scherer writes :" On the 4th of June I 
jmrted from Rev. Miller, and taking Mr. Gobel 
with me, we journeyed westwardly towards the 
State of Ohio, passing through Tiger's Valley, a 
region of great spiritual darkness. Proselyting is 
carried on extensively here, and some of the Ger- 
mans have united themselves with the Baptists and 
Methodists, but very few heathens liave become 

" From Clarksburg we went to Marietta, where 


we crossed the Ohio River, and passing New Laii 
caster we came to Dayton on the 17th of June. 
On this route I baptized seven children and one 

" On the following Sunday I preached twice 
among the Germans, who are mostlj" from North 
Carolina, and intend building a church, desiring 
to have a preacher from that State." (The iirst 
English Lutheran Church of Dayton, Ohio, was 
organized and established at a subsequent period 
by a minister from North Carolina, the Rev. D. 
P. Rosen miller, so the writer was informed on his 
visit to that city in 1868.) "From here I visited 
my uncle. Christian Scherer, in which neighbor- 
hood I preached four days, from the 24th to the 
27th, to large congregations; baptized five chil- 
dren. The spiritual condition of Ohio is dark; 
people of all denominations are intermixed, and 
although they have many preachers among them, 
there appears to be a want of such, who have sound 
doctrine and are of good repute. 

" On the 29th of June we left the State of Ohio, 
and proceeded on our homeward journe}'^, and ar- 
rived on the 7th of July in Powell's Valley, where 
I preached and baptized seventeen children. The 
people complained with tears of their desolate 
situation, urgently beseeching us to send them a 
minister. There are man}' families here from 
North Carolina, and several congregations could 
be formed; the people are willing to build houses 
of worship. We promised them that they should 
be visited, and their children instructed and con- 


firmed. On the 9th I preached in Grassy Valley, 
and the next day arrived at Rev. Smith's, who ac- 
companied me from the 13th to the 19th, for here 
Mr. Gobel left me. In one place twenty-five chil- 
dren requested to be instructed and confirmed, 
and other persons subscribed their names to form 
a congregation. 

"On the 20th I formed another congregation 
in the Fork of the Holstein, and eleven young 
people desired to be instructed. On the 21st I 
preached in Rossler's Church ; the congregation 
with joy placed itself under our Synod, and nine 
persons requested to be confirmed. The next day 
I preached in Buler's Church, where a Mr. Zink 
ofliciates, who said that he had been once in Penn- 
sylvania, when Rev. Mr. Helmutli and Smith had 
given him license, but that it had long since ex- 
pired, and still he persuaded the people that he 
had a right to act as a minister. 

"Sunday, the 25th, I preached in a new church 
on the Middle Fork of the Holstein, in Washing- 
ton County, Virginia, w^here a small congregation 
was formed; thirteen persons gave in their names 
for instruction; the Rev. Mr. Flohr promised to 
instruct them. On the North Fork of the Hol- 
stein there is another desolate congregation, which 
had never 3"et been visited. Here I found an ig- 
norant man preaching and baptizing without the 
least ceremony; he takes up the children, pours 
water on them, and says nothing, and yet the poor 
ignorant people know no better, but acknowledge 
him as a minister. 


"On the 28tli I arrived at Eev. Mr. Flohr's, by 
whose loving and brotherly treatment, condescend- 
ing and spiritual conversation, I was exceedingly 
comforted — I was delighted. From here I jour- 
neyed homewards, having traveled in all 1617 
miles, preached 50 times, baptized 72 children and 
one adult, and in connection with Brother Miller, 
and partly alone, 13 congregations were formed, 
consisting of 1175 members, and 215 persons re- 
quested to be instructed in the doctrines of Christ." 

Section 5. Emigration from North Carolina to 
several new States and Territories. 

At what time the exodus from N"orth Carolina 
to other States and Territories commenced can- 
not now be precisely stated. Before the Revolu- 
tionary War, very few English and German settlers 
had crossed the Alleghany Mountains from any 
portion of the Atlantic slope, and during the prog- 
ress of the war, as a matter of course, emigration 
to the West was impossible. Kosv allowing the 
inhabitants of the United States several years' time 
to recover from the effects of the w^ar, and the 
dangers of travel through sparsely settled coun- 
tries and among hostile Indian tribes gradually 
subsiding, this westward emigration scarcely com- 
menced until the beginning of tlie present cen- 
tury, and most probably not until after the pur- 
chase of the Western territory by the United 
States from the government of France, under Na- 


poleon' I, in 1803, usually called "The Louisiana 

Tiiousands of German families, as well as Ameri- 
can citizens, induced by the flattering reports of 
the fertility of the lands in the West, and the ad- 
vantageous offei's made to settlers to secure for 
themselves a home almost "\Yithout money and 
without price," sold their paternal possessions in 
ITorth Carolina, and migrated to Tennessee, Ken- 
tuck}', Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and other States 
and Territories. The Synod of ]N"orth Carolina, 
feeling concerned for the spiritual welfare of its 
former children, and hearing their continued call 
for the bread of life, sent missionaries to these 
settlers to visit them, who, themselves becoming 
enamored with the flattering advantages and pros- 
pects of these "new countries," likewise soon be- 
came classed among the new settlers. In this man- 
ner were Lutheran congregations formed in Oliio, 
Indiana and Illinois, composed almost entirely of 
ISTorth Carolinians; and whilst this was a decided 
advantage to the West, it was, on the other hand, 
a fearful drain u}>on the strength of the Lutheran 
Church in "the old ]S\irth State." 

In man}' instances the German Lutheran settlers 
in the West became so scattered, that it was found 
impracticable to continue tlieir connection with 
the Church of their fathers, and thus were they ab- 
sorbed by other denominations, and lost to the 
Lutheran Church. Concerning all this, a recent 
correspondent to " The Lutheran and jNlissionary " 
expresses himself as follows: "Instead of (the Lu- 


theran Church in Xorth Carolina) being strength- 
ened by immigration into it, it has suffered greatly 
by emigration from it. For forty (and more) years 
large numbers of Lutherans have each year gone 
westward. They and their descendants are found 
in nearly all the Western States. Some of these 
have been gathered into congregations in their 
new homes; but the great majority have been lost, 
not only to the Church in North Carolina, but to 
the Lutheran Church. Some congregations, once 
large and flourishing, have been almost destroyed 
by it. A ver}^ large proportion of the young men 
of the Church of the State have gone entirely be- 
yond her reach. She has not only been weakened 
by these losses, but discouraged." 

In South Carolina the Lutheran Church also 
lost heavily in the number of her membership by 
emigration to other States, but not at this early 
period of her history. Numbers moved away at 
a later date, and formed colonies in Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, many 
of whom are still true to the Church of their 
fathers, whilst others again have connected them- 
selves with other denominations. 


Section 6. Additional Extracts from the Minutes of 
the North Carolina Synod from 1811 to 1815^ 
exhibiting the Bapid Increase of its Influence, 
the Extension of its Borders, a7id its Great Want 
of 3Iinisters. 

The meeting of Synod of 1811 was not well at- 
tended, hence very little business was transacted. 
A special meeting of Synod was therefore held in 
April, 1812, at which time the Synod numbered 
twelve ministers, including the licentiates; nine 
congregations in Tennessee, under the pastoral 
care of Rev. C. Z. H. Smith, connected themselves 
with the Synod at this meeting; the names of 
these churches were, Zion's and Roller's, in Sullivan 
County; Brownsboro and (name not mentioned), 
in Washington County; Patterson, Sinking Spring 
and Cove Creek, in Green County; Lonax and 
Thomas, in Knox and Blount Counties. "A pe- 
tition from South Carolina, signed by 18 Reformed 
and 13 Lutherans, was read, praying that Sj'nod 
should ordain William Hauk as a German Re- 
formed minister, but this Synod, after due con- 
sideration, concluded that they could not consist- 
ently do anything in the matter." 

The parochial reports, ranging from two to 
twenty-four years, and which had never been 
handed in before, sum up as follows: 26 congre- 
gations, 2071 confirmations, 100 adult baptisms; 
infant baptisms and communicants were not re- 
ported ; besides these are the reports of only five 


of the ministers whose congregations were all lo- 
cated in JSTorth Carolina. 

"It was resolved that Sunday-schools should be 
publicly recommended from the pulpit in all our 

A written plan, embracing ten articles, was 
presented to Synod for the purpose " of establish- 
ing schools for our poor children," to be supported 
by voluntary donations from the members of the 
Church; in which schools the German and English 
languages were to be taught. It was also unani- 
mously declared, that Luther's Smaller Catechism 
" must remain the foundation of instruction ;" also 
the catechisms printed by Ambrose Ilenkel & Co., 
were recommended for general adoption. 

"A fervent wish being expressed to enter into 
a nearer and more cordial connection with the 
brethren professing our faith in Pennsylvania, a 
letter of the year 1807, addressed to our Minis- 
terium from the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, was 
read. We felt sorry that, because in said and the 
succeeding year no full Synod had been assem- 
bled, the same was mislaid, and the receipt thereof 
never acknowledged, nor has the letter been an- 
swered. Revs. Storch and Shober were hereupon 
appointed in the name of this Synod to answer 
the said letter, and to send them, at the same time, 
a copy of the principal transactions of this and the 
last Synod, together with the most memorable 
matter of Rev. Miller's missionary tour." 

Rev. Mr. Storch was commissioned to prepare 
a liturgy, and lay the same before the next Synod. 


On the 18tli October, 1812, the regular session 
of Synod was held. President, Rev. E. J. Miller, 
and Rev. G. Shober, Secretary. Rev. Jacob Sherer 
was ordained at this meeting. A letter from Rev. 
J. G. Schmucker, of York, Pa., was read, acknowl- 
edging the receipt of the friendly letter from the 
North Carolina Synod, by the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania, and informing the Synod that their 
President, Rev. Mr. Helmuth, was requested to 
reply to the same. 

The following condensed missionary report of 
Rev. Philip Henkel is inserted in the minutes: 
"I served as missionary preacher from the 11th 
of May to the 7th of August ; traveled 1534 miles, 
preached 50 times, baptized 115 children and 4 
adults, and administered the Lord's Supper 4 times, 
in all to 45 communicants. I found in the States 
of North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, many 
deserted congregations, and they everywhere pray 
that preachers be sent them." 

Two new congregations, organized by Rev. 
Shober, named Hopewell and Bethlehem, were 
received in connection with the Synod; so also 
was the Sandy Run congregation in South Caro- 
lina, under the pastoral care of Rev. Godfrey 

The Synod of 1813 convened in Pilgrim's 
Church, Davidsoii County, IST. C, in October; it 
was well attended by ministers and lay delegates, 
and the minutes contain fifty-two pages of closely 
printed matter, made up principally of sermons 
and the missionary journals of Revs, Miller and 


Soberer. Rev. Storch was elected President, and 
Rev. Shober, Secretary. Revs. David Henkel, J. 
P. Scbmucker, and Daniel Moser, were licensed 
to tbe ministry. Four congregations in Shenan- 
doab and Rockingbam Counties, Virginia, named 
Hoxbiebl, Solomon's, Rider's and Paul's Cburcbes, 
were received in connection witb tbe Synod, 

"Rev. Soberer also gave information tbat fifteen 
congregations, wbicb be bad visited last summer, 
and of wbicb some were newly formed by Rev. 
Miller and bimself, desired to be admitted to our 
association, and to be placed under tbe care of our 
ministry; and tbey were, witb tbanks to our gra- 
cious Lord, accepted, wbicb resolution was, bow- 
ever, accompanied witb tbis deep sigb : ! bad 
we more faitbful servants of tbe Lord ! Li tbese 
fifteen congregations tbere are 1323 souls desirous 
to be waited on witb the word, and out of tbat 
number 241 bave given in tbeir names, requesting 
to be catecbized and confirmed." Wbereupon it 
was resolved to petition tbe Moravian Cburob for 
one or more ministers to labor in connection witb 
tbe Synod, to supply tbe "want of able laborers in 
tbe vineyard of tbe Lord, entrusted to tbe Synod." 

On tbe 16tb of October, 1814, tbe Synod con- 
vened at Organ Cburob, Rowan County, N. C. 
At tbis meeting tbere were eighteen ministers 
present, twelve of whom were licentiates. The 
ofiicers of tbe preceding year were re-elected. It 
was resolved tbat, inasmucb as tbe Pennsylvania 
Synod bad concluded to publish a liturgy, no fur- 
ther steps be taken to prepare one by tbis Synod, 


liopiiig to be united with that Synod in the intro- 
duction of its liturgy in our congregations. 

The congregations in Tennessee having lost 
their minister, Rev. Mr. Smith, by death, during 
the past year, Rev. Philip Ilenkel consented to 
become their pastor. 

A difficulty arose with catechet Michael Mackin, 
who insisted that prayer would not be answered 
unless performed in a kneeling posture, and who 
introduced that position in prayer in the congre- 
gations where he exhorted ; he being absent from 
Synod, Rev. Storch was appointed to examine hira, 
and if still unwilling to conform to the established 
rules of the Church, to withhold his license from 

A circular from the Lutheran congregation in 
Charleston, S. C, was presented, earnestly be- 
seeching the Synod to send them a minister capa- 
ble of preaching in the German and English lan- 
guages. The Synod regretted that none could be 
found among them to labor in this hopeful field, 
and resolved to send that congregation a friendly 
letter, with the promise that if deemed necessary, 
it should be visited the following spring. 

The following congregations were received in 
connection with the Synod: St. Michael's and 
Paul's (Rail's), Lexington District, S. C. One 
congregation in Newberry District, S. C, of which 
Michael and Peter Rickard, Andrew Wecker, and 
Martin Kinard, were elders; and Coldwater 
Church, in Cabarrus County, N. C. 

Li accordance with a written communication 


from brother John Dreher, of South Carolina, 
and upon his desire, it was — 

'■'■Resolved, That negro slaves be instructed in 
our holy religion, and be received into our Church 
as members; and that congregations should make 
proper arrangements in their houses of worship to 
give the slaves also the opportunity to hear the 
Gospel. It was also — 

" Resolved, Tliat all our ministers unite them- 
selves to labor against the pernicious influence and 
consequences of dancing, and seek to prevent it in 
every possible way. 

'■^Resolved, That a special conference be held on 
the third Sunday after Easter, in St. Michael's 
Church, Lexington District, S. C." 

An appendix to the minutes contains the cor- 
respondence as ordered by Synod at its last meet- 
ing, between the Synod's committee, Revs. Storch 
and Shober, and Bishop Yan Vleck, of the Mora- 
vian Church, on the subject of obtaining a supply 
of ministers from that Church. And although the 
Bishop's letter was a very friendly one, yet he re- 
gretted exceedingly, that at that time, no minister 
of their Church could be spared. 

October 15th, 1815, the Synod convened in the 
Lutheran Church in Lincoliiton, N. C, but on ac- 
count of sickness, few ministers were present. 

Resolred, That no minister has a right to leave 
his congregations and labor in another lield when- 
ever he deems it advisable, without informing the 
elders and deacons of his intention some time be- 


forehand, and the matter be l)ronght befcn-e Synod 
for final decision. 

A congregation at McCobbin's Creek, Mecklen- 
burg County, ]Sr. C, was received in connection 
with Synod. Quite a number of petitions from 
three cojigregations in Fairfield County, Ohio, 
from Washington County, Indiana, then still a 
territory, from Sevier County, Tennessee, w^ere 
presented, petitioning Synod for ministers of the 
gospel, but which could only be partially or occa- 
sionally supplied with the means of grace by a 
visiting minister. 

Two congregations in Iredell Count}', K. C, 
named Wew Pearth (now St. Michael's) and Christ 
Churches, were taken into connection with the 
Synod. The other transactions of this meeting of 
Synod are of no special interest. 

Section 7. Origin and History of several new Congre- 
gations established in North and South Carolina. 

From the extracts of the minutes of the North 
Carolina Synod, as given in the preceding section, 
it may be readily perceived that the Synod was 
not only a necessity to the Lutheran Church in 
the two Carolinas, but also to the same Church in 
other States; its influence extended itself into 
Virginia and Tennessee, and even into other and 
more distant States. Congregations placed them- 
selves under its care in such numbers as to distress 
the members of Synod to know how to make pro- 
vision for the spiritual wants of all these churches. 


Not only hundreds, but thousands were added to 
the number of its communing membership in an 
almost incredibl}- short period of time. In addi- 
tion to that, a number of new congregations were 
organized in its immediate territory, likewise 
claiming the attention and care of Synod. 

God certainly gave the Synod a large field to 
occupy, and that was the time when it should have 
taken immediate steps to establish a classical and 
theological school for the education of young men 
to the ministry; and it would have been well, if 
some of the older and more educated ministers 
had abandoned their congregations, if necessar}^, 
but particularly their private interests, such as 
farming, &c., had conscientiously taken this matter 
in hand themselves, and would have gone at once 
as professors into the lecture-room. At first a log 
hut might, have been built for this purpose in al- 
most any locality; this would have sufficed for a 
beginning, until a more convenient and stately 
edifice could have been erected, and at a place 
w^here it might have been made more successful. 
True, a few years later, an eftbrt was made in 
Tennessee to establish such an institution, but it, 
of necessity, became a failure, as shall be shown 
hereafter, for want of proper encouragement and 
good management. 

The new congregations that were formed in 
Il^orth and South Carolina are the following: 

1. Bethel Church, Stanly Count)/, N. C, which is 
more commonly known as "Bear Creek Church," 
on account of its contiguity to that stream. It was 


at this time a unitedly Lutheran and Reformed 
congregation, and its Lutheran members mostly 
belonged previously to St. John's Church, Cabarrus 
County. About the year 1804 divine worship was 
held in Christopher Layerle's barn for two or three 
years, who donated one hundred acres of well-tim- 
bered land to the newly organized congregation; 
the male members then went to work in felling the 
trees, squaring the logs, and piling them up in 
true colonial style, until the new church ediiice 
was sufficiently elevated for having the roof placed 
upon it, and other necessary work done to it. The 
following extract is a translation from its church- 
book: "We erected this church on the 19th and 
20th of March, 1806, in the western part of Mont- 
gomery (Stanly) County, which was quickly brought 
under roof, and was made so far comfortable that 
on the following 25th of May, Whitsunday, service 
was held in it for the first time by Rev. George 
Boger (a German Reformed minister), who was 
our pastor at that time." 

The church v,'as afterwards completed at a cost 
of about §300, and presented a very respectable 
and comfortabe appearance. A petition for aid 
was then drawn up by Theophilus Letter, their 
school-teacher, and was sent to the Lutheran con- 
gregation in Charleston, S. C, who w^ere moved 
to present this infant enterprise with three boxes 
of window glass, which was received with thank- 
fulness, duly recorded with their church-book, and 
accordingly appropriated for the purpose intended. 

This same church building is still standing- in 


all its early strength of architecture, and may re- 
sist the encroachments of time for many years to 

The congregation was for a long time deprived 
of the services of a regular Lutheran pastor, but 
was frequently visited by Revs. Storch and J. W. 
Meyer; and was received into connection with the 
Synod in the year 1810. 

2. Coldioater Creek Church, Cabarrus Counii/, N. 
C, now St. James' Church, Concord, N". C. The 
early records of this congregation have all been 
destroyed by the ravages of those enemies to an- 
cient documents, the rats and mice, who have ap- 
propriated the leaves of the records of this church 
to their own comfort. Audubon, the ornitholo- 
gist, was served once in the same manner, when 
his earliest portfolio leaves were all ruined ; how- 
ever, he could replace what had cost him three 
years' toil to gather together, by once more shoul- 
dering his knapsack and gun, and returning to the 
fields and forests for a renewed suppl}-. But there 
is no such remedy for the seeker after historical 
facts; when once the early records are destroyed 
and lost, no efforts can reproduce them ; diligent 
inquiry and search was made to obtain at least a 
portion of the records of this church, but all in 
vain, the work of destruction was done eftectually. 

Coldwater Church was at one time the oldest 
German religious organization in Western North 
Carolina; it had a pastor even before the Rev. A. 
Nussmann came to America in 1773; this pastor 
was the Rev. Mr. Suther, a German Reformed 


minister, some of whose descendants are still living 
in Concord, ]N". C, and are worthy members of the 
Lutheran Church there. 

Ill Wheeler's Histoiy of North Carolina, vol. ii, 
p. 11, the following record in Governor Trjon's 
journal occurs: "Sunday, August 21st, 1768. 
Heard Mr. Luther, a Dutch minister, preach." 
This is a very brief record, but it contains much 
information, when all the circumstances connected 
with it are considered. Firstbj, the place was near 
Major Phifer's residence, Mecklenburg (now Ca- 
barrus) County, where Governor Tryon with his 
suite lodged from the 19th to the 22d of August. 
Secondly, the church was a German one, called 
"Dutch" according to the common parlance of 
that day, and was none other than the Coldwater 
Church, which was then the nearest German 
church to Major Phifer's residence. Thirdly, the 
minister's name was Suther, and not Luther, 
which is undoubtedly a mistake of the cop3ast of 
the Governor's journal, or of the printer, inasmuch 
as the letter "S," in writing, so nearly resembles 
the letter "L;" for no minister with the name 
"Luther" ever resided in that vicinity, and it is 
known that the Eev. Mr. Suther was the minister 
of that church about that time. Fourthly, the time 
dates the existence of the Coldwater Church as far 
back as 1768. 

Now whether the Lutherans had, at that time, 
a common right in the property of that church 
w^ith the German Reformed is not known. 
Thirty years later a Lutheran minister occasion- 


ally preached there, at least in performing funeral 
services in that church, as may be seen from the 
records of St. John's church-book. This minister 
was the Rev. A. IST. Marcard, then tlie pastor of 
St. Jolin's Church. 

In the minutes of the ISTorth Carolina Synod 
mention is first made of this church in the year 
1814, when it was received in connection with the 
Synod, giving the names of Philip Cress and 
Michael VYinecoft' as its church officers, and it is 
exceedingly probable that its organization as a 
Lutheran congregation, worshiping with the Ger- 
man Reformed, dates back only to about that time. 
In the year 1843, under the pastoral care of Rev. 
W. G. Ilarter, the Lutheran congregation with- 
drew from the Coldwater Church, and erected 
their own house of worship in the town of Con- 
cord, adopting the name of St. James' Church, 
where it continues to exist to the present day. 

3. St. Michaers Church, Lexington District, South 
Carolina. — This congregation is likewise compara- 
tively a new organization, and its church edifice 
is better known as "The Blue Church." 

The congregation originated in the following 
manner: A number of members of Bethel Church, 
on High Hill Creek, were desirous of hearing the 
Word of God in the English language, which in- 
novation being met with much opposition, the 
friends of English preaching withdrew and wor- 
shiped for a time in a schoolhouse, but afterwards 
secured a portion of land by gift or otherwise, and 
erected their own church. A number of members 


from old Ziou's Church also soon connected them- 
selves with the new enterprise. The Rev. God- 
frey Dreher became their first pastor, and their 
first communion was held in the church on the 
fifth Sunday in June, 1814. It was admitted into 
connection with the jSTorth Carolina Synod, Octo- 
ber 18th of the same year. Its elders and deacons 
at that time were: John Wise, John Dreher, 
Samuel Wingard, and Thomas Shuler, whose 
names are mentioned in the minutes of the Synod. 
According to a resolution of the North Carolina 
Synod, a special Conference was held in this 
church, at which Conference the Revs. Storch, 
Miller and Shober, from !N'orth Carolina, w^ere 
present. The Lord's day services were held in 
Bethel Church, April 29th, 1816, "when Rev. 
Charles A. Stork opened public worship by preach- 
ing from John 3 : 14, 15, and the Rev. R. J. Miller 
in the English language from Matt. 21 : 43. During 
the first sermon, the Rev. G. Dreher and Candi- 
date M. Ranch addressed the English visitors out 
of doors, and during the second, the Rev. G. Shober 
addressed an assembly of negroes near the church 
on the subject of Christianity, and afterwards 
preached a sermon in the church from Matt. 13 : 
25, in the German language. It is hoped that 
among that great concourse of people, who list- 
ened attentively during the long service, some 
precious seed fell on good ground. It was then 
thought advisable that the meeting of Conference 
should be held at St. Michael's Church at nine 
o'clock, Monday morning." The above extract 


is taken from the printed minutes of that special 
Conference, and is herein inserted, because this 
was the tirst ecclesiastical meeting of the Lutheran 
Church held in this State. The conventions of 
the Corpus Ecclesiasticuni preceded it some 
twenty-nine years, but it was a German Reformed 
as well as a Lutheran body. 

The object of holding this Conference was to 
adjust certain difficulties, that had arisen and dis- 
turbed the Lutheran Church in South Carolina, 
in reference to the baptism of the children of un- 
worthy church members and of non-professors of 
religion. The decision arrived at was, that the 
children of all such members, who were not ex- 
pelled from the Church, could be presented by 
their own parents for baptism, and that the chil- 
dren of all others were likewise to be baptized, 
provided worthy members of the Church acted 
as sponsors, and presented them to the altar. 
Another vexed question had reference to the col- 
ored population, namely: 1. When should they 
be baptized and confirmed? 2. Should they after- 
wards be immediately admitted to the communion 
or remain awhile in a state of probation? 3. 
Should they belong to the same church with their 
masters, or be at liberty to select a church for 
themselves? 4. Should they bring their own chil- 
dren to baptism themselves? 5. The marriage 
relation was recognized and strictly enforced. A 
resolution was then also passed, requesting Synod 
to publish in the minutes of every year the list of 
its authorized and recoo^nized ministers. 


4. St. Michael's Church, Iredell County, North Caro- 
lina. — The German citizens of Iredell County came 
originaIl3^ from Rowan and Cabarrus Counties. 
All the productive and available lands in these two 
counties had been preoccupied by their forefathers, 
■whose descendants were, therefore, compelled to 
go westward, and many of them occupied lands 
in Iredell that were still vacant, or purchased 
farms from the original Scotch-Irisli settlers. 

This influx of a German population occurred 
about the close of the last or commencement of 
the present century, and owing to the peculiarities 
of their settlement here, many of them are inter- 
married with the original Scotch-Irish colonists, 
and nearly all are more or less scattered over the 
whole of that country, and some of them are of 
necessity located rather remotely from their own 
house of worship. 

The Rev. R. J. Miller was the first Lutheran 
minister who gathered the German settlers in Ire- 
dell County into a congregation, A.D. 1815. This 
fact is ascertained from the church records, as 
well as from the minutes of the Synod of 1815, 
when that congregation was admitted under the 
name of "New Pearth." The church land was 
donated by Mr. Daniel Walcher, and was given 
as joint property for the use of both the Lutheran 
and Episcopal denominations, and was so continued 
as a union house of worship for several j-ears, when 
the Episcopalians withdrew and erected their own 
church a few miles distant from St. Michael's 


Church, leaving the Lutheran congregation the 
sole possessor of that property. 

The church edifice has since been considerably 
enlarged, and is located on a pleasant site near 
the public road leading from Charlotte to States- 
ville, and recently the "Atlantic, Tennessee and 
Ohio Railroad" has been located very near to this 
church and its graveyard. Rev. Mr. Miller contin- 
ued to labor here for six years, when he voluntarily 
disconnected himself from the Lutheran Church, 
in 1821. It was in this congregation that the Rev. 
Simeon W. Harkey, D.D. and his brothers, who are 
also in the ministry, were born and reared up for 
enlarged usefulness in the Lutheran Church. Dr. 
Harkey was for a time President of Illinois State 
University; many interesting circumstances of his 
early life are still related by his former schoolmates 
and early associates. St. Michael's Church has 
lost heavily by the removal of many of its mem- 
bers, principally to the State of Illinois. 

5. McCobbin's Greek Church, Mecklenburg County, 
N. C, is also mentioned in the minutes of the 
Il^orth Carolina Synod, as having been received 
into its connection in 1815. Of its history nothing 
is known to the writer; it is probable, that this is 
the present " Morning Star Church" in that county, 
and now connected with the Tennessee Synod. 
There are, doubtless, other new Lutheran con- 
gregations which were organized in other parts of 
the Carolinas at or before this time, but as they 
are not mentioned in the minutes of the Synod, 


and no other records are at hand, nothing can be 
said concernino; them. 

Section 8. Contimied History of several of the older 
Lutheran Congregations in the Carolinas. 

The Lutheran Church in the interior of South 
Carolina was beginning to present a more hope- 
ful appearance; much good was accomplished by 
the labors of its 3^oung ministers, who had recently 
been licensed or ordained by the ISTorth Carolina 
Synod; the Synod itself was also exerting a whole- 
some influence- upon those churches in South 
Carolina that were connected with it. In New- 
berry District the Rev. F. J. "Wallern was still 
laboring, but he and his congregations remained 
isolated and uninfluenced by synodical counsel 
and authority, consequently no improvement was 
manifested in their condition ; one congregation, 
however, placed itself under the care of Synod in 
1814, whose elders' and deacons' names have been 
mentioned, yet it is not stated who was its pastor 
at that time. 

Soon after the death of Rev. C. E. Bernhardt, in 
1809, the churches in Lexington District, on both 
sides of the Saluda River, were served by the Rev. 
Godfrey Dreher, who was licensed by the ]^orth 
Carolina Synod in 1810, and labored there for a 
number of years, having still the charge of Zion's, 
St. Peter's, and other more recently organized 
congregations, as late as 1848, at about which time 


he resigned. The Rev. J. Y. Meetze also resided 
and preached in this District, serving several con- 
gregations; and after the year 1814, the Rev. J. 
P. Franklow, who resigned his charge in Orange- 
burg District, likewise labored in Lexington, so 
that the congregations in this District were for the 
time well supplied with ministerial labor. 

The Sandy Run congregation was supplied once 
a month with the means of grace by Revs. Dreher, 
Franklow and Rauch, from and after the year 
1812; Rev. Franklow, however, soon afterwards 
resigned; whether Rev. Rauch continued to preach 
there any length of time is not stated, but Rev. 
Dreher remained the pastor of that church until 
the close of the year 1821. 

The St. Matthew's charge in Orangeburg Dis- 
trict was supplied with a pastor in the Rev. J. P. 
Franklow, who remained in office in that charge 
until 1814, when he resigned, and Rev. M. Rauch 
became hi^s successor. By resolution of the North 
Carolina Synod, he also took the oversight of the 
two congregations in Barnwell District. 

The Lutheran church in Charleston was vacant 
from the year 1811, but was supplied with the 
means of grace, six months at a time, by several 
Episcopal clergymen, until the Rev. John Bachman, 
from the State of New York, became the pastor in 
January, 1815. Of his arrival in Charleston and 
of his pastoral labors more will be stated in the 
next section. 

The various churches in Lincoln County, N. C, 
were served with the pastoral labors of Revs. R. 


J. Miller, David Henkel and Daniel Moser; the 
latter became the successor of Rev. Philip Henkel, 
who had resigned and accepted the call to the 
Tennessee congregations, made vacant by the 
death of Rev. C. Z. II. Smith. 

The two congregations in Cabarrus County were 
supplied by the Rev. C. A. G. Storch ; St. John's 
Church was served as a part of his regular charge, 
whilst the Coldwater congregation received occa- 
sional visits from him. The other now existing 
congregations in this county were not organized at 
that time. 

In Rowan County Rev. Storch was laboring still 
at Organ Church, in the bounds of which he then 
resided; it is probable that he also served Savage's 
or Sewits' Church, now called Lutheran Chapel; 
but the Union or Pine Church he had resigned, 
and the Rev. J. W. Meyer became its pastor. 

St. John's Church, in Salisbury, was at this time 
still vacant; it had become a neglected field, and, 
according to the provisions in the title granted by 
Mr. Beard, the Episcopalians occupied the church, 
since they had no house of worship of their own, 
and the few remaining Lutherans worshiped with 

The churches in Davidson County were served 
faithfully by their pastor. Rev. Lewis Markert, 
from 1805 to 1816, when he removed to the State 
of Indiana, where he continued to labor until the 
Lord called him home, November 22d, 1850. 
After the removal of Rev. Markert, and at the 
request of the vacant congregations, the Synod, in 


1816, appointed Rev. G. Shober to supply two of 
the cburches of that charge, whilst the remaining 
two were placed under the care of Rev. J. W. 
Meyer. In 1817, Catechet Daniel Walcher was 
sent by Synod to labor in these vacant churches, 
where he remained until 1821, when he removed 
to Pendleton County, Virginia. 

In the year 1810, the Rev. Jacob Scherer became 
the pastor of the churches in Guilford and Orange 
Counties, which had been vacant about four years, 
but through the energetic and faithful labors of 
Rev. Scherer's ministry, this charge became one of 
the most promising in the State. His catechetical 
instructions were specially blessed. At one time 
a certain young man came to him and declared 
that " he would not for the whole world have been 
without these instructions, for by means of them 
he had found what was worth more than the world 
to him." The Rev. Jacob Grieson was licensed 
to preach the gospel in 1810, and labored as an 
assistant pastor with Rev. Scherer, accomplishing 
much good, and was always willing and prepared 
to lighten the burdens and labors of the regular 
pastor in that extensive charge. 

The congregations in Forsythe County, near 
Salem, l!f. C, were greatly built up by the efficient 
labors of their first pastor, the Rev. Gottlieb Scho- 
ber, who commenced his ministry there in 1810, 
and continued in charge of these churches to the 
close of his life, June 27th, 1838. 


Section 9. AiTival of Rev. John Bachman as Pastor 
of St. John's Lutheran Church in Charleston., 
S. C, a7id his Beijort on the State of the Coun- 
try and of the Condition of the Lutheran Church 
in America in the year 1815. 

At last we have reached that period in the his- 
tory of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas 
which comes withiji the range of still living wit- 
nesses, one of whom is the Rev. John Bachman, 
D.D., LL.D., now in his eighty-third year, and in 
the tifty-eighth year of his ministry in Charleston, 
S. C, as pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church; 
and though no longer able to preach the gospel, 
he still manifests the liveliest interest in the wel- 
fare and prosperity in the Lutheran Church, both 
in his own Synod and in America; and has but 
recently (March 28th, 1872) been permitted, in a 
reclining posture, to participate in the dedication 
of St. Matthew's German Lutheran Church of 

It is not designed to give a sketch of Dr. Bach- 
man's life and yiinistry in this section of this work, 
as it would require more than a few pages, and 
belongs properly to biographical literature; be- 
sides, it would bring at once the history of Luther- 
anism in Charleston to its present date, and disar- 
range the entire plan of this work. Rev, Dr. 
Bachman's name, life and labors will now accom- 
pany and be included in the history of the Lu- 
theran Church in the Carolinas to the present day, 


as he is inseparably connected with it as one of its 
most useful and prominent ministers. 

On Sunday, January 10th, 1858, Dr. Bachmari 
preached an anniversary sermon to his congrega- 
tion, on tlie occasion of his having then been forty- 
three years their pastor. This sermon has been 
published, and furnishes the Church the most in- 
teresting incidents in his life and ministry, besides 
embracing a report on the state of the country 
and of the condition of the Lutheran Church in 
America in the year 1815. Truly that was the 
day of small things to the Lutheran Church in 
this country, when her ministry numbered not 
quite one hundred, and there were still but three 
Synods in the United States, — the New York, the 
Pennsylvania, and the ITorth Carolina Synods. 

The following extracts are taken from Dr. Bach- 
man's anniversary sermon : 

"On the 10th of January, 1815,1 arrived in this 
city for the purpose of taking charge of this con- 
gregation. A meeting of the vestry- of the church 
took place on the 12th, two days afterwards, and 
the charge of the congregation was, in due form, 
committed to my trust. This day, then, is the 
forty-third anniversary of my arrival to engage in 
the ministry in this city. 

" On the 10th, the day of my arrival, I attended 
the first funeral service, which was performed by 
another clergyman, who had previously been en- 
gaged, and on the 16th I performed the first bap- 
tismal service. 


"ili?/ Antecedents. 

"I was licensed by the Lutheran Sj'nod ofKew 
York in 1813, having previously been elected pas- 
tor of three congregations in the vicinity of my 
own neighborhood, in the county of Rensselaer, 
IT. Y., where I would have gladly spent the re- 
mainder of my days, among the friends and rela- 
tives of my boyhood and early youth. A hemor- 
rhage of the lungs, however, of which I had been 
attacked whilst at college, was making a fearful 
inroad on my health, and I was advised by my 
physicians to seek relief in a more southern cli- 
mate. A call had been sent from this congrega- 
tion to the President of the Synod of New York, 
Dr. Quitman, with a request that he should rec- 
ommend some clergyman who might be adapted 
to this field of labor. He was the father of the 
present General Quitman, and was regarded as 
one of the most learned and eloquent men of his 
day. He and my ever faithful friend, Dr. Mayer, 
of Philadelphia, proposed my name to this congre- 
gation. They immediately sent me a call to be- 
come their pastor. After consultation with my 
family and congregation, they reluctantly gave 
me leave of absence for nine months, during which 
time the hope was expressed that my health 
would be sutticiently restored to enable me to re- 
sume my ministerial labors among them. As the 
Lutheran Church had scarcely an existence in our 
Southern States, and as we had no Synod here, an 


extra meeting of tlie Synod of New York was con- 
vened in December, 1814, at Rhinebeck, Dutch- 
ess County, the place of my nativity, for the pur- 
pose of ordaining me. The ordination services 
were performed by Dr. Quitman and the other 
officers of the Synod in the Lutheran church at 
Rbinebeck, where I had been baptized in infancy. 
"Without returning home, I proceeded on my way 
to this city. 

" The State of our Coimtiy. 

" We were in the midst of a three years' war 
with the most powerful of foreign nations. Fear- 
ful battles had occurred on our Northern frontiers, 
on the ocean and on the lakes. The traces of de- 
vastation and death were visible in the half-cov- 
ered graves along the highway between Baltimore 
and Washington. The blackened walls of the 
Capitol at Washington, and the waste and destruc- 
tion in every part of the city, presented an awful 
picture of the horrors of war. On my arrival bere 
I found our citizens working on the lines of de- 
fence thrown around the landside of our city — 
even ladies went there with hoes and spades to 
cheer the citizen soldiers by their presence, their 
countenance and example, and I too joined, at least 
in form, for it was our common country tbat was 
to be defended. In the meantime the battle of New 
Orleans had been fought, on the 8th of January, 
and a treaty of peace had been signed at Ghent; 


but these important events were not known until 
some time afterwards. The war had fallen heavily 
on our Southern people. The principal staple of 
our commerce, cotton, had for several years, during 
the embargo and war, been sold at a mere nominal 
value, and was stored away in various depositories 
in King Street. Our city was then only a village 
compared with its present growth, and the grass 
was growing in our most public streets. Men had 
the necessaries of life, and these were cheap; but 
all the means of enterprise and all the avenues to 
wealth were closed up. Fortunately men were 
driven to the necessity of manufacturing their nec- 
essary articles, and they were compelled to deny 
themselves luxuries; they studied economy, and 
hence there was not much sufiering among our 
people from any want of the necessaries of life. 
But the constant dread of invasion, the suiFerings 
and dangers to which our friends who were in' the 
army and at sea were constantly exposed, kept the 
minds of our citizens in an unsettled and feverish 
state. The means of traveling were very differ- 
ent from what they are now in the days of steamers 
and railroads. The roads were almost impassable; 
as an evidence of this, I would state that with the 
exception of a Sabbath on which I preached for 
Dr. Mayer, of Philadelphia, I came in the regular 
stage line, which traveled day and night, and ar- 
rived at Charleston on the morning of the twenty- 
ninth day after leaving Dutchess County, which is 
a hundred miles north of the city of New York. 


111 the meantime our vehicles were either broken 
or overturned eight times on the journey. 

" The State of the Lutheran Church in America at 
the time of my Arrival at the South. 

"The Lutheran Church in America was at a 
very low ebb. There were only three Synods, one 
in New York, composed of seven ministers; one 
in Pennsylvania, which in point of numbers was 
considerably larger; and a small Synod in North 
Carolina." (In the North Carolina Synod there 
were, October 17th, 1814, the last meeting of 
Synod previous to Dr. Bachman's arrival, nine 
ordained ministers and eleven licentiates, twenty 
ministers in all.) "Our ministers, with very few 
exceptions, performed service exclusively in the 
German language. This was a great error, inas- 
much as it excluded from the Church the descend- 
ants of Lutherans, who had b}^ education and 
association adopted the language of the country. 
Our doctrines were not objectionable to them, but 
they could not understand the language in which 
they were promulgated. Thus the progress of the 
Church was greatly retarded in consequence of 
the bigoted attachment of our ancestors, and es- 
pecially their clergy, to a foreign language. Since 
the introduction of the English language into our 
ministrations the Church has made rapid progress. 


" The State of our Church in Charleston^ South Caro- 
lina^ and in the other Southern States. 

"When I arrived here the congregation wor- 
shiped in a small wooden church, situated in the 
rear of the present church; it was an antiquated 
building of a peculiar construction, resembling 
some of the old churches in the rural districts of 
Germany. The congregation was composed of 
Germans, who, during the stormy season of the 
Revolution, had been the strenuous advocates and 
defenders of the rights of their adopted country. 

" The services continued for many years to be 
conducted in the German' language. The Rev. 
Mr. Faber, the younger of two brothers, who were 
pastors of this congregation, introduced the ser- 
vice in the English language. After his death, 
there was for several years no minister of the Lu- 
theran Church presiding over this congregation. 
I have scarcely a doubt that the congregation was 
preserved from total annihilation through the pious 
zeal and devotion of the venerable Jacob Sass, who, 
for a long series of years, was the president of the 
vestry, and who was one of the purest and best 
men with whom it has been my privilege ever to 

"It does not become me to speak of my own 
labors in this congregation ; suffice it to say, that 
I feel how imperfect are the best eftbrts of man, 
and wherever there has been any success, let us 
ascribe all the praise and glory to God, to whom 


they legitimately belong. Men are but the instru- 
ments in His hands, and He, the Master, often 
gives the blessing whilst the servant is unworthy. 

" For many years the Germans of our city formed 
a part of this congregation ; I preached for them 
in the German language, at first, once a month, 
and for some years afterwards, occasionally in the 
evenings. For nearly twenty years I preached 
three sermons on each Sabbath. I now feel con- 
vinced from experience that this labor is beyond 
the capacity of most constitutions, especially in 
our debilitating climate. In the autumn of 1837, 
my health and strength failed me. My congrega- 
tion, feeling a deep interest in the preservation of 
my life and the restoration of my enfeebled health, 
unanimously requested me to remove for a season 
from my field of labor. I left my home and peo- 
ple in 1838, believing that I looked upon the land 
of my nativity for the last time, and that I was 
destined to breathe my last breath among strangers 
in a foreign land. I was absent eight months, 
during which time I wandered nearly over all Eu- 
rope, and was received with a sympathy, kindness, 
and untiring hospitality that have left deep traces 
of gratitude on my heart. I returned in January, 
1839, with health partially restored. For a few 
years, until my health was re-established, this con- 
gregation engaged an assistant minister. 

" I cannot here withhold from you the candid 
admission that the establishment of our Church in 
the South was a source of greater anxiety to my 
mind than even the prosperity of my own congre- 


gation. I came as a pioneer in our holy cause. 
For several years I held my membership with the 
Synod of New York. "We had very few materials 
in the South from which the Church could be 
built up ; no emigrants from abroad. 

" There were Lutherans in Lexington and 
Orangeburg Districts, but they were almost desti- 
tute of the means of grace. There had been a 
church in Savainiah, erected before the Revolution, 
that belonged to the Lutherans, but it was burnt 
down in 1797. This congregation contributed $500 
towards rebuilding it; no congregation was, how- 
ever, subsequently organized, and the small build- 
ing was occupied as a Sunda3'-school by another 
denomination. They were visited, a congregation 
was organized from the materials which could be 
collected, and a clergyman, who had been raised 
up in this congregation, became their pastor. 
They have now a new church and a flourishing 
congregation. Ebenezer was also visited. The 
pastor there, who seemed not aware that Luther- 
anism had any existence in the South, had taken 
a license in another Church. He soon became a 
co-worker with us, and they have now two pastors 
and several churches in the neighborhood. We 
at length began to discuss the propriety of form- 
ing a Synod in our State. We had no theological 
school, we had but three or four pastors who were 
able to perform duty, and the few Lutherans that 
remained were either poor or in very moderate 

" On my first arrival here I became a member 


of the German Friendly Society, which was then 
composed of nearly one hundred members; these 
have all passed away, and I am now the oldest 
member. Of the few communicants I found in 
this church at my arrival, one only is now alive. 
The vestrymen, whose names were signed to my 
call, were: Jacob Sass, President; Abraham 
Markley, John Strohecker, Heiiry Horlbeck, 
Jacob Strobel, J. E. Schirmer, Benjamin A. Mark- 
ley, Jacob Eckhardt, Sr., and John Strobel. War- 
dens : J. M. Ilofl", C. C. Philips, Adolph Beckman, 
and Anthony A. Pelzer. All these have gone to 
their account. 

" Of the committee of twenty-one who, in 1815, 
reported on the expediency of building this church, 
all are dead. Of the pastors who occupied the 
pulpits of our city on my arrival, not one is now 
living. Of the managers of the Bible Society, who 
met me in 1815, 1 only am left, and of its members 
I am the oldest on their record. At our first con- 
firmation in 1816, of sixty-four persons, who were 
then dedicated to God, nine only are now alive. 

"I have given you a very brief and imperfect 
sketch of the days that are past in my long min- 
istry. Time will not permit me to enter into any 
details; they would fill volumes. Little now re- 
mains of that thread of life, which has been spun 
out in the midst of you. I would not wish to re- 
call that life, unless it could be spent in greater 
usefulness to you and to others, and I trust, through 
the mercy of that Savior who died for a fallen 
world, I will be prepared to resign it cheerfully 


into the hands of tliat God who gave it, whenever 
He shall see fit to call me hence. This congrega- 
tion was the only one of which I have had charge 
since my ordination. To all invitations from other 
sources in the Church and seats of learning — offer- 
ing higher pecuniary advantages — I did not hesi- 
tate a moment in giving a negative reply." 

Such matter in Rev. Dr. Bachman's sermon, 
which was not strictly of a historical character, or 
which had been quoted in other parts of this book, 
in its proper clironological position, has been 
omitted ; other historical data, brought out in the 
Doctor's discourse, but referring to a later period, 
will find their place in some of the succeeding 

Section 10. The Ordination Question, and Opposition 
to the Licensure of Candidates for the Ministry. 

The principal transactions of the North Carolina 
Synod during the year 1816, w^ere certain reports 
and resolutions on the cpiestion of ordination, 
which were occasioned as follows: 

In consequence of the great want of ministers, 
and in order to preserve harmony and uniformit}' 
with the Pennsylvania Synod, the licensure system 
was adopted also by the Synod of JSTorth Carolina. 
This system is altogether an American feature, so 
far as the Lutheran Church is concerned, and 
arose entirely on account of the great paucity and 
want of ministers of the gospel in this country. 


The various Lutheran congregations which had 
been organized in America, besought the different 
Synods to furnish them preachers or pastors; but 
what could the Synods do towards answering 
these numerous and repeated calls made upon 
them? Few ministers came or were sent from 
Germany, and no university or college had as yet 
been established for the education of candidates 
for the ministry by the Lutheran Church in this 
country; it was, therefore, thought expedient to 
license persons who could exhort and catechize, to 
take charge of these vacant churches, at the same 
time making it the duty of the ordained ministers 
residing in the vicinity to administer the sacra- 
ments as frequently as possible in those congrega- 
tions. These exhorters were called catechets. A 
course of study was prescribed for them in Latin, 
Greek and theology, to be studied privately or 
with some of the older ministers; as soon as they 
stood a fair examination, they were advanced in 
their ministerial standing and received license, to 
be renewed every year, to administer all the ordi- 
nances of the Church, They were called candi- 
dates, and were obliged to continue their studies, 
report their ministerial acts to Synod, bring a writ- 
ten sermon annually for examination, and, wlien- 
ever they passed a good examination on their 
studies, character and ministerial usefulness, were 
solemnly ordained to the gospel ministry. They 
were then called pastors, enjoying all the privileges 
of the older ministers. This arrangement was re- 


established dift'erent grades or orders of the min- 

There now arose in Lincohi County, 'N. C. a 
great opposition to this system, because the candi- 
dates were authorized to perform all ministerial 
acts without having been previously ordained; a 
long statement, covering more than three pages 
of the minutes of Synod for 1816, is devoted to 
this subject, from which the following extracts are 
made : 

"Upon the adoption of the report (on the licen- 
sure of a number of candidates), a sad opposition 
manifested itself from Lincoln County, and, under 
the pretext that disturbances had been caused in 
said county by the impression that it was anti- 
christian for any one to administer the sacraments 
without ordination, it was vehemently insisted 
upon that the candidates be ordained." Here fol- 
lows a lengthy statement of the reasons why the 
Synod adopted and continued the licensure sys- 
tem, namely: that it had been a blessing to the 
Church, and that the Synod wished to conform also 
in this particular usage to the long-established 
practice of their brethren in Pennsylvania. The 
report of the Pennsylvania Synod on this subject, 
as found in its minutes of 1814, is also given, which 
report reads as follows: 

"Upon motion, the ordained ministers were 
called upon to express their opinion on the ques- 
tion proposed by the (North) Carolina Ministerium, 
namely, ' Have candidates the right to -perform the Ac- 
tus 31inisteriales ivithout a jjrevious laying on of hands V 


Some expressed their opinions verbiiUy, others in 
writing. It was unanimously — 

'■^Resolved, That, according to the testimony of 
the Bible and the history of the Church, a written 
authority is equally as valid as the imposition of 
hands, that our ministerial arrangement is not in 
opposition to the principles of the Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church, and that, therefore, licensed can- 
didates can perform all Actus Ministeriales with 
a good conscience." The Secretary of the North 
Carolina Synod adds yet this remark to the above 
resolution of the Pennsylvania Synod: "At this 
Synod twentj'-two ordained ministers and twenty- 
nine candidates were present, and all were agreed 
on this subject ; their resolutions and opinions were 
sent to us in writing in 1814; we should, there- 
fore, be uniform in practice, and one or two other- 
wise thinking individuals among us should yield 
that much from motives of love. 

"All, however, was of no avail; therefore, upon 
motion of Rev. Shober, it was resolved to make 
the following alteration for one year only: that if 
the present candidates can pass through their this 
year's examination, their license be handed them 
publicly before the congregation, after having af- 
firmatively answered that they would observe all 
what the Bible and the Augsburg Confession re- 
quires of a minister, and that in the name of the 
Church a blessing be pronounced upon them with 
imposition of hands. 

"The President (Rev. Mr. Storch), protested 
openly against this innovation; the resolution 


was, nevertheless, adopted. And, inasmuch as 
the President could not conscientiously perform 
this ceremony, he requested Rev. Shober to attend 
to this duty for him." A fear is also expressed in 
the minutes, that all this V70uld eventually cause 
a division in the Church. 

At the next meeting of Synod, in 1817, the sub- 
ject came up again, and was finally disposed of by 
vote, Rev. R. J. Miller being the only one who 
voted in the negative, namely, against the licen- 
sure of candidates. 

From all this we can also arrive at the number 
of Lutheran ministers in the United States in 1814. 
The Pennsylvania Synod, 51 present, probably 
only a few absent at that meeting; the New York 
Synod, 7; and the JSTorth Carolina Synod, 21; 
Total, 79. Suppose we allow 6 absentees to the 
Pennsylvania Synod, then we have 85 Lutheran 
ministers in 1814 in this country. This number 
also agrees witli the statement made by Rev. Dr. 
Hazelius, in an inaus-ural address. 

Section 11. The Literary Institution in Tennessee 
for the Education of Jlinisters ; and the Publi- 
cation by authority of the North Carolina Synod 
of a book called '■^ Lidher.^' 

In East Tennessee Lutheranism was spreading 
rapidly; three new congregations, named Union, 
Hopeful and Lick Creek, were organized, and 
connected themselves with the Synod in 1817; 


and in this State, where a few years ago there was 
but one minister, the Rev. G. Z. H. Smith, there 
were now four laborers, namely, Revs. Philip 
Henkel, Jacob Zink, Adam Miller and Joseph 
E. Bell; the last mentioned was a good classical 
scholar, and was received as a catechet in 1816, 
in accordance with his own request, and because 
he could not be present at Synod that year; the 
next year, however, being present, he was regu- 
larly licensed as a candidate. 

In 1817, Revs. Philip Henkel and Jos. E. Bell, 
commenced a classical and theological seminary 
on their own responsibility, at which the Synod 
was greatly rejoiced, for it was high time that 
something was done in that direction. A report 
on this institution, and the action of the Synod in 
reference to it, are here presented. 

"Rev. Philip Henkel reported, that in Green 
County, in the State of Tennessee, a seminar}^ on 
a small scale, was established under his and Rev. 
Bell's supervision, in which theology, the Greek, 
Latin, German and English languages are taught, 
and in which Rev. Bell is the principal teacher. In 
accordance with a report, said seminary was re- 
ceived with joy under the couiisel and aid of 
Synod, with the- confident expectation that this 
small beginning, by the help of God, located in 
so healthy and cheap a region of countr}', this insti- 
tution, so long and earnestly desired, may prosper 
in such a manner, that many well-qualified minis- 
ters and missionaries may be educated as preachers 
of the glorious Gospel of Jesus in all parts of the 


world, who will be prepared to give to every man 
a reason of the hope that is in them. Thousands 
of the present aiid future generations will then 
thank both those who have been instructed in that 
institution, as well as those who have contributed 
their gifts for the support of this new enterprise, &c. 

"A letter was also read to Synod from Rev. Mr. 
Bachman, pastor in Charleston, South Carolina, 
in which he expresses his joy and desire to labor 
in harmony with us, and greatly desires to see 
that a seminary for the education of ministers be 
established, and that his congregation would gladly 
contribute towards the support of the enterprise; 
furthermore, that the New York Ministerium, to 
which he belongs, would willingly aid us with 
missionaries, and that he regrets that, at this 
season of the year, he cannot be present with us. 

"The reading of this letter was listened to with 
much rejoicing; and as the time for the meeting 
of Synod is now changed, we hope to have the 
pleasure, through Rev. Bachman, to become more 
intimately acquainted with the New York Minis- 

Arrangements were also made to take up col- 
lections the following May in all the congrega- 
tions for the support of tlie seminary in Tennessee. 

It is sad to relate that this institution was short- 
lived, because it was remotely located, and there- 
fore did not properly come under the influence of 
Synod; also, because the leading men of Synod 
did not take hold of it themselves. They were 
very willing to extend their counsel, sympathy 


and aid, when others did the work in establishing 
it; but that is not the proper way to build up an 
institution, which requires the entire wisdom and 
energy of all the members of Synod. 

But the principal cause of the failure of this in- 
stitution at that time was the division which arose 
in the Lutheran Church in the South in 1819. 
After the year 1820, nothing more of importance 
is known of this seminary in Tennessee. 

From the minutes of Synod for 1819 the infor- 
mation is received that $246.75 was sent from 
South Carolina in aid of this institution, out of 
which Rev. Bachman's congregation had contrib- 
uted $221.75. 

Concerning Rev. Shober's book, familiarly en- 
titled, "Luther,'" and published by authority of 
Synod, the following action was taken. In 1816, 
on motion of Rev. Philip Henkel, it was resolved 
that the secretary. Rev. Shober, compile all the 
rules adopted by this Synod, and publish them in 
the English language, inasmuch as our Church is 
very little known among the English inhabitants. 

In accor(hince with this resolution, the Secre- 
tary prepared and laid before Synod in 1817, "A 
manuscript compilation entitled: Comprehensive 
Account of the Rise and Progress of the Refor- 
mation of the Christian Church by Dr. Martin 
Luther, actually begun on the 31st day of October, 
A.D. 1517; together with views of his character 
and doctrine, extracted from his books; and how 
the Church, established by him, arrived and pro- 
gressed in North America; as also the Constitu- 


tion and Rules of that Chorcli in North Carolina 
and adjoining States as existing in October, 1817." 

"On motion, a committee, consisting of the 
Rev. R. J. Miller, Philip Henkel and Joseph E. 
Bell, was appointed to examine the same." A 
few days afterward the committee reported: 
"That they had examined said manuscript, and 
do highly approve of its contents, and recommend 
it to be published, believing that it will have a 
beneficial efiect throughout our congregations, 
and give succinct information to other Christians 
what the Lutheran Church is." 

"The Synod unanimously adopted said report, 
and directed the treasurer to have 1500 copies 
printed." The proceeds of the sale of this book 
were to be applied to the Tennessee Seminary and 
other synodial objects. 

The contents of this book are : a history of the 
Reformation, a history of the Lutheran Church 
"transplanted to America," particularly in iSTorth 
Carolina and other Southern States; the Augsburg 
Confession; Constitution and Rules adopted by 
the North Carolina Synod; extracts from Luther's 
writings; and some concluding remarks. 

The character of the book appears on some of 
its pages to be soundly Lutheran; on other pages 
compromising and unionistic. The tenth and 
eleventh articles of the Augsburg Confession are 
not passed by without a comment, in the shape of 
a foot-note, weakening their force, and making 
them agreeable to all denominations. In the 
"Conclusion" the following remarks occur: "I 



have attentively examined the doctrine of the 
Episcopalian Church, read many excellent authors 
of the Presbyterians, know the Methodist doctrine 
from their book, 'Portraiture of Methodism,' and 
am acquainted with the Baptist doctrine, so far as 
that they admit and adore Jesus the Savior. 
Among all those classes, who worship Jesus as a 
God, I see nothing of importance to prevent a 
cordial union; and how happy would it be if all 
the Churches could unite, and send deputies to a 
general meeting of all denominations," &c., &c. 

This full account of the action of Synod in ref- 
erence to this book, and this full description of it, 
have been given for very good reasons, which are 
briefly as follows : 

Firstly, inasmuch as the Synod authorized the 
secretary to write this book, had it examined by 
a committee, had adopted it without a dissenting 
voice, had it published at the expense of Synod, 
had it afterwards scattered in its congregations, 
and generally circulated, the conclusion, there- 
fore, is natural, that the Synod was perfectly satis- 
fied with its contents, that the sentiments therein 
expressed were the sentiments of Synod at that 
time, and that all its ministers were united in the 
faith as therein exhibited. 

Secondli/, inasmuch as Revs. Philip Henkel and 
J. E. Bell composed two-thirds of the committee 
to examine this book, and reported favorably, 
^^ highly cqjproving of its contents," branding the 
eleventh article of the Augsburg Confession as 
"conciliatory" to the Roman Catholics, but no 


longer observed; tl^at their faith and opinions in 
regard to those doctrines and usages were in har- 
mon}' at that time with those of Rev, Shober, its 

Thirdhj, inasmuch as Revs, David Henkel, Philip 
Henkel and others of the then future Tennessee 
Synod circulated this book by sale, up to the time 
of their withdrawal from the North Carolina 
Synod, it is but reasonable to conclude, that doc- 
trinal diflerences did not, at first, cause the divi- 
sion in the Church in the years 1819 and 1820. 

In short, the fact is apparent that all the mem- 
bers of Synod, with many of their forefathers before 
them, both in America and in the greater part of 
Germany, had gradually departed from the pure 
faith as confessed by the Reformers. 

Section 12. The Convention which was called for the 
purpose of organizing a General Synod. 

On the 19th of October, 1817, the Synod of 
North Carolina convened at Pilgrim's Church, 
Davidson County, N. C. 

At this synodical meeting it was resolved that, 
owing to the prevalence of sickness during the fall 
season, the time when the meetings of Synod had 
been generally held, the Synod hereafter shall be 
convened on Trinity Sunday of each j'ear. This 
time of meeting was '■'■ firmly fixed'" (vest gesetzt). 
It was also resolved that the next meeting of Synod 
shall take place on Trinity Sunday of 1819; con- 


sequeiitly there was no meeting of Synod held in 
1818, since that year's Trinity Sunday occurred 
only about seven months after the last meeting of 
Synod ; the next meeting was therefore postponed 
to Trinity Sunday of 1819. 

This arrangement became the occasion of a 
threefold difficulty, namely : nineteen months with- 
out a meeting of Synod was too long a time to in- 
tervene for the welfare of the Church ; many evils 
might have been prevented had a meeting of Synod 
taken place in 1818. Too many important inter- 
ests were intrusted to its care, and the Synod 
should have heeded the warning contained in 
Matt. 13 : 25. Then again, the call from the Penn- 
sylvania Synod to consult with that body, during 
its session in Baltimore on Trinity Sunday of 1819, 
about the propriety of organizing a General Synod, 
presented another difficulty, conflicting with the 
time of the meeting of the J^orth Carolina Synod, 
and occasioned no little trouble to arrange this 
matter properly. The third difficulty will become 
apparent in the next section of this book. 

In compliance with the call of the Pennsylvania 
Synod, the North Carolina Synod was convened 
six weeks before the time appointed, on the second 
Sunday after Easter, as the following statement in 
the English minutes of Synod of 1819 fully ex- 

"The cause of changing the time of meeting of 
the Synod from Trinity Sunday to this day was 
explained, namely : that at the last Synod of the 
Lutheran ministry in Pennslvania, a general de- 


sire was expressed, if possible, to effect a more in- 
timate union with all the Synods of our Church in 
the United States; which was officially communi- 
cated by the officers of their Ministerium to our 
secretary, and in private letters from other reverend 
sources. This information was then communicated 
to ministers of our Synod, and particularly to our 
reverend president, and all such w^ho, in the vicin- 
ity, could be informed thereof, united in opinion, 
that towards a union of our Church in this exten- 
sive country all possible assistance ought to be ren- 
dered on our part. But as the Synod of Pennsyl- 
vania and adjacent States was this year to meet in 
Baltimore on Trinity Sunday, and the officers of 
their last Synod had invited us to send a deputy 
or deputies to the same ; the consideration whether 
this Synod would send deputies could not be post- 
poned to the same day, and for that reason this 
meeting was called at this time. And after the 
said letters from the reverend secretary, Endress, 
of Lancaster, and the reverend president. Loch- 
man, were read, this Synod unanimously approved 
of our present meeting. 

" It was further unanimously agreed that our 
reverend president, with the consent of two or 
three ordained ministers residing in his vicinity, 
is authorized to call a Sjniod, and to make other 
orders and regulations which will not admit of 
delay ; and which should be valid until the suc- 
ceeding meeting of the Synod." 

This would have all been well enough, if the 
matter which claimed their earlier attention had 


been urgent; also if the time of the meeting of 
Synod had not been "iirml}^ fixed." 

That the question, concerning the establishment 
of a General Synod, did not require speedy action 
at that time is evident from the fact, that the meet- 
ing in Baltimore in 1819 was simply an annual 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Synod; where the 
question was to be discussed as to the 'propriety of 
organizing a General Synod ; it was certainly in- 
judicious haste on the part of the ISTorth Carolina 
Synod to disarrange its own Church affairs, merely 
to send a deputy to a meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Synod ; at which meeting no steps could possibly 
be taken, except to discuss the question and call 
for a convention of delegates from all the Synods. 
The North Carolina Synod should have had more 
respect for its own legislation at its last meeting, 
and let "firmly fixed" remain so, until reconsid- 
ered and changed at a regular meeting of Synod. 

"After deliberating on the manner how a de- 
sirable union of the whole Church might best be 
eftected, it appeared unnecessary to send more 
than one deputy at the beginning of an attempt 
towards a union ; because if one deputy of each 
now existing Synod was elected, the}^ could form 
a constitution of our general Church, which would 
then be laid before the difterent Synods for accep- 

" According to this view, our secretary, Gottlieb 
Shober, was elected to attend the Synod at Balti- 
more, and, in the name of this Synod, endeavor to 
eflect such a desirable union. 


^''Resolved, that if he accedes to a constitution for 
the purpose of uniting our whole Church, and that 
constitution be in accordance with his instructions 
received from this Synod, it be adopted by us; 
but if such constitution be not in accordance with 
his instructions, the same must first be communi- 
cated to our next Synod ; and only then, if adopted, 
can it be binding upon us. 

"A committee to form instructions for our 
deputy was appointed, namely: the Revs. Robert 
Johnson Miller, Jacob Scherer, and Mr. Jonas 
Abernathy." The committee afterwards reported, 
and the " instructions were considered, paragraph 
after paragraph, amended, and then unanimously 
approved." These instructions were not published 
in the minutes. Rev. Shober attended the meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Synod in Baltimore, and 
labored with a committee of said Sj'uod in pre- 
paring a plan for the organization of a General 
Synod; this plan was published for general distri- 
bution among all the ministers and delegates of 
the several Lutheran Synods in the United States, 
a copy of which is found repi-inted in the minutes 
of the Tennessee Synod of 1820, from which it is 
seen that Rev. Shober was the onbj delegate that 
appeared upon the floor of the Pennsylvania Synod 
from other Lutheran Synods. 

The next step, that was taken for the organiza- 
tion of the General Sjmod, was the convention of 
delegates from the several Synods in October, 
1820, at Hagerstown, Maryland, at which conven- 
tion a constitution was adopted for the government 


of the future Geuerul Synod. At this convention 
four Synods were represented, namely: The Penn- 
sylvania, the North Carolina, the New York and 
the Maryland- Virginia Synod. The Ohio Synod 
at first adopted the proposed "Plan" of the Penn- 
sylvania Synod, hut afterwards reconsidered its 
action, and withdrew from the enterprise; the 
Tennessee Synod never hecame connected with 
the General Synod. The North Carolina Synod 
elected Pevs. P. J. Miller, Peter Schmucker and 
Mr. John B. Harry as deputies to the convention 
at Hagerstown, Maryland. 

The first session of the General Synod was held 
in October, 1821, in Frederiektown, Maryland. 
Delegates present from the North Carolina Synod 
were Revs. G. Shoher and D. Scherer. 

Section 13. The First Hvpture in the Lutheran 
Church in America, and the subsequent forma- 
tion of the lennessee Synod, A.D. 1819 cmd 

It may be seen from the preceding sections, that 
dissensions were beginning to arise in the Lutheran 
Church in the Carolinas. This state of things 
might have been expected, when ministers from 
other denominations, still holding fast to their un- 
Lutheran principles, were admitted as members of 
the Synod; and when no theological seminary was 
established, in which the future ministers might 
be trained alike in the doctrines and usages of the 


Lutheran Church. Doctrinal differences were at 
first not very apparent, except on the ordination 
question ; however, it was perceptible, as early as 
1816, that everything was tending towards a dis- 
ruption, and that only some occasion or circum- 
stance was wanting to produce it. 

This event was not long delayed, for in the year 
1819 the Synod of North Carolina held its sessions 
six weeks earlier than the appointed time, which, 
with the transactions of that meeting of Synod, 
furnished the occasion to rend the Church asunder. 

The persons who became the leaders in this 
division were Rev. Gottlieb Shober, on the part 
of the North Carolina Synod, and Rev. David 
Henkel, on the part of the withdrawing party, 
that afterwards formed the Tennessee Synod. 

Rev. Shober was a man of decided opinions, 
unyielding in everything which he considered 
right, as may be seen from a sketch of his life in 
the Evangelical Review, vol. viii, pp. 412-414; 
" with a mind that knew no dissimuhition, a lofty 
independence, an ardent temper, and a character 
decidedly affirmative, he frequently experienced 
difficulties, and encountered points other than 
pleasant, in his pilgrimage through life, and which 
a disposition more- pliant could have averted." 
" The lineaments of his countenance gave indica- 
tions of a strong and active mind." "He was one 
of the most active defenders of (the) General 
Synod, as he had also been prominent among its 
early founders." But Rev. Shober was no Lu- 
theran, he was a member of the Moravian Church, 


and never disconnected himself from communion 
with tlie same; he lived and died as a memher of 
that Church. This information the writer received 
from his own daughter, the widow of Bishop Herr- 
man. He merely served the Lutheran Church in 
the capacity of one of its ministers, being the pas- 
tor of several neglected Lutheran congregations 
in the vicinity of his place of residence, Salem, 
E". C. It may be readily perceived that no com- 
promise could be expected on his part, in the 
difficulties which distracted the Lutheran Church 
at that time. 

Firm as was the Rev. G. Shober, he found his 
equal, in that respect, in Rev. David Henkel, who, 
though a young man then, was equally as decided 
and unyielding in his opinions. He was a hard 
student and well educated, not only in the German 
and English languages, but also in Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew and Theology, all of which he had prin- 
cipally acquired by private study and close appli- 
cation. He was the best informed candidate for 
the ministry the North Carolina Synod had at that 
time, and wielded even then a considerable influ- 
ence in the Church. It is not to be supposed that 
he would readily yield his opinions to others, or 
permit himself to be led about at the will of even 
those who were older than himself, when he be- 
lieved his cause to be just. In him the Tennessee 
Synod had a champion who could not be easily 
overcome. lie had a mind that was clear, active 
and penetrating; he was quick in discerning an 
advantage, and not slow in making use of it. 


These characteristics are gathered principally from 
liis own writings. 

The difficulty was at first a personal one, and, 
as admitted by the North Carolina Synod (English 
minutes of 1820, p. 6), " errors had been committed 
on both sides;" but it soon took a wider range; a 
strong opposition was created to the formation of 
the General Synod, and, in the heat of controversy, 
doctrinal diflerences between the two opposing 
parties became manifest, which widened the breach 
already existing, and all attempts at reconciliation 
during the meeting of the l!^orth Carolina Synod, 
which convened in Lincolnton, N. C, May 28th, 
1820, proved unavailing. 

On the 17th of July of the same year, Revs. 
Jacob Zink, Paul Henkel, Adam Miller, Philip 
Henkel and George Easterly, with delegates from 
the Tennessee congregations, met in Solomon's 
Church, Cove Creek, Green County, Tennessee, 
and organized the Tennessee Synod. Pev. David 
Henkel could not attend this meeting, but ac- 
knowledged himself a member of the new organi- 
zation. The separation between the two contend- 
ing parties was now fully efiected, and both Synods 
labored industriously in their own selected spheres 
of usefulness ; not, however, without considerable 
opposition to each other, and the publication of 

Although divisions in the Church are always to 
be dreaded, and, except in cases of doctrinal dif- 
ferences, always to be avoided, nevertheless, when 
they do occur, they sometimes effect good in vital- 


izing dormaut energies, and in re-establishing the 
pure faith of the GospeL Such was the case in 
this division; it increased the number of minis- 
ters, it provided for the wants of so many neg- 
lected congregations, it made ministers and lay- 
men all the more energetic, zealous and faithful 
in the discharge of their duties, and it resulted 
in an enlarged increase in the strength of the 

But God made use of this division in the Church 
in accomplishing a special purpose for the welfare 
of the Lutheran Church in America: 

Firstly^ In attracting attention once more to the 
pure doctrines of the Lutheran Church, as con- 
fessed by the early Keformers, and in awakening 
inquiry into those truths, which the symbols of the 
Lutheran Church exhibited. So gradual and yet 
so sure were the departures from the confessed 
faith of the Church, as well as the assimilation to 
the teachings and practices of other denomina- 
tions, that for a long time it awakened no alarm, 
and but a learned few had any idea of what the 
faith of the Lutheran Church was; admirers of 
Luther there were in abundance, even among 
other denominations, but very few knew anything 
of the secret which made Luther the conscientious, 
fearless and zealous man that he was. Multitudes 
admired Luther's energy and labors, but they 
knew little of the faith which actuated his labors, 
and of the doctrines upon which that faith was 
based. Had they known it and experienced it 
themselves, more would have been accomplished 


at that time in the Lutheran Church in America, 
and divisions would not have occurred; then also 
there would have been less manifest desire to unite 
all denominations into one Church, but a stronger 
desire to advance the interests of that Church, to 
which God has given a peculiar field of labor. 

Secondly, By means of this division the symbols 
of the Lutheran Church were translated into the 
English language. This was a want that had long 
been felt, but before that time no one possessed 
the patience and energy to apply himself to the 
task. There was an abundance of anxious desire 
manifested by some to make the Lutheran Church 
in America an English, as well as a German 
Church, but no anxiety manifested itself to an- 
glicize the faith of the Lutheran Church, that is, 
to translate its confessions and theology into the 
English language. All honor then to the Ten- 
nessee Synod for undertaking this work, which 
has accomplished more in preserving the faith of 
our fathers in this country than any similar under- 
taking in the English language. 

Thirdly, The Lutheran Church in America has 
had its publication boards and societies in abun- 
dance, which have doubtless accomplished a good 
work; but the oldest establishment of the kind is 
the one in ISTew Market, Virginia, which dates its 
existence as far back, at least, as 1810, for the 
minutes of the ]N"orth Carolina Synod were printed 
there at that time. It was established by the 
Henkel family, and has continued under their 
management to this da}' ; at the time of the divi- 


sion in the Lutheran Church in iJTorth Carolina, 
it came at once into the service of the Tennessee 
Synod, and has issued more truly Lutheran theo- 
logical works in an English dress than any similar 
institution in the world. We may well say, " What 
hath God wrought?" How imperceptible have 
been his purposes! How brightly they shine forth 



Section 1. A Glimpse into the History of some of the 
older Congregations. 

St. John's Lutheran Church, Charleston, S. C. — 
Nothing contributes more to the prosperity of a 
congregation than the voice and presence of a liv- 
ing and faithful ministry ; the want of an efficient 
and useful pastor for the short time of only one 
year is of incalculable injury to any church, not 
that the building up of a congregation is the work 
of man, but that Christ has so ordained, that pas- 
tors should watch over and " feed the flock of God." 
Disarrange the relationship between pastor and 


people, and no promise is given that a congrega- 
tion will be blessed. The voice of a living minis- 
try must be heard; the faith of a people is built 
up by the preached word and the administered 

This was also exemplified in the Lutheran 
Church in Charleston. Before the arrival of their 
pastor, the Rev. John Bachman, in 1815, the con- 
gregation had greatly declined, but from that time 
it commenced to improve, and soon enjoyed a high 
state of prosperity. Their new pastor possessed 
the confidence of his people and of the community 
at large, and was peculiarly fitted for the work 
intrusted into his hands. 

The " small wooden church erected in colonial 
times," soon became filled with devout worshipers, 
and became too small to accommodate the grow- 
ing congregation. "The commanding attain- 
ments, and the attractive geniality and social 
habits of the new pastor, won so rapidly the ad- 
miration and esteem of his good people and the 
public, that the erection and dedication of the 
present handsome temple became almost at once 
a matter of necessity. 

"A committee of twenty-one was appointed to in- 
quire into the expediency of building a new church, 
who reported favorably, and in July, 1815, Mr. F. 
Wesner's contract for the wood work of the edi- 
fice, and Mr. J. F. H. Horlbeck's for the brick 
work, were accepted. The new building was 
dedicated on Sunday, January 8th, 1818, by the 
Rev. John Bachman." 


God blessed the labors of his servant, and made 
him a shining light in the Church, laboring in 
harmony with his brethren, and accomplishing 
much good. A few years after his arrival in 
Charleston, Rev. Bachman connected himself by 
marriage with the family of a former and greatly 
beloved pastor of this congregation, the Rev. J. 
I:^. Martin, whose son's d^iughter became the new 
pastor's partner in joy and sorrow, and thus were 
the past and present happily linked together, and 
all circumstances, together with the pastor's unre- 
mitting and appreciated labors, contributed to the 
growth and prosperity of the congregation. 

Si. John's Church, Salisbury, N. C. — In the year 
1818, whilst the Episcopalians were worshiping in 
this church, they made the proposition to erect a 
new frame church, the old log building being 
greatly out of repair. The members of the Lu- 
theran Church agreed to this proposal, and also 
aided in the building of the new house of worship. 

However, this arrangement gave rise to serious 
difBculties; as soon as the new church was com- 
pleted, the question of its dedication arose, and the 
Lutherans were fearful that, if the church would 
be consecrated by a bishop of the Episcopal 
Church, they would forfeit their right and title in 
the property. And thus it was, whilst the Lu- 
therans claimed the land on which the church 
stood, the Episcopalians claimed the building. 
Whose then was the church ? Who had the right 
to worship there ? These questions seriously agi- 
tated the minds and feelings of both parties; but 


before any very decisive hostile steps were taken, 
and in order to efiect a compromise, the Lutherans 
agreed to purchase the interest in the building to 
which the Episcopalians laid claim, gave their 
bond in the meantime for the amount agreed 
upon, and afterwards raised the funds by sub- 
scription to hquidate the debt. 

In August, 1822, the President of the Xorth 
Carolina Synod, llev. G. Shober, sent a written 
communication to the members of the Lutheran 
Church in Salisbury, which was publicly read to 
them. It is herewith inserted in order to show 
the sad state of this congregation at that time. 

"Respected Friends, Members of the Lutheran 
Church by Birthright or otherwise: 

"Being appointed by the Lutheran Church in 
our last Synod, President of the same for one year, 
I regard it as being part of my duty during the 
recess of the Synod, to have a constant e3'e towards 
the preservation of the same in all its rights, priv- 
ileges and possessions, and to encourage the re- 
vival of former congregations. 

"I am convinced, by the reading of the deed of 
conveyance from Mr. Beard, deceased, to our 
Church, for a lot of ground, near or in Salisbury, 
where the church now stands, that we have an 
undoubted riglit for the same; that there was, for 
many years, regular service performed by the Rev. 
Senior Stork, is well known, and it only abated 


ou account of his clisabilit}^ to attend. It is my 
opinion that we, as a Church, are acting disrespect- 
fully to the donor of the lot and to his heirs, who, 
by that deed, are expressly charged to protect us 
in the right and privileges of the same, and that it 
is a dereliction of duty in the members of our 
Church not to preserve the lot and burying-ground, 
particularly for the interment of the heirs of the 
donor, and members of our Church and their de- 
scendants, and also from being a general burying- 

"I therefore beg leave to advise you noiu to 
elect elders and trustees, whose duty it is, accord- 
ing to law, to preserve the property of the church 
as trustees (particularly if the heirs of the donor 
decline acting as such), and also to give to them 
the necessary authority to regulate all external 
things according to the constitution and rules of 
our Church. 

"I beg leave further to propose that if you agree 
to revive a congregation according to our rules, 
by appointing elders and trustees, to appoint a 
time when the church can be dedicated by our 
ministry and according to our form of worship, 
when two or three ministers of our Church will 
attend for that purpose; other preachers may also 
be invited to attend and to preach the v/ord, all 
for the purpose of causing a revival of true religion 
for our department of the Church of Christ, by 
whose Spirit alone it can through the word be 
effected. But it is to be observed that only such 
Lutheran ministers as are in union with our 


Synod, and such who bring and show credentials 
of being duly appointed in other States, can be 
admitted. The standing of each minister must 
be inquired into by the elders, who have the power 
to admit or refuse. 

"In expectation that the Lord will bless your 
exertions for the revival of the congregation of 
the Lutheran Church, 

"I remain, your humble servant, 

" G. Shober." 

This communication, sent by Eev. Shober to 
the remaining Lutherans of Salisbury, had the 
desired effect of once more rousing and encourag- 
ing them to action. On the 20th of September, 
1822, the following articles, drawn up by Hon. 
Charles Fisher, member of Congress, for the pur- 
pose of reorganizing the old Lutheran congrega- 
tion, were sent around to the citizens of Salisbury 
for their signature: 

" Salisbury Lutheran Church. 

" We, the subscribers, believing that the cause 
of religion will be promoted by re-establishing the 
Lutheran congregation which formerly existed in 
the town of Salisbury, and believing, moreover, 
that it is a sacred duty we owe to the memories of 
our fathers and predecessors no longer to suffer 
the church and the graveyard where their bodies 
are at rest to lie in neglect and disregard, do 
hereby agree to unite our names and efforts to 


the purpose of reviving the congregation, keeping 
the graveyard in decent order, and for other pur- 
poses properly connected with a work of the kind. 
We further agree to meet at the church on such 
day as may he fixed upon for the purpose of con- 
sulting together upon such subjects as may be con- 
nected with the establishment and prosperity of 
the congregation. 

"Dated and signed by 

John Beard, Sr., John H. Swink, 

Charles Fisher, Bernhardt Kreiter, 

Daniel Cress, Lewis Utzmann, 

Peter Crider, H. Allemong, 

John Trexler, M. Bruner, 

John Beard, Jr., John Allbright, 

Peter H. Swink, Henry Swinkwag." 
Moses Brown, 

Through the efforts of Mr. John Beard, Sr., 
the devoted friend and firm member of the Lu- 
theran Church at that time, funds were collected 
for the purpose of inclosing the graveyard, which 
had long been neglected. 

For some time no regular pastor could be ob- 
tained, and the energies of the members again lay 
dormant until the year 1825, when brighter pros- 
pects dawned upon this neglected congregation, 
and once more revived the hopes of its members. 
A meeting of a respectable number of the citizens 
of Salisbury and its vicinitj- was held in the church 
on the 3d of September, 1825, for the purpose of 
adopting measures to reorganize a Lutheran con- 
gregation ; John Beard, Sr., was called to the chair, 
and Charles Fisher appointed Secretary. 


" After due deliberation as to the best method 
of accomplishing the object of the meeting, it was 
unanimously resolved, that a committee of two per- 
sons be appointed to draft an instrument of writ- 
ing, and ofier the same for the signature of such 
persons in the town of Salisbury and its vicinity 
as are disposed to aid in the formation of a Lu- 
theran congregation in this place, either by becom- 
ing members of said congregation, or supporters 
thereof. Messrs. John Beard and James Brown 
were accordingly appointed to compose said com- 

" It was further resolved, that a committee, con- 
sisting of George Yogler and Robert Mull, be and 
are hereby appointed to offer a subscrij)tion list to 
the good people of Salisbury and vicinity for the 
support of a Lutheran clergyman for preaching 
part of his time for one year in the town of Salis- 
bury. The meeting then adjourned to meet again 
the following Monday. 

"Charles Fisher, 


" At a subsequent meeting George Vogler was 
appointed treasurer, and Henry C. Kern recording 
secretary of this society. It was also resolved that 
a Bible be purchased and deposited in the church, 
to be the property of the same forever. The 
church council elected at this meeting were: 
Elders: Messrs. John Beard, Sr., George Vogler, 
Moses Brown. Deacons : Messrs. ]N"athan Bi-own, 
George Fraley, and Henry C. Kern." 


In the year 1826, the Rev. John Reck, having 
received and accepted the call tendered him, be- 
came the pastor of this church ; the number of 
communicants at that time was but fourteen, 
which, however, steadily increased under the faith- 
ful ministrations of their pastor, who was greatly 
beloved by the people, and through his zeal and 
energy accomplished much for his Master's king- 

The condition of this church under Rev. Reek's 
ministrj' in 1827 is stated in the minutes of the 
I^Torth Carolina Synod, as follows : " In Salisbury, 
where eighteen months ago there was no regularly 
organized Lutheran congregation, there are now 
thirty members in full communion; and by the 
active measures of several respectable persons, a 
large and commodious church has been purchased, 
and a subscription raised to pay for it. In this 
place a lecture meeting is held once a week, which 
is generally well attended, and not unfrequently 
the utmost solemnity pervades the audience. The 
people are liberal and attentive to the cause of be- 
nevolence, and assist in supporting Bible, mission- 
ary, and other religious societies." 

Thus might this church have been greatly in- 
creased in strength, energj^, and usefulness, but 
Rev. J. Reck, after having been its pastor for iive 
years, felt it his duty to resign and return to Mar}'- 
land, and after this time the congregation had 
such a continued and rapid succession of minis- 
ters, besides having been at times also unsupplied 
with the stated means of grace, as to be unable 


to command the influence which the i-eguhxr 
ministrations of a permanent pastor might have 
given it. 

St. John's Church, Cabarrus County, N. C. — In the 
last account of tliis church, it was seen that the 
Rev. C. A. G. Stork was the pastor of this congre- 
gation, but his health having become too feeble to 
attend to the wants of so many churches, he intro- 
duced the Rev. Daniel Scherer as his successor. 
During a communion season in the spring of 1821, 
when a large class of catechumens, numbering 
seventy-seven persons, were confirmed, their aged 
pastor being present, but too feeble to stand dur- 
ing the ceremony, called all his catechumens to 
him, and gave them and the other members and 
friends of the church his last farewell. So affect- 
ing was the scene, that the whole of that vast as- 
sembly were nioved to tears, and long has the 
serious lesson been remembered, which their aged 
pastor addressed to them at that time, whilst he 
held out his hand to each, and gave them his part- 
ing blessing. 

Rev. Daniel Scherer proved himself to have been 
likewise a faithful pastor. He was much beloved 
by his people, and remained nearly ten years among 
them ; however, during his ministry and for some 
time previous, a large number of persons from St. 
John's and other Lutheran churches in ]!^orth 
Carolina settled themselves in Illinois Territory, 
and their pastor's heart followed them to the wild 
prairies of their newly-adopted country, and he 
soon cast his lot among them, and labored there 
for their spiritual good. 


Organ Church, Rowan County, North Carolina. — 
As Rev. Stork was the pastor of this cougrega- 
tion as well as that of St. John's, it had much the 
same history at this time. Rev. Daniel Scherer 
also became his successor here some two years 
afterwards. Thirty-five years did Rev. Stork 
labor in this church, and with great success. It 
was the first congregation he served, and the last 
he resigned. He lived in favor with God and 
man; his example and usefulness are still felt, 
and his memory is cherished with affection by all 
who knew him. During this period he baptized 
1500 children, and confirmed 1300 j^oung people 
in Organ Church alone, and probably as many 
more in the other churches under his charge. 

At length the feeble state of his health com- 
pelled him to resign this church also in 1823. 
Ilis successor labored here likewise with much suc- 
cess, and had at one time probably the largest 
class of catechumens, numbering 83 persons, that 
were confirmed in this church, during a session of 
the North Carolina Synod at this place, in which 
ceremony their aged pastor took the deepest in- 

Rev. Scherer labored but six years in this con- 
gregation. As he had the oversight of so many 
churches, he thought it advisable to resign some 
portion of his charge into the hands of another 
minister, in order to do justice to the cause of 
Christ, and Rev. Jacob Kaempfer became his suc- 
cessor in 1829. 


Section 2. Fraternal Union of the North Carolina 
Synod with the Protestant Episcopal Convention 
of North Carolina. 

The first stop taken in this dii-ection was Rev. 
Robert J. Miller's attendance upon the Episcopal 
Convention held in Raleigh, April 28th, 1821. 
His object was to connect himself fully with the 
Episcopal Church, to which he really belonged, 
having been ordained by the Lutheran ministers 
of North Carolina in 1794 as an Episcopal min- 
ister, and was the pastor of an Episcopal congre- 
gation. White Haven Church, in Lincoln County, 
but because there was no Episcopal diocese at that 
time in the State, he was admitted as a member 
of the Lutheran North Carolina Synod at its or- 
ganization in 1803. 

From the journal of the Episcopal North Caro- 
lina Convention of 1818, the following item of in- 
telligence is taken: "Previously to November, 
1816, there was no Episcopal clergyman in this 
State, an.d but oi>e congregation in which the 
worship of our Church was performed." That 
having been the condition of the Episcopal Church 
at that period, Rev. Miller felt it his duty to form 
a temporary connection with the Lutheran Church, 
and continued to labor for her welfare twenty- 
seven years, when in 1821 he severed that con- 
nection, and was ordained in Raleigh to deacon's 
and priest's orders in the Episcopal ministry in 
one day. Whilst in attendance at said Conven- 


tion, Rev. Miller proposed to eft'ect, "as far as 
practicable, intercourse and union between the 
Episcopalians and some of the Lutheran congre- 
gations." His proposition was referred to the 
Committee on the State of the Church, who after- 
wards reported as follows: 

"A very interesting communication has this 
session been laid before tlie committee, on the 
subject of a union between that truly respectable 
denomination, the Lutherans, and our Church. 
To carry this measure into efiect, the committee 
propose the following resolution : 

'■''Resolved, That a committee, consisting of three 
persons, two clerical and one lay member, be ap- 
pointed to meet the Synod of the Lutheran Church, 
to consider and agree upon such terms of union 
as may tend to the mutual advantage and welfare 
of both Churches, not inconsistent with the con- 
stitution and canons of this Church, or the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church in the United States. 

"The Convention then proceeded to take into 
consideration the resolution proposed by the com- 
mittee, when it was adopted, and the Rev. Adam 
Empie, Rev. 6. T. Bedell, and Duncan Cameron, 
Esq., w^ere appointed a committee to attend the 
Lutheran Synod, and to carry the resolution into 

On the 17th of June, 1821, the Lutheran JSTorth 
Carolina Synod met in Lau's Church, Guilford 
County, and from its minutes the following is 

" The President now reported that the Rev. R. 


J. Miller, who had labored for many years as one 
of our ministers, had been ordained by the Bishop 
of the Episcopal Church as a priest at a conven- 
tion of that Church. That he had always regarded 
himself as belonging to that Church, but because 
the Episcopal Church had no existence at that 
time in this State, he had himself ordained by 
our ministry, with the understanding that he still 
belonged to the Episcopal Church. But as the 
said Church had now reorganized itself (in this 
State), he had united himself with it,' and thus 
disconnected himself from our Synod, as was 
allowed him at his ordination by our ministers. 
Rev. Miller then made a short address before 
Synod and the congregation then assembled, in 
which he distinctly explained his position, so that 
no one should be able to say that he had aposta- 
tized from our Synod, since he had been ordained 
by our Ministerium as a minister of the Episcopal 
Church. He then promised that he would still 
aid and stand by us as much and as far as lay in 
his power. 

" With this explanation the whole matter was 
w^ell understood by the entire assembly, and was 
deemed perfectly satisfactory. Whereupon it was 
resolved that the president tend to Rev. Miller 
our sincere thanks, in the name of the Synod, for 
the faithful services he had hitherto rendered our 
Church.. This was immediately done in a feeling 

" After this a letter was read from Rev. Bishop 
Moore, addressed to our Synod, in which he re- 


ported to us, that a committee was appointed by 
their Convention to attend our Synod, with the 
view of making an effort towards a more intimate 
union between our respective bodies, whereupon 
the members of that committee presented them- 
selves, and submitted their credentials. Their 
names are. Revs. Adam Empie, G. T. Bedell, and 
Duncan Cameron, Esq. They were all affection- 
ately received, and the following committee was 
appointed by our Synod to confer with our visit- 
ing brethren what possibly might be done towards 
a more intimate union, namely: Revs. G. Shober, 
Michael Ranch, and Henry Ratz, Esq." The 
next day the following report was submitted and 
adopted : 

" The committee of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of North Carolina, and the committee on 
the part of the Lutheran Synod of North Caro- 
lina and adjacent States, having conferred on the 
subject of their respective appointments, have 
agreed on the following articles : 

" T. Resolved^ That we deem it expedient and 
desirable that the Lutheran Synod and the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church of North Carolina should 
be united together in the closest bonds of friend- 

"II. Besolmd, That for this purpose we will 
mutually make such concessions as may not be 
inconsistent with the rules and regulations of our 
respective Churches, for the purpose of promoting 
a friendly intercourse. 

" III. Resolved, That the Convention of the Prot- 


estant Episcopal Church may send a delegation of 
one or more persons to the annual Synod of the 
Lutheran Church, which person or persons shall 
he entitled to an honorary seat in that body, and 
to the privilege of expressing their opinions and 
voting in all cases except when a division is called 
for; in which case they shall not vote. 

"IV. Resolved, That the Lutheran Synod may, 
in like manner, send a deputation to the Conven- 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who in 
all respects shall be entitled to the same privileges. 

" V. Resolved, That all the mmisters of the Luth- 
eran Church in union with the Synod shall be en- 
titled to honorary seats in the Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church ; and the clergymen 
of the said last-mentioned Church shall, in like 
manner, be entitled to honorary seats in the Synod 
of the Lutheran Church. 

"The committee respectfully recommend to the 
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and to the Synod of the Lutheran Church the 
adoption of the foregoing resolutions. 

" G. Shober, 

" Michael Kauch, 

" Henry Ratz, 

" Committee of the Lutheran Synod. 

"A. Empie, 
"Duncan Cameron, 

"Committee of the Protestant Episcopal Church." 

The report was adopted by Synod, and the fol- 
lowing persons were elected to attend the next 


Convention of the Episcopal Church: Revs. G. 
Shober, Jacob Scherer, and Henry Ratz, Esq. 

At the next Convention of the Episcopal Church, 
held in Raleigh, April 18th, 1822, the following 
action was taken in reference to this matter. 

" The Rt. Rev. President of the Convention then 
read a letter from the Rev. Mr. Shober on the same 
subject, after which it was moved that the report 
be received, which was unanimously agreed to; 
it was then 

'■'■Resolved, that the Secretary be required to ad- 
dress a letter to the President of the Lutheran 
Synod, informing him of the unanimous adoption 
of the above report. 

"The following delegation to the Lutheran 
Synod was then appointed: Rev. Messrs. Miller, 
Davis, and Wright, of the clergy; Messrs. Alex- 
ander Caldcleugh, Duncan Cameron, and Dr. F. 
J. Hill, of the laity." 

At the next meeting of the North Carolina 
Synod, three of the above delegation, " the Rev. 
R. J. Miller, the Rev. R. Davis, and Alexander 
Caldcleugh, Esq., appeared, were welcomed, and 
took their seats with us. 

" On information that the Protestant Episcopal 
Church will hold their next annual Convention for 
North Carolina in Salisburj^, on the second Thurs- 
day after Easter, in the year 1823, the following- 
persons were elected to attend the same, and there 
represent the Sjniod, namely : the Rev. G. Shober, 
the Rev. Daniel Scherer, General Paul Barringer, 
and Colonel Ratz." All of these delegates ap- 


peared at said Convention and attended its 

After the jqhv 1823 nothing more appears eon- 
cerning the fraternal rehitions of these two eccle- 
siastical bodies, although this " bond of friend- 
ship " does not appear to have been revoked, 
nevertheless, the interchange of delegates, being 
attended with some difficulty in those days of 
traveling by private conveyance, fell practically 
into disuse. 

Section 3. Rev. John JBachman's labors in Savannah 
and Ebenezer., Georgia. 

Although a sketch of the Lutheran Church in 
the State 'of Georgia does not strictly belong to 
the history of the same Church in the Carolinas, 
nevertheless, as one of the Lutheran ministers ot 
South Carolina visited Georgia, with the view of 
reorganizing and infusing new life into several 
long-established Lutheran congregations of that 
State, it is but proper that an account of his effi- 
cient labors in this direction should not be passed 
by unnoticed. 

Rev. Bachmau having been informed that at 
one time two Lutheran congregations had been 
established in Georgia, at Ebenezer and Savannah, 
by the Salzburgers, who commenced emigrating 
to Georgia in 1733, and arrived there in March, 
1734, he felt a desire to beicorae more intimately 
acquainted with the condition of those churches. 


During one of the winter months of 1823-4, Rev. 
Bachnian journej^ed to Savannah " as a pioneer 
in our holy cause," and discovered that aLutheran 
church had been erected in that city some time 
before the Revohitionary War, but that it was 
burnt down in 1797. The congregation in Charles- 
ton, S. C, had contributed $500 towards rebuild- 
ing it, but nothing was done towards keeping up 
the congregation; it had no pastor, and l)ecame 
gradually disorganized ; the small building, erected 
as a Lutheran church, " was occupied as a Sunday- 
school by another denomination," " and had been 
sequestered for many years." The prospects were 
certainly not bright, and a few more years of neg- 
lect would have extinguished the name of Lu- 
theranism in Savannah. Rev. Bachman's visit was 
not one moment too soon ; by means of his well- 
directed and energetic labors "a congregation 
was organized from the materials which could be 
collected," and, " about a month after this event," 
Rev. S. A. Mealy " came to reside in Savannah," 
as the pastor of that congregation. He was "a 
clergyman wdio had been raised up in " the Lu- 
theran Church in Charleston, and received his 
theological training from Rev. Bachman, whom 
he acknowledged as his " spiritual father." From 
that time forward the Lutheran congregation in 
Savannah commenced to prosper, under the effi- 
cient labors of a succession of pastors, two of whom, 
Revs. Mealy and Karn, have been called to their 

Rev. Ba(3hman having completed his labors in 


Savannah, now also "determined to extend his 
visit toEbenezer," for he had learned that, though 
aLutheran congregation still existed in that place, 
its " aged pastor was fast sinking into the grave." 
This pastor was "the Eev. John E. Bergman, a 
native of Germany, and the learned and exemplary 
minister of this church for the long period of 
thirty-six years." He had a son, who had devoted 
himself to the work of the Gospel ministry, named 
Eev. Christopher F. Bergman, " who had received 
a classical education, and had carefully attended 
to his theological studies, under the care of his re- 
vered and excellent parent, and was well qualified 
for the ministry ;" but not being " aware that Lu- 
"theranism had any existence in the South," he had 
taken "license to preach the Gospel under the 
auspices of the Presbyterian Church." 

"This was the source of the most unfeigned 
regret, both to his father and his father's congre- 
gation. The latter was fully aware, that from the 
increasing age and infirmities of their venerable 
and esteemed pastor, they would soon have to 
resign him to the grave, and their eyes were 
directed witliout hesitation to the son as his suc- 
cessor. This wish was extremely natural. The 
son had been educated for the ministry, and was 
possessed of the most exemplary piety; and hav- 
ing been born and raised in their neighborhood, 
and under their own immediate eye, he would be 
as a son to the aged, and a brother to the younger 
parishioners. This fondly cherished hope, how- 
ever, was nearly crushed, when an event of Provi- 


dence occurred, wliich brightened the scene around 

This event was the opportune arrival of Rev. 
John Bachman on a visit to Ebenezer. His dis- 
cerning mind soon penetrated the difficulty under 
which the younger Bergman labored, and " was 
made the instrument, in the hands of God, of 
giving a new direction to Rev. C. F. Bergman's 
theological views, of securing his belief in the 
doctrines, and his attachment to the institutions 
of our beloved Church, and of cheering the last 
hours of a venerable servant of Jesus Christ." 

Too much cannot be said in praise of Rev. 
Bachman's judicious labors in Ebenezer. The 
elder Bergman had probably not seen the face of 
a Lutheran minister for a number of years; how 
it must have brightened his last hours of life to 
have Rev. Bachman standing at his bedside ere 
he departed this life, and to welcome him as God's 
instrument in leading his son back to the Church 
of his fathers. lie coukl now die in peace, for his 
eyes had seen what he no longer expected to see 
on earth. And what a blessing was this visit to 
the Ebenezer congregation also; it was not only 
saved to the Lutheran Church, but it was also 
provided with a Lutheran pastor, and he the one 
whom the members preferred above all others. 

It is necessary yet to add, that the Rev. C. F. 
Bergman attended the meeting of the newly organ- 
ized Synod of South Carolina, held in St. John's 
Church, Lexington District, l^ovember 18th, 1824, 
where he " was solemnly ordained to the Gospel 


ministry b}^ the Eev. Messrs. Bacliman, Ilersher, 
and Dreher." 

All these items of intelligence, concerning Rev. 
Bachman's labors in Georgia, have been mainly 
derived from Eev. Mealy's "Funeral Sermon 
occasioned by the death of Rev. C. F. Bergman," 
published in Savannah, A.D. 1832. 

Section J^. Organization of the Lutheran Synod of 
South Carolina, A.D. 18^. 

The time had now arrived, when the number of 
ministers made it possible, and the wants of the 
Church made it necessary, to organize a Lutheran 
Synod in South Carolina; accordingly, "on the 
14th day of January, 1824, the following clergy- 
men of the Evangelical Lutheran Church met at 
St. Michael's Church, Lexington District, S. C, 
with the intention of organizing a Synod for South 
Carolina and adjacent States, namely : Revs. John 
P. Franklow, John Y. Meetze, Godfrey Dreher, 
Michael Ranch, Jacob Moser, all residing in Lex- 
ington District, and Rev. Samuel Hersher from 
Orangeburg District, S. C." 

These ministers were members of the ISTorth 
Carolina Synod ; those residing in Lexington Dis- 
trict have already been introduced to the reader. 
The Rev. Samuel Hersher had become connected 
with that Synod only since 1822; he was a student 
of Rev. Mr. Meierhotfer, of Rockingham County, 
Virginia, and recommended by him as worthy to 


become a member of Sjmod. He was accordingly 
examined, licensed, and sent by tbe North Caro- 
lina Synod to labor in the vacant congregations of 
Orangeburg District, S. C. 

After due consideration, the ministers present 
unanimously resolved, "that the situation and 
wants of the Evangelical Lutheran churches in 
' South Carolina ' require that a Synod be now 

"Rev. G. Dreher was then elected President, and 
Rev. S. Hersher, Secretary. The first item of 
business was the ordination of Eev. S. Hersher. 
Five lay delegates now handed in their certificates, 
and were admitted as members of Synod. 

Rev. John C. A. Schonberg, a licentiate of the 
Pennsylvania Synod, presented his license with 
the request to have it renewed, which was accord- 
ingly done on the next day. 

" On motion, it was resolved, that the Augsburg 
Confession of Faith be the point of union in our 

" It was resolved, that the Revs. G. Dreher, S. 
Hersher, and M. Rauch be nominated a committee, 
for the purpose of entering into a friendly corres- 
pondence with the North Carolina Synod." 

On the 18th of November of the same year, the 
South Carolina Synod met at St. John's Church, 
Lexington District, at which meeting eight Lu- 
theran ministers were present, and two. Revs. 
Franklow and Mealy, were absent. Revs. Bach- 
man, Bergman, and Mealy were added to the list 
of members of Synod, and nine lay delegates were 


admitted as representatives from the various con- 

It was reported to Synod that Rev. Jacob Moser 
had been ordained by the committee appointed by 
Synod, on the 4th of April; and that on the 20th 
of May, Revs. Dreher, Franklow, and Ilersher had 
ordained the Rev. Stephen A. Mealy. Rev. C. F. 
Bergman was ordained at this meeting of Synod. 
The 'Sew York English Lutheran Hymn book was 
recommended to be introduced by the ministers 
into their churches. 

The most interesting item of information, con- 
tained in the minutes of that synodical meeting, is 
the report of the committee on the *' State of 
the Church," which is as follows : 

" There are in the State of South Carolina 
twenty-four Evangelical Lutheran churches, and 
in the State of Georgia, two. Of those in South 
Carolina, one is in Charleston, under the care of 
Rev. J. Bachman, having 275 communicants. 
Three under the care of Rev. S. Hersher, having 
380 members. Six under the care of Revs. J. Y. 
Meetze, J. P. Franklow, and G. Dreher, having 
260 members. Four under the care of Rev. M. 
Rauch, having 380 members. Four under the 
care of Rev. J. Moser, having 136 members. 

" Of those in the State of Georgia, one is in 
Savannah, under the care of Rev. S. A. Mealy, 
having 35 families. One at Ebenezer, under the 
care of Rev. C. F. Bergman, having 130 members. 
Six churches are vacant in South Carolina, and 
two or more congregations might be formed in the 


State, if Lutheran clergymen could be obtained. 
The number of communicants in our churches has 
considerably increased, and that, on the whole, 
there are some flattering prospects in our Church." 
The committee lamented " that whilst the har- 
vest is plenteous, the laborers are few." 

Section 6. Removals to the West^ and Missionary 
Labors of the North Carolina Synod in Illiyiois 
and other States. 

Allusion has already been made to the vast emi- 
gration from the State of North Carolina to other 
new States and Territories. This drain upon the 
strength of the Lutheran Church in iTorth Caro- 
lina continued for many successive years; colo- 
nies from St. John's Church, Cabarrus County, 
and from the neighboring congregations, may be 
found in most of the JSTorthwestern States, as well 
as in Tennessee, Missouri, and Arkansas. By 
means of this extensive colonizing in new coun- 
tries, the labors and influence of the early pastors 
in North Carolina are felt over a much greater 
extent of country than what is included in the 
boundaries of the congregations they served. 

For a long time those Western colonies were 
destitute of the means of grace; they naturally 
looked to the Synod of North Carolina, under 
whose fostering care they had been brought up in 
the Church of their fathers, to be supplied with 


At a meeting of the Sj-nod in 1825 an urgent 
call came from Union County, Illinois, signed by 
forty-three persons, for a pastor or missionary who 
would be able to preach in the German and Eng- 
lish languages, establish schools, and labor for the 
welfare of the Church. They furthermore de- 
clared, that if their spiritual wants be not soon sup- 
plied, the consequences to them and their children 
would be very injurious. 

The letter was read in open Synod, and the 
Secretary was required to write to those congre- 
gations in Illinois. Rev. \Ym. Jenkins was then 
requested to visit those people, and a resolution 
w-as passed to send a letter to Rev. Samuel 
Schmucker, beseeching him, if it be possible, to 
have a missionary sent to that State. 

In the minutes of the Synod of 1827, the Com- 
mittee on Letters and Petitions presented the fol- 

"No. 11 contains a petition from three congre- 
gations in Union County, Illinois, in which they 
give a mournful description of their destitute con- 
dition ; pray that they may be visited by the Rev. 
Jacob Scherer, and, if he cannot comply with this 
their request, that the Synod would send them 
another, and promise to give him an adequate sup- 
port. Your committee would recommend these 
congregations to the particular notice of this 
Synod, for if they are not soon supplied with a 
minister, they will be dispersed." 

Whereupon it was 

'''■Resolved, That, as it is impracticable for the 


Rev. J, Scherer to visit those petitioning congrega- 
tions in Illinois, the Rev. John C. A. Schonberg 
visit them immediately, and, if practicable, to 
locate among them ; and that he receive ten dol- 
lars out of the synodical treasury to defray the 
necessarj' traveling expenses to Illinois." 

The Rev. Mr. Schonberg accepted this appoint- 
ment of Synod, and moved to Illinois in 1827, and 
thus the ITorth Carolina Synod has the honor of 
sending the pioneer missionary of the Lutheran 
Church to that State. Rev. Schonberg labored 
there for several years, and continued his connec- 
tion with the North Carolina Synod, when, in 
1829, he wrote a letter to Synod, stating "tJjat in 
consequence of indisposition he has been necessi- 
tated to resign his churches in Illinois." 

About the close of the year 1831, the Rev. 
Daniel Scherer, the successor of Rev. Storch as 
pastor of St. John's Church, Cabarrus County, 
N. C, felt it to be his duty to remove to Illinois, 
and succeeded Rev. Schonberg as pastor of the 
Lutheran congregations in Union County, Illinois. 
In 1833 he wrote a letter to Synod, "containing 
the pleasing information of his success in forming 
a congregation in Hillsboro, Illinois, consisting of 
thirty-five communing members." 

Professor Haverstick, of Philadelphia, who vis- 
ited Rev. D. Scherer and his congregations in 
1835, during his exploring missionary tour in the 
West, having been sent by the Pennsylvania 
Synod, speaks of the untiring labors of Rev. 
Scherer in the most exalted terms, mentions that 


he frequently travels 150 miles from home on 
horseback, in order to minister to the spiritual 
wants of such colonies as are not included in his 
own immediate charge, and this of necessity, in- 
asmuch as he was the o??(y resident Lutheran min- 
ister at that time in the entire State of Illinois. 
Rev. Scherer labored faithfully in that State to 
the close of his life, April 4th, 1852, and may 
justly be considered the father of the Lutheran 
Church in Illinois. 

Eev. "Wm. Jenkins, who became connected with 
the N"orth Carolina Synod in 1824, upon the rec- 
ommendation of Rev. D. F. Schaffer, President 
of the Maryland Synod, was sent the following 
September to the State of Tennessee, and labored 
in the Lutheran congregations at Duck River, 
"where he was received with joy, and -kindly 
treated." He formed additional congregations in 
Franklin and Lincoln Counties, and reports hav- 
ing found a large settlement of Lutherans at Fau- 
gunder Creek, near Jackson, who were anxious 
to obtain a pastor. He further states: "Since 
last Synod I have traveled 3000 miles on horse- 
back, preached 175 times, baptized 84 children 
and 14 adults, admitted to church membership 
34 persons, and had 8 funerals." All these con- 
gregations were admitted under the care of the 
North Carolina Synod in 1825, and Rev. Wm. 
Jenkins was acknowledged as their pastor, having 
located himself in Bedford County, Tennessee, 
serving ten congregations, where he was still 
laboring as a member of the North Carolina Synod 



as late as 1835, when he connected himself with 
some other Synod, but did not remove from Ten- 
nessee until 1854, when he became the pastor ot 
the Lovettsville charge, in Loudon County, Vir- 

Shortly after the year 1811, when Rev. R. J. Mil- 
ler was first sent on an exploring missionary tour 
through the State of Virginia, all those Lutheran 
congregations, situated in the southwestern part 
of Virginia, with their pastors, connected them- 
selves, with but few exceptions, with the North 
Carolina Synod ; so intimatel}'^ were those churches 
united with that Synod, that live of its annual 
sessions were held in the State of Virginia. 

Much missionary labor was devoted to that field 
and with good results. Originally this territory 
was connected with the Pennsylvania Synod, and 
the Rev. Mr. Flohr was tlie first regular minister 
who labored there, but its contiguity to North 
Carolina brought it under the influence of the 
Synod of that State, which arrangement was con- 
tinued until the year 1842, when the Synod ot 
Western Virginia was formed. 

Section 6. Rapid Progress of the South Carolina 
Synod, and the Missionary Labors of Revs. 
Scheck, Schwartz, arid W. D. Strobel. 

As soon as the South Carolina Synod was organ- 
ized it commenced to increase, and its influence was 
extended rapidly ; all the strength of the Lutheran 


Church in that State and Georgia became concen- 
trated, and the affairs of Synod were managed 
with wisdom and prudence. A desire was mani- 
fested at once to labor earnestly and faithfully for 
the welfare of the Church, and everywhere success 
attended the elibrts of its ministers. 

However, as there were still many vacant con- 
gregations in the bounds of Synod, at its second 
session, in 1825, it was — ■ 

*' Resolved, That the Secretary of this Synod be 
requested to write to the diiferent Northern 
Synods, and endeavor to ascertain whether it may 
not be practicable to obtain well-educated Lu- 
theran ministers to supply our vacant churches, 
or to labor as missionaries within the bounds of 
this Synod." 

This appeal was not made in vain. The next year 
the Eev. C. B. Wessells, a licentiate from the State 
of New York, commenced his labors in South Caro- 
lina. He opened a school atLeesville, Lexington 
District, and preached occasionally; but "he soon 
gave evidence of mental derangement," and re- 
turned to the North. In 1827, the Rev. John D. 
Scheck arrived from Maryland, and labored as the 
first missionary in the bounds of the Synod. 

From Rev. Bachman's congregation in Charles- 
ton, three useful and well-educated young men 
entered the ministerial ranks, the Revs. S. A. 
Mealy, J. G. Schwartz and W. D. Strobel, and 
from the interior congregations the Synod received 
three additional ministers in the Revs. J. Wingard, 


J. C. Hope and Daniel Dreher. lu this manner 
was the Synod greatly increased. 

The Rev. J. J). Scheck was employed by Synod 
to make a missionary tour through the State for 
the purpose of organizing new congregations, and 
also to visit the vacant churches as much as possi- 
ble. He commenced his labors June 2d, 1827, 
and the following extract from his journal was 
presented hy the committee: 

"He labored one week at Amelia, preaching 
ever}^ day : he represents those people as being 
wealthy and respectable, and possessing the largest 
church of any denomination in this part of the 
country. After having preached at Sandy Run 
and at Nazareth Ciiurches, he labored at Lexing- 
ton Court-house. Near North Edisto River he 
found a number of Lutherans who are very desti- 
tute of spiritual privileges, and have not heard a 
sermon from any of our ministers for three years, 
yet none have left our Church, though solicited to 
do so. They are now building a house of worship. 

"Mr. Scheck also visited Edgefield, where he 
found many of our people who have not been 
visited for many years by any of our ministers. 
He represents their condition as truly deplorable, 
but says that they are now building a church, and 
expect to hear preaching from some of our ministers. 
Sunday, July 1st, he preached in Long Church, 
where also the people were very de'sirous of ob- 
taining a Lutheran minister. On Monday, at 
"Wise's school-house (Newberry) ; here he found 
the people very destitute; but there are many 


persons who would be members of our Church 
immediately, if supplied with preaching. They 
are both able and willing to build a place of wor- 
ship and support a minister. 

"On Thursday, Mr. S. preached in the settle- 
ments of G. Egner to fine congregations, who hear 
the word but once in three weeks from any de- 
nomination. Many of our people here are wealthy, 
and desirous of obtaining a minister among them. 
They have already commenced the building of a 
church. On the 15th and 17th he preached in the 
two churches in Barnwell District, both of which 
are in a destitute condition, and have been so for 
five years. Some of the people have united them- 
selves to other societies; they have resolved to 
bring their destitute situation to our view, and 
request us to send our ministers to preach to them 

"The neighborhood of Myers, Rhinehardt's, 
Wise's, Peterbaugh and Egner's are entirely des- 
titute of the means of grace, and are loudly call- 
ing upon us in the words of the man of Macedonia, 
Come over and help us." 

February 11th, 1828, the Rev. J. G. Schwartz 
was employed as a missionary, and the following 
interesting items are taken from his report: 

"I first visited a few Lutherans east of Broad 
River, in the upper part of Richland District, who 
occasionally hear preaching from the Rev. Mr. 
Dreher. The people of this neighborhood are 
principally descendants of members of our Church. 
From this I passed over into Newberry, and 


preached twice in Mount Pleasant Church, owned 
in part by Lutherans. There is here a tine con- 
gregation, and the people appear favorably disposed 
towards our Church. A neat and commodious 
building was about to be erected for the exclusive 
use of Mr. Scheck. He can preach there, how- 
ever, but once a month. 

"From this I passed into Spartanburg, and 
preached at the residence of a member of our 
Church; the house Avas full, and the people re- 
markably attentive. Some of the Lutherans here 
have attached themselves to other denominations, 
in consequence of the absence of their own. Six 
miles beyond the village I preached at the resi- 
dence of a gentleman who had been brought up 
to the Lutheran Church. He informed me of 
several families who, from similar circumstances 
with himself, had connected themselves with 
other societies. I next preached at Spartanburg 
Court-house, where also there is a great call for 
regular preaching. The day after, I preached at 
the house of a Lutheran family below the village. 

" On Good Friday I preached at Sandy Run 
Church. This place is common as a house of 
worship to Lutherans, Baptists and Methodists. 
Rev. Mr. Wingard has the care of the Lutherans, 
and ministers to them once a month. I subse- 
quently passed through Chester, York, Lancaster, 
Chesterfield, Darlington, Sumter and Orange- 
burg, and preached wherever I had an opportu- 
nity. From all that has come to my knowledge, 


teen Lutheran ministers could find abundant em- 
ployment in this State. Descendants of Germans 
are to be found in almost every part of the coun- 
try, and here I might deplore that prejudice which 
has so fatally operated, and in some places does 
still operate upon the minds of those who con- 
tinue to minister to their people in the German 
language, I know it has been in part a matter 
of necessity; but had those who removed from 
Germany to this country endeavored to introduce 
the language of their adopted country, our Church 
might now, in all probability, nearly be equal to 
the united churches of other denominations." 

During the greater part of the year 1830, the 
Rev. W. D. Strobel was engaged as a missionary, 
and his labors were blessed wtth practical results. 
Several important congregations were organized, 
and the vacant churches greatly revived and 
strengthened. He reports as follows: 

"Immediately after receiving my appointment 
in Savannah, I made it my business to visit the 
congregations designated for my care in the min- 
utes of the Synod, to wit: St. Mcholas, St. Bar- 
tholomew's, and Erwin's, at the Sultketchers ; 
Mount Calvary in Edgefield; Brandenburg's, in 
Orangeburg. In addition to these, I took under 
my care Nazareth, Lexington Court-house, Piatt 
Springs, all in Lexington District. In all these 
stations I have kept up regular appointments 
during the year, with the exception of Erwin's, 
where I considered, after preaching some time, 
that there was no prospect of success. 


"I have encouraged the congregations to meet 
at their churches on the Lord's day, and have en- 
gaged their elders in reading sermons and other 
religious exercises. During the year we have suc- 
ceeded in building a church at Brandenburg's, to 
be known by the name of Shiloh. A large church 
is in a state of forwardness at Lexington Court- 
house, and that at Nazareth will soon be com- 
pleted. From the vicinity of so many members 
of our Church, we expect that Lexington Court- 
house will become one of the most important 

The above reports from Revs. Scheck, Schwartz 
and Strobel have been very much abbreviated, 
and onl}^ that much as has reference to the history 
of the Church has been given as literally as pos- 
sible. . ,^ 

Section 7. Death of Rev. Charles A. G. Storch, in 
1831^ and arrival of other Lutheran Ministers 
in North Carolina. 

It is, as a matter of course, not expected to give 
a lengthy obituary notice of every departed Lu- 
theran minister who labored in ISTorth or South 
Carolina, but when such a prominent servant of 
God as the Rev. Charles Augustus Gottlieb Storch 
is called by death to his long rest, it creates a void 
that is not soon filled, and a wound so deep, how- 
ever long the event may be expected, which is not 
healed in a short period of time. The last link 
Avhich bonnd the past with the present in the es- 


tablisliment of Lutheranism in North Caroliiiii was 
now broken, and Rev. Storch descended to his 
grave sadly lamented by all the members of his 
entire pastoral charge, and his loss was deeply de- 
plored by the whole Synod, of which he was one 
of the early founders. lie went to his grave with 
the highest honors upon his hoary head, as one of 
the fathers of the Lutheran Church in North Caro- 

A notice of the funeral occasion of Rev. Storch, 
in one of the secular papers, says: " The deep and 
unrestrained emotions of the assembly of his spir- 
itual children at the grave of their departed friend 
evinced the magnitude of their loss, and the ex- 
tent of his worth." 

From the minutes of the North Carolina Synod, 
giving a lengthy account of his life and labors, 
the following extract is made: 

"He enjoyed the love of all his dear congrega- 
tions; he refused sundry lucrative situations to 
other cities out of love to his flock; and as soon 
as a Synod of the Lutheran Church was formed in 
North Carolina, he was annually elected Presi- 
dent, whenever he could be present, and his nearly 
thirty-seven years' service will remain in blessed 
memory. Since a few years his sickness, which 
often kept him in bed, compelled him to give up 
his congregations, but he always participated in 
the happiness and woe of the Church and his 
former flock by praises, prayer, sighing and tem- 
poral assistance. The last days of his life were 
very painful, until his friend, Jesus, whom he 


loved, took him to his eternal rest on the 27th of 
March, 1831, where all weakness and trouble are 
buried under his feet. 

"Two funeral discourses were delivered at 
Synod in remembrance of our venerable and lately 
departed father, Charles A. Storch, to a numerous 
and attentive audience. The German discourse 
was on John 12 : 36, by the Rev. G. Shober; the 
English by the Rev. D. P. Rosenmiller, on John 

The following extract is taken from Dr. Hazelius' 
History of the American Lutheran Church, pp. 

"The Church suftered a great loss in the de- 
parture of Rev. C. A. G. Storch. His missionary 
tours in South Carolina are still held in grateful 
remembrance by many, who through his instru- 
mentality were first brought from darkness to 
light, and from the kingdom of Satan to the living 
God. As a man of science he was highly esteemed 
by all who knew him in that respect. As a min- 
ister of the Gospel, he richly possessed the rare 
talent to create a deep interest for his subject in 
the well-informed, while he was fully understood 
by persons of no education. As friend, husband, 
and father, his remembrance will be cherished, 
blessed, and honored, so long as one friend and 
one child lives, to feel wdiat he was to them in 
these capacities in life. 

"During the last six years of his earthly exist- 
ence, bodily infirmities prevented him from attend- 
ing the services of the house of God, but still he 


cheerfully embraced every opportunity to counsel 
and comfort the afflicted. His last illness con- 
tinued for nine weeks, and he frequently gave, 
both to his family and visiting friends, the assur- 
ance of his firm hope of eternal life, and of his 
desire that true piety and the religion of the heart, 
might become general among mankind, and es- 
pecially that these blessings might be universal in 
the churches to whom he had administered the 
word of life. He departed full of faith and hope 
in his Redeemer." 

In the Evangelical Review, vol. viii, pp. 402 and 
403, the following additional facts are stated: 

"He was familiar with the Hebrew, Greek and 
Latin, and it is said he could converse fluently in 
five or six different languages. Such was his 
thirst for knowledge that he kept pace with the 
improvements of the age, and was constantly add- 
ing to his stores of information. His mind was 
active and discriminating, and so well disciplined 
that he had no difficulty in grasping any subject 
that claimed his attention. It is said his library 
was large and valuable, embracing quite a number 
of distinguished German authors. Many of these 
he bequeathed to our Theological Seminary at 
Gettysburg, of which he was elected one of the 
first directors, and in whose prosperity he always 
manifested a deep interest. The most of his 
books are, however, in the possession of N^orth 
Carolina College, at Mount Pleasant, Cabarrus 
County, K C. 

"Rev. Samuel Rothrock, who succeeded him in 


one of his churches, writes: 'Mr. Storch was 
truly a man of God ! Many are yet living who 
formerly sat under his preaching, in whose hearts 
he is sacredly embalmed, and who still cherish for 
him the most profound respect.' " 

The following inscription is engraved upon the 
tablet in the adjoining God's acre of Organ Church, 
which marks the spot where this useful servant of 
the Lord was laid down to rest: "Sacred to the 
memory of the Rev. Charles A. G. Storch, Pastor 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; who was 
brorn on the 16th day of June, A.D. 1764, and de- 
parted this life on the 27th day of March, 1831. 
Aged 6Q years, 9 months and 11 days." 

In addition to those pastors laboring in Virginia 
and retaining their connection with the North 
Carolina Synod, namely. Revs. Jacob Scherer and 
Daniel J, Hauer, who removed from ]^orth Caro- 
lina to that State, and Revs. Martin Walther, 
Andrew Seechrist and John P. Cline, the Synod 
received a considerable accession to its ministerial 
ranks in Revs. Henry Graeber, Jacob Kaempfer, 
William Artz and David P. Rosenmiller, all of 
whom became connected with the Synod in 1828. 

" Rev. Henry Graeber was for a number of years 
a member of the Lutheran Synod of Maryland and 
Virginia, and lately accepted a call to Lincoln 
County, N. C, where he preaches to six congre- 
gations. The people there are generally liberal 
in supporting the Gospel. As an evidence of this, 
a certain individual made a donation of fifty acres 
of land to be appropriated as a parsonage, and a 


commodions house was built on it by the congre- 
gation, where Rev. Mr. Graeber noAV lives." 

The Revs. Artz, Kaempfer, and Rosen miller 
were three young men, who had completed their 
theological course of studies at the Seminary at 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and came to labor in 
N^orth Carolina upon the recommendation of Pro- 
fessor S. S. Schm acker. They were admitted at 
once as members of the Synod. Rev. Artz took 
charge of the vacant congregations in Guilford 
County; their pastor. Rev. Jacob Scherer, having 
removed to Virginia. Rev. Rosenmiller located 
himself in Lexington, the seat of justice in David- 
son County, where he opened a classical school, 
and attended to the duties of pastor among several 
of the churches in the county, and the one lately, 
established in the village. Rev. Kaempfer became 
the pastor of Organ Church and some of the other 
contiguous congregations, made vacant by the re- 
moval of their pastor, Rev. Daniel Scherer, to the 
State of Illinois. 

'Section 8. Principal Transactions of the Tennessee 
Synod, from 18S0 to 1833. 

The name of this Synod would indicate that its 
labors were confined to the State of Tennessee; 
such is, however, not the case, as that Synod, like 
some other Lutheran Synods in this country, has 
many congregations in the States adjoining. Some 
of these churches are located iu North and South 


Carolina, and hence the history of the Tennessee 
Synod also belongs properly to the history of the 
Lutheran Church in the Carolinas. 

As stated before, the Tennessee Synod was 
organized July 17th, 1820 ; at that meeting the 
German language was made the business language 
of Synod, and all its transactions were to be printed 
in German. 

All articles of faith and practice, as well as all 
books used in public worship, are to be arranged 
according to the doctrines of the Holy Scriptures 
and the Augsburg Confession. 

Two ranks of the ministerial office were ac- 
knowledged, namely. Pastor and Deacon, both 
of which requiring a separate ordination by the 
imposition of hands. Only the pastors had the 
right to perform all ministerial acts ; the deacons 
could catechize, read a sermon to a congregation, 
bury the dead, exhort, and, in case of necessity, 
baptize, provided no pastor can be obtained. 

Each cono^resjation had the rij^ht to send a dele- 
gate to Synod, but the number of the lay-delegates' 
votes was limited to the number of ministers pres- 
ent at Synod. • 

At the fifth session of Synod, Rev. ISTehemiah 
Bonham, of Tazewell County, Virginia, an English 
Lutheran minister, with his congregations, was 
admitted as a member of Synod. Rev. Bonham 
became an active worker in the Lord's vineyard, 
and accomplished much good. 

Li 1825 the minutes of Synod were printed also 
in the English language. At that same meeting 


"a memorial, subscribed bj^ nine persons," was 
handed in, " in wliich the Synod is requested to 
make another attempt to efteet a union with the 
ministers of the IsTorth Carolina Synod; yet so, 
that the genuine Lutheran doctrine be not thereby 

E"ovember 27th, 1825, Rev. PaulIIenkel departed 
this life at New Market, Virginia. He had been 
in the ministry forty-four years, and, at the time 
of his decease, had arrived at an advanced age of 

During the seventh session of the Synod, the 
following action was taken in reference to the 
diflaculty respecting the English language. " As 
several members of this body do not understand 
the Gereian language, and yet do not desire to 
form a separate Synod, it was, therefore, 

'■'■Ilesolved, that David Henkel should act as in- 
terpreter to them; furthermore, that the business 
of Synod shall be transacted in the German lan- 
guage during the tirst three days, afterwards the 
English language shall be used." 

At the ninth session a new constitution was 
adopted, and appended to the printed minutes. 
Rev. David Forrester was ordained at this session 
to the office of a pastor, and several students of 
theology were received under the care of Synod. 

From the minutes of 1829, it is manifest that 
the Synod was extending its bounds and influence, 
and. through the labors of Rev. Bouham, Luther- 
anism became known in Habersham and Carroll 
Counties, Georgia. Rev. John L. Morkert, from 


Ohio, attached himself to the Synod, and Eev. 
John ]^. Stirewalt was ordained to the pastoral 
office. A vote of thanks was presented to Dr. 
Solomon Henkel " for his extra and benevolent 
services he has rendered this body from time to 
time, in printing" the transactions, &c., of Synod. 

In 1831 the Rev. William C. Rankin, a licentiate 
of the Presbyterian Church, and in good standing, 
as seen from the records of Union Presbytery, 
East Tennessee, having adopted the principles of 
the Lutheran Church, and desiring to become one 
of its ministers, was examined by a committee, and 
recommended for ordination. " He was first admit- 
ted to full membership of the Lutheran Church by 
the rite of confirmation, and after having taken 
the solemn vows of a minister, he was ordained as 
pastor with prayer and imposition of hands." 

The same day Rev. Henry Goodman was or- 
dained as deacon. During this year, on the 15th 
of June, Rev. David Henkel departed this life, 
aged thirty-six j^ears, one month, and eleven days. 
His remains were interred at St. John's Church, 
Lincoln County, N. C. As a youth of seventeen 
years he commenced to preach the gospel; he 
delivered his first sermon, IS'ovember 1, 1812, at 
St. Peter's Church, in South Carolina. "He was a 
diligent student, and searched deep into the truths 
of divine revelation." He was the author of nine 
diflterent publications, the most of which are of a 
theological character. He was asked on his death- 
bed whether he remained steadfast in the doctrine 
he preached, to which he replied in the affirmative, 


and that he had no fear of death. " His last words 
were : ' O Lord Jesus — thoii Son of God — receive 
my spirit.' " lie left a wife and seven children to 
mourn his loss. 

During the years 1832 and 1833, nothing of any 
special interest was transacted at Synod, except 
the ordination of Eev. H. Goodman to the pastoral 
office, and the withdrawal of Rev. W. C. Rankin 
from Synod; whether he connected himself with 
some other ecclesiastical body is not stated. 

Appended to the minutes there is an obituary 
notice of Rev. Philip Ilenkel, who departed this 
life October 9th, 1883, aged fifty-four years and 
seventeen days. His remains were interred at 
Richland Church, Randolph County, K. C. He 
was one of the first founders of the Lutheran Ten- 
nessee Synod, and was thirty-three years and three 
months in the ministerial office. 

Section 9. Establishment of a Theological Seminary 
in South Carolina^ under the Professor shij) of 
Rev. John G. Schwartz, A.D. 1830. 

The first steps taken towards the establishment 
of a Theological Seminary by the South Carolina 
Synod, were sundry resolutions passed at the meet- 
ing of Synod held in Savannah, Georgia, Novem- 
ber 20th, 1829, and are as follows: 

" The several resolutions already mentioned, as 
having reference to the establishment of a Theo- 
logical Seminar}', within the bounds of this Synod, 


were now taken up, and after mature discussion, 
unanimoiLsly adopted. 

" Resolved, Tliat this Synod regard the establish- 
ment of a theological seminary under the auspices 
of this judicatory, and within its bounds, as highly 
calculated to advance the interests of our Church, 
and as an object worthy of attention. 

" Resolved, therefore, That we direct our efforts 
forthwith to the erection of a fund, to be hereafter 
devoted to the establishment and support of such 
a seminary. 

'■'■ Resolved, also, That a committee, to consist of 
twenty, be now appointed, who shall be authorized 
to receive any donations which may be presented 
or legacies which may be bequeathed towards the 
erection of such a fund. 

(Here follow the names of the members of that 

" Resolved, moreover. That this committee act 
until the ensuing session of this Synod. That the 
chairman of the committee report at the next an- 
nual meeting, whether any and what donations 
have been received, and that a similar committee 
be appointed from year to year." 

The next year fully decided the fate of the pro- 
posed institution. The President of the Synod, 
Eev. J. Bachman, opened the subject in his annual 
address to Sj'nod, as follows: 

"Although by the blessing of God our Church 
under the direction of this Synod is evidently on 
the increase, yet there still continues a lamentable 
want of ministers. Our congregations are enlarg- 


ing, find new ones are forming from year to year, 
yet the number of our ministers is not propor- 
tionably on the increase; and such are the calls 
for their services, that although some of our min- 
isters attend to from fqur to seven congregations, 
it is feared that there will be some churches left 
but very partially supplied during the coming 
year. There are also petitions from Georgia and 
Alabama for missionaries, to which it is feared we 
can only respond by our wishes and our prayers. 
We have applied to our sister Synods in vain for 
aid. So wide a sphere is opened to them in the 
North and "West, that they have no ministers to 
send us ; and it is believed that our only perma- 
nent dependence, under the blessing of God, will 
be upon pious individuals who will hereafter be 
educated for our Church, who are natives of the 
States within the bounds of our Synod, and who 
are attached to our institutions, and accustomed 
to our climate. 

"Let us bring the means of a theological edu- 
cation within the reach of our pious young men, 
and we may be assured that they will profit by 
these advantages. And I come now to recom- 
mend with all the earnestness I am capable of, and 
imploring Almighty God for his blessing on our 
humble exertions, the institution and support of 
a Theological Seminary. Hitherto I have had 
many anxieties on this subject, and great doubts 
of our success. I feared that in attempting too 
much we might entirely fail. But Providence 
seems to have removed the o-reatest obstacles to 


the establishment of such an institution. Our 
people have become united and zealous in the 
cause, and evince a liberality which, until now, 
we had no reason to expect. A proposition has 
emanated from them to subscribe a hundred dol- 
lars each, payable in four and five years, which 
would enable persons even in moderate circum- 
stances to render their efficient aid to our contem- 
plated institution. The success in obtaining sub- 
scriptions, thus far, is quite encouraging. The 
clergy of our denomination, although in most in- 
stances they receive but a very inadequate sup- 
port, express their views of the importance of such 
an institution to our Southern Church in a desire 
to share with their people the burden of expense. 
This united zeal and perseverance will, we confi- 
dently hope, enable us at the next meeting of our 
Synod to report that ten thousand dollars have 
been pledged — a sum sufficient to enable our in- 
stitution to go into successful operation ; and al- 
though it would have but an humble origin, yet 
fostered by our liberality, our watchfulness, and 
our sincere and fervent prayers, we may, under 
the blessing of heaven, look forward to a long 
train of signal blessings upon our Church." 

In addition to this address. Rev. Bachman also 
brought the subject before Sjniod in his discourse, 
which is likewise appended to the minutes of that 
year, and although an exceedingly interesting 
document, it is much too lengthy to be inserted 
here. It had the good effect of awakening the 
minds of the people generally on the importance 


of establishing the proposed Theological Semi- 
nary, and it accomplished good results even after 
the adjournment of Synod. 

The chairman of the committee to receive dona- 
tions, &c., for this object, reported that by the 1st 
of January next, "$3000 will have been sub- 

The Synod then adopted the following series of 

" Whereas, The committee appointed at the last 
meeting of this Synod for the purpose of raising 
a fund for the support of a Theological Seminary, 
have made considerable progress in obtaining con- 
tributions; and whereas, there is a prospect of 
having a sufficient fund collected in a short time; 

''^Resolved, That in humble reliance on the Di- 
vine blessing, we now establish a Theological Semi- 
nary, to be conducted under the auspices of this 
Synod, and that we, by this resolusion, do conse- 
crate our efibrts to Him, who is the great Head of 
the Church, the Shepherd and Bishop of souls — 
God over all, blessed forever. 

" Jiesohed, That as a course of preparatory study 
may be necessary for many theological students, 
and in order to the defraying of the expenses of 
a Theological Institution, we have connected with 
it a classical academy, under the superintendence 
of the Professor of Theology, and that this acad- 
emy be open to all males over ten years of age." 

The other resolutions refer to the appointment 
of a board of ten directors, the election of a treas- 
urer, when the board is to be elected, the election 
of a Professor of Theology, &c. 


"Mr. Henry Muller was elected Treasurer, and 
the Rev. J. G. Schwartz was unanimously chosen 
Professor of Theology." 

Concerning Rev. Schwartz's election, and his 
fitness for the office, Rev. Bachman says: 

"It was necessary that a professor to the insti- 
tution should be elected, and that he should enter 
at once upon the discharge of his duties. Every 
eye among the clergy and laity was immediately 
directed to Mr. Schwartz. Tliey knew his educa- 
tion, his talents and piety. Although but twenty- 
three years of age, he had made the best use of 
his short life. There were few blotter Greek and 
Latin scholars in our country; he had attended 
considerably to the Hebrew language; he was 
proficient in the French, and he was studiously 
directing his attention to the German, and read 
and translated that language with considerable 
ease. He had made an equal proficiency in the 
other sciences. In theology he was probably as 
well read as any young man of his age. He had 
attentively read all the most important writings 
on the subject; and although he preferred the doc- 
trines of our Church to all others, yet his soul was 
the seat of Christian liberality, and it should be 
spoken to his praise, that although surrounded by 
Christians of other denominations, yet he never 
gave them offence, and they generally attended 
with satisfaction and improvement on his minis- 
trations. The objections to his youth were every 
day removing. He received a unanimous vote as 
Professor of Theology. After the election there 


was a pause of many minutes, when he arose to 
address us. For a time his feelings almost pre- 
vented the power of utterance. He at length pro- 
ceeded to thank us for our favorable opinion ; 
stated his sense of his incapacity to discharge the 
duties of the station to which he had been ap- 
pointed; pointed out its difficulties, but signified 
his willingness to undertake it by the help of God, 
and entreated our prayers and intercessions, and 
those of all Christians in his behalf. The youth 
of the individual — the occasion — the importance 
of the subject, and the feeling and eloquent ad- 
dress, melted the whole audience into tears, and I 
am sure that few who were then present will ever 
forget that impressive scene. 

- "He had entered the Junior Class of the South 
Carolina College in the autumn of 1824, and gradu- 
ated in 1826, having throughout his collegiate 
course conducted himself with such propriety, 
that he was greatly beloved by the members of 
his class. He received a high honor when he 
graduated, and a letter from one of the professors 
stated — 'He is not only among thebest scholars, 
but one of the very best young men that graduated 
here for many jeavs past.' " 

The permanent location of the Theological Semi- 
nary was postponed to some future time; how- 
ever, as Professor Schwartz had taken charge of 
several congregations in Kewberry District, which 
he was unwilling to resign until another year had 
expired, he gave notice " that for the year 1831 
his residence will be in Newberry District, with 


Colonel John Eigleberger, about ten miles below 
Wevvberry Court-house, and that he will be pre- 
pared, by the first Monday in February, to receive 
as theological students such persons, as shall have 
been approved by the standing committee of the 
Board of Directors. 

"Boarding, inclusive of washing, &c., will be 
furnished at seventy dollnrs per annum." 

The Seminary of Theology opened with very 
flattering prospects; so many students became 
connected with it, that Professor Schwartz ex- 
pressed his fears in a letter to Rev. J. Bachman, 
that if many more would come, they could not be 
accommodated : and of their character he further 
states : " All the young men now with me are 
promising — and if their hearts be right in the 
sight of God, I have no doubt they will prove a 
blessing to our Church. The heart is known, 
however, only to God — we can judge only by the 
outward appearance; but did I think that any of 
these students were deficient in proper views of 
religion and of the ministerial office, I should feel 
it my bounden duty to advise them at once not to 
enter this institution. I dread the idea of being 
instrumental in educating any one for the holy 
office of the ministry, who through a want of per- 
sonal religion may bring disgrace upon our sacred 


Section 10. Neio Churches erected in South Carolina ; 
and the early death of Itevs. Wingard^ Schwartz, 
Bergman, and Daniel Dreher. 

1. Mount Calvarg Church, Edgefield District, was 
dedicated by the Rev. Messrs. Schwartz and W. 
D. Strobel, on the 21st of February, 1830. The 
congregation at that time numbered twenty-four 

2. •S'^. PauVs, a fine new church in JSTewberry 
District, was dedicated on the tliird Sunday in 
June, 1830, by the Rev. Messrs. Ranch and 
Schwartz. A revived state of religion had been 
visible for some time past, and soon after the 
dedication of the church thirty-seven persons were 
added at one time by confirmation. 

3. Shiloh Church, in the fork of the two Edisto 
Rivers, and in the neighborhood of Mr. Branden- 
burg, was completed this year, and on the second 
Sabbath in January, 1831, it was dedicated ; it con- 
tained at the time a membership of but fifteen com- 

4. Ebenezer Church, in the city of Columbia, a 
neat brick edifice, located in an extensive lot, with 
an ample God's-acre for the repose of the dead, 
was completed this year, and dedicated the 28th 
of N"ovember, 1830. This congregation was gath- 
ered together and organized by Rev. Jacob Win- 
gard, who manifested great zeal and good manage- 
ment in this laudable enterprise. The congregation 
being small, and the membership generally in lim- 



ited circumstances, the church edifice was erected 
principally through the munificence of Mr. Henry 
Muller, Sr., of Piatt Springs, Lexington District, 
S. C. In Februarj^, 1865, it became a prey to the 
flames of the burning of Columbia by the Northern 
army, under General Sherman; but has since been 
rebuilt by funds, donated partly by Lutheran con- 
gregations and individuals at the North. 

Si. Stepheyi's Church, at Lexington Court-house, 
a frame building, with ample accommodations, 
was erected this year, but not completed until the 
fall of 1831, when on the fifth Sunday in October 
it was dedicated to the service of Almighty God. 
Being located in a town where the Lutheran ele- 
ment largely predominates, it has the prospect of 
becoming a flourishing church. It was likewise 
burnt down during the late war. 

6. During the year 1831, " the Church in the 
Sandhills was also dedicated." 

7. " The Church at Hollow Creek is said to be 
nearly completed, and will be opened for worship 
in the course of a month." 

8. "A new church in Barnwell District, near 
the Saltketchers, is also being erected, and is in a 
considerable state of forwardness." 

The above are quotations from the president's 
report to Synod in 1831. 

God was visibly blessing the South Carolina 
Synod in enlarging its sphere of influence and 
usefulness, in the increase of its members and con- 
gregations; bat there is also a shady side to that 
picture — God visited the Synod by the removal of 


a number of useful ministers of the Gospel by the 
strong hand of death ; they were taken away when 
yet in their years of youthful strength and vigor, 
when the Church had centred great hopes in them, 
and they gave promise of a long life of service in 
the Lord's vineyard. 

Rev. Jacob Wingard was the son of Samuel 
Wingard, and a young man of much promise; of 
him the Rev. J. Bachman, President of Synod, 
remarks in his report of 1831 : " Mr. Wingard had 
but recently returned from the Theological Institu- 
tion at Gettysburg, where he had been highly re- 
spected for his talents, his piety, and worth. But 
his friends beheld with anxiety and sorrow that 
his constitution, which had never been strong, had 
been attacked by an insidious disease ; but trust- 
ing to that heavenly physician, who is able to re- 
store health and vigor to the diseased frame and 
cheer the drooping hopes of man, we still looked 
forward to the time when his recovery would re- 
store him to usefulness in the Church, and by our 
advice he was solemnly ordained and set apart to 
the work of the ministry. But on the 14th day of 
January last, the God whom he loved to serve, and 
in whose cause he had spent the whole of his short 
life, summoned him away. Mr. Wingard was a 
young man of uncommon attainments, considering 
the disadvantages under which he had labored in 
his youth, for the want of a systematic education. 
He was in most cases his own instructor ; every 
leisure hour that could be spared from those occu- 
pations in which he was necessarily engaged was 


devoted to books; and all his reading aud study 
had for its object the promotion of his Savior's re- 
ligion. For this object he left his peaceful home, 
and devoted himself to solitude and study in a 
distant part of our land. Here he was attacked 
by a disease, which he bore with Christian resig- 
nation. When he was summoned away, he ap- 
peared still at the post of duty, and meekly re- 
signed himself to the will of God, trusting through 
the mercy of his Savior for the salvation of his 
soul, and the joys of heaven." 

With Rev. Prof. John G. Schwartz the reader 
is already well acquainted. He commenced his 
labors as the first regular Professor of .Theology in 
connection with the Lutheran Church in the Caro- 
linas, early in February, 1831, under the most 
flattering prospects, and with the high hopes of 
the Church centred upon him ; but these hopes 
were destined to a speedy disappointment; in less 
than seven months Prof. Schwartz was numbered 
with the dead. 

The following brief sketch of his life is fur- 
nished by Rev. Dr. Hazelius in his "American 
Lutheran Church:" 

"The Rev. John G. Schwartz was born in 
Charleston, S. C, in the year 1807, where he also 
received the preliminary part of his education. 
Afterwards he became an alumnus of the South 
Carolina College, at Columbia, where he gradu- 
ated with distinguished honor in December, 1826. 
On his return to Charleston he commenced the 
study of theology under the direction of the Rev. 


Mr. Bachman. In 1828 he was elected Junior 
Pi'ofessor of Languages in the Cliarleston College. 
But desirous of serving the Lord as a minister of 
the Gospel, he freely surrendered his present ad- 
vantages, as well as his fair temporal prospects of 
the future, and engaged as a missionary among 
the destitute churches in the interior of South 

"His lahors were eminently blessed, and our 
brother enjoyed the full confidence of the mem- 
bers of his churches. But his career was to be 
short; for wise purposes, to us unknown, the Lord 
called his young servant away in the midst of 
his useful labors. In the summer of 1831 he was 
seized with a violent fever, which at first appear- 
ance seemed to yield to the influence of medicine, 
but returning with increased severity, put relief 
beyond the power of human means, and on the 
26th of August it terminated his valuable life, 
having just reached the 21th year of his age." 

From a funeral discourse, occasioned by the 
death of Rev. J. G. Schwartz, and delivered by 
the Rev. Mr. Bachman, the following testimony 
of the character and worth of Prof. Schwartz is 

" Should it be asked what was the peculiar trait 
in the character of Mr. Schwartz, I would say that 
it was a solemn determination conscientiously to 
discharge his duty to his God. For this he left 
his peaceful home and the friends of his youth, 
and retired into a sickly part of our county; and 
from thence he wrote: 'Here in the woods of 


Carolina I suspect my lot is cast — here I shall live, 
and here I shall die. To be instrumental in doing 
good and enlarging the Redeemer's kingdom is 
all I ask.' 

"That a man who was so devoted to the duties 
of the Christian should possess the amiable graces 
of benevolence, we cannot wonder. He felt it his 
duty to exert all his powers to do good to the 
bodies and souls of men. The great maxim, no 
man liveth to himself, was engraven on his mind. 
"Without profession or show, he engaged in and 
ardently devoted himself to every work of benevo- 

"The shock given to the people among whom 
he lived by this event was unusual, and the calam- 
ity Avas heightened by its bereaving them of their 
fondest hopes. A gentleman who attended the 
funeral writes: 'No tongue can express, no pen 
can describe the feelings of the people on this 
melancholy occasion. The remains of our dearly 
beloved friend were interred this morning in Beth- 
lehem churchyard; the largest concourse of people 
that were ever assembled in this country attended 
the funeral. The sad looks, the loud sobs and the 
tears shed on this mournful occasion, amply testi- 
fied the high esteem in Avhich he was held hy all, 
rich and poor, old and young, white and black — 
pardon me for introducing the word black, but I 
must say, that even the poor Africans sympathized 
and sorrowed, saying, "Dear Mr. Schwartz." ' 
Three of the ministers of our Church officiated at 
his funeral, and all bore testimony', that never had 


an individual departed in that community who 
was more beloved, or whose loss was more sin- 
cerely lamented than was that of our departed 

The next victim in the ministerial ranks of the 
South Carolina Synod, which death claimed as his 
own, was the Rev. C. F. Bergman, who, though 
laboring in Ebenezer, Georgia, was ordained by, 
and labored in connection with, the South Caro- 
lina Synod, and maintained his official relationship 
with the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas to the 
close of his life. It is therefore proper that an 
account of his life, labors and death be here in- 
serted, which is furnished by Rev. S. A. Mealy in 
his funeral discourse, preached to Rev. Bergman's 
congregation at Ebenezer, occasioned by the death 
of their beloved pastor: 

" The Rev. Christopher F. Bergman was born 
at Ebenezer, Georgia, on the 7th of January, 
1793. His father, the Rev. John E. Bergman, a 
native of German}^, and the learned and exem- 
plary minister of this church for the long period 
of thirty-six years, had the exclusive care of the 
education of the subject of our present recollec- 
tions. He may, indeed, with the utmost truth, 
be said to have been trained up from youth to 
manhood in his own father's study. 

"The general deportment of our friend was 
grave, and his very appearance forbade the rude 
approach of impertinent curiosity. One who saw 
him for the first time, would have thought him, 
perhaps, inaccessible and austere. But the same 


individual, upon a closer acquaintance, would 
bave perceived his error, and found himself iu 
the presence of gravity indeed, but a gravity most 
delicately softened by every generous virtue and 
amiable emotion. His outward bearing to others 
was affable, but unobtrusive. He was almost al- 
ways cheerful, but never trifling. I have often 
seen his countenance lighted up with a smile 
among his friends, but distorted with laughter, 
never. His feelings, though cautious in their dis- 
play, were constitutionally warm; and his affec- 
tion for those whom he loved, ardent. In all the 
social relations of life, as a man — as a citizen — a 
husband — a parent — a master — a neighbor, and a 
friend — those who best knew him will bear me 
out in the assertion that he reflected honor upon 
the age in which he lived, and may be safely imi- 
tated, without any qualification whatsoever, by 
those whom he has left behind him. 

"And what he was to this people, as the affec- 
tionate pastor, there are none of you will ever for- 
get. How this 'good man, who was over you in 
the Lord,' preached to you — how he consoled you 
in the hour of sorrow — how he dried your tears in 
the season of aflliction — how he prayed beside 
your sick-bed-s — how sincerely he loved you, and 
how faithfully he admonished you — is well known 
to all of this congregation, and shall be known to 
assembled worlds in the great day of judgment, 
when pastors and their charges shall meet again. 

"I inquired wliether, if it was the Divine will, 
he would not wish to be spared a little longer to 


his deur family aud congregation. He said noth- 
ing for a considerable space, till I began to think 
he had not heard my question. At length he re- 
plied, 'If it is the divine will, I would rather go 
now. I feel that for me to depart and to be with 
Christ is far better. I think I can truly say, "for 
me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.'" I ob- 
served, ' Then you are not afraid to die?' He said, 
'No!' 'You have no doubts of your acceptance 
with God, through our great Mediator?' He re- 
plied, ']N"one. Blessed be the God and Father of 
my Lord Jesus Christ, I have no doubts.' 

"While I was engaged in prayer, he held one 
of my hands clasped in both his own, and distinctly 
though feebly repeated almost every word after 
me, and concluded the prayer for me with the 
usual Amen. He then lay composed for some 
time, when at length he warmly pressed my hand 
and said, louder than he had yet spoken, 'Fare- 
well.' He now repeated that triumphant hymn, 

' Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, 
And let me languish into life.' 

"These were among the last words he used. 
At a quarter before three, a.m., on the 26th of 
March, 1832, he ceased to breathe, aud was gath- 
ered to his rest in peace." 

On the 14th of August, 1832, God called another 
3^oung laborer to his early rest. Of him, Dr. Ha- 
zelius writes: 

"The Rev. Daniel Dreher, son of Mr. John 
Dreher, of Lexington District, enjoyed the advan- 



tages of the advice and instruction of pious parents 
during his childhood and years of his youth, and 
by that instrumentality the Lord directed him 
early to the knowledge of his sinful nature, the 
need of a Savior, and to Jesus, the friend of re- 
penting sinners, whose merits he embraced, 
through faith in application to his own soul. 
Having found Jesus precious, and the rock on 
which he had built the house of his hope, he be- 
came anxious to recommend him also unto others. 
Having given some attention to the study of di- 
vinity under the direction of his elder brother, 
the Rev. Godfrey Dreher, he was received by 
Synod as licentiate. He was an acceptable and 
zealous preacher, and his remembrance is cher- 
ished by all who enjoyed his acquaintance. He 
departed in hope of eternal life." 

Thus was the Synod of South Carolina sorely 
smitten at that time, and the Church bereft of 
some of its most promising laborers. In view of 
these severe afflictions, the President of Synod, 
Rev. John Bachman, in his address to Synod, thus 
expresses himself: 

"Let our past afflictions teach us humility, an 
increase of zeal and an humble trust and confi- 
dence in the protection and mercy of God; and as 
the hour of the night is darkest which precedes 
the rising morn, and as the day is often calmest 
which succeeds the violence of the tempest, so 
these visitations of heaven, like the calamities 
which befell the Church of old, may be followed 
by a long train of mercies and blessings to our 


beloved Zion. But whilst we rely for future suc- 
cess and prosperity on the blessings of heaven, let 
us in the meantime do all that lies in our power 
to promote its best interests." 

Section 11. Founding of the Theological Seminary at 
Lexington., S. C, and Arrival of Rev. E. L. 
Hazelius, D.D., as Professor of Theology. 

The fund necessary for the endowment of a 
professorship in the Theological Seminary was 
constantly increasing, and at the meeting of the 
South Carolina Synod of 1831, "liberal ofters were 
made by several persons for the location of the 
Seminary in their respective neighborhoods. 

"After much interesting discussion had been 
elicited, in which several, both of the clerical and 
lay members, took an animated part, the following 
resolutions were finally adopted: 

'■'■ Resolved, That the location of our Theological 
Seminary be deferred till the next meeting of 
Synod; and that during the recess of the Synod 
the Board of Directors ascertain which of any two 
places selected will hold out the greatest induce- 
ments for the establishment of our Seminary in 
that place. 

'■'■Resolved, That Lexington Village and Sandy 
Run, the latter comprising a circuit of from one 
to two miles from the church, be the places desig- 
nated in the above resolution." 

At the next meeting of Synod, held in St. Mat- 


thew's Church, Orangeburg District, the question 
of locating the Seminary was finallj' disposed of 
by the reading of the proposals made by the 
above-mentioned two places, which were as fol- 
lows : 

" Lexington Village, in money and other property, $5287 
Sandy Run, " " 4000 

Excess in favor of Lexington Village, . . . $1287 " 

And the passing of the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That since Lexington Village holds 
out the greatest inducements, our Theological 
Seminary shall be located in that place." 
In reference to the Seminary, it was also 
" Resolved, That the sincere thanks of this Synod 
be returned to our friends and the members of our 
Church for their very generous subscriptions to 
our Theological Seminary. 

^^ Resolved, That it be enjoined on all our min- 
isters to bring the subject of our Theological 
Seminary to the view of their respective congre- 
gations, and to impress upon them the necessity 
of using their most strenuous exertions to promote 
its best interests. 

'■'■Resolved, That the Rev. Godfrey Dreher and 
Mr. Henry Muller be appointed by this Synod as 
their agents, to solicit donations and subscriptions 
to our Theological Seminary, and that they report 
to this Synod at its next meeting." 

Mrs. Mariana Chisolm, of Charleston, S. C, pre- 
sented to the Synod, for the use of the Seminary, 
a large Bible and hymnbook, " accompanied with 


her earnest prayer that the institution may be in- 
strumental in furnishing the now destitute churches 
with many pious and able ministers of the Lu- 
theran faith." Whereupon the Synod 

'■^ Bcsolucd, That the thanks of this Synod be re- 
turned to Mrs. Mariana Cliisolm for her very ac- 
ceptable present of a valuable Bible and Lutheran 
hymn and prayer book for the use of our Semi- 

During the year 1833 the necessary buildings 
were erected near Lexington Court-House, both 
for recitation rooms and a dwelling for the theo- 
logical Professor; and at the same time the Board 
of Directors elected Rev. Dr. E. L. Hazelius, of 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Professor of Theology; 
and the Rev. Washington Mul.ler, a graduate of 
South Carolina College, Principal of the Classical 

Rev. Dr. Hazelius was a native of Silesia, in the 
kingdom of Prussia ; in early life he Avas connected 
with the Moravian Church ; and, having " received 
his collegiate education in Saxony and Prussia, he 
subsequently graduated in the Moravian Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Niesk}^, in 1797. He arrived in 
America in 1800," and was for a time the classical 
teacher at ISTazareth, Pennsylvania, a Moravian 
institution of learning, where one of his pupils 
was the future Bishop Yan Vleck. In 1809 he 
was ordained by the New York Ministerium a 
minister of the Lutheran Church. In 1815 he 
was elected Professor of Theology at Hartwick 
Seminary, New York, " where he remained a 


faithful and successful instructor until 1830, when 
he removed to Gettysburg Seminary," as one of 
its professors. 

In the fall of 1833, he became located at Lexing- 
ton, S. C, where he remained in the service of his 
Master for nearly twenty years, to the close of his 

In the synodical address of Rev. J. Bachman, 
hewas kindly and heartily welcomed as Professor 
of Theology and as a member of the South Caro- 
lina Synod in the following terms : 

" It is a source of no small gratification to me to 
be permitted to welcome among ns our brother 
and friend, the recently elected Professor of The- 
ology in our Seminary. He has come, we hope 
and believe, to spend the remainder of an active 
and a useful life in the midst of us. He has 
brought along with him those talents w^iich God 
gave him — that learning which a life devoted to 
study has enabled him to acquire — and that expe- 
rience, zeal, and fidelity which caused him to be 
respected, and rendered him eminently useful, in 
all those valuable institutions over which he was 
heretofore called to preside. His unanimous elec- 
tion to this responsible office — the pleasure which 
we all felt on hearing of his acceptance of the ap- 
pointment — the sacrifices he has made to come 
among us — are all so many loud calls upon us to 
perform our part of the contract with liberal and 
cheerful hearts. Let us co-operate with him in 
all those regulations which are calculated to pro- 
mote the best interests of the institution, and let 


US give to that institution our united efforts and 
our fervent prayers." 

Both the Theological Seminary and the Clas- 
sical Academy went into operation on the first 
Monday of January, 18-34, and both commenced 
with very favorable prospects ; a number of young 
men enrolled themselves as students of theology, 
whilst the local and other patrons of the classical 
department were quite numerous. 

In the inaugural address of Rev. Dr. Ilazelius, 
in which he impresses his audience with the ne- 
cessity of a theological training for ministers of 
the gospel, the following are the closing remarks : 
"Brethren! Benefactors of this institution! I am 
aware your satisfaction at the success which has 
crowned your efforts, your labors, and your ex- 
pense, is great, and you regret not having at- 
tempted, though few in number, what in other 
sections of our country, large legacies, the contri- 
butions of strangers, and the united eftbrts of sev- 
eral Sjaiods only could accomplish. To you the 
Lutheran Church of South Carolina and the adja- 
cent States is largely indebted; and though no 
monuments of marble may hereafter point out to 
posterity what you have done for the Church, 
your latest posterity will bless your memory, and 
the Searcher of the heart will reward you. 

" We have the proud consciousness of knowing 
that we all have entertained and do now entertain 
no other view, no other aim in the establishment 
of this Seminary than the enlargement of the Re- 
deemer's kino-dom, and there is no doubt, if our 


institutions remain faithful to this principle, and 
faithful in the application of the means intrusted 
to us by our brethren for the benefit of the Semi- 
nary, and also in the instruction of our young 
brethren, if Ave never stoop to mean intrigue and 
management, but act with a single eye to the 
glory of God, and with candor towards man, the 
blessing' of Almighty Gcd will accompany this 
institution ; it will prove a benefit to the Church, 
and its blessings will descend to the latest genera- 



Section 1. Condition of the Lutheran Church in North 
and South Carolina in 1834,. 

During the three years which intervened be- 
tween 1831 and 1834, very few changes occurred 
in the E'er th Carolina Synod; the lie v. John T. 
Tabler, a student from Gettysburg, became con- 
nected with the Synod, and labored as pastor in 
Salisbury, but he remained there only one year, 
after which he removed to ViriJ^inia. 


In 1832, the Rev. Henry Graeber resigned liis 
charge in Lincohi County, and became the pastor 
of St. John's and Organ Churches, which had be- 
come vacant by the removal of Revs. D. Seherer 
and J. Kaenipfer. In 1883, the Rev. Samuel 
Rothrock, having completed his studies at Gettys- 
burg, returned to Korth Carolina, was licensed by 
Synod, and labored as missionary in several vacant 
churches for a short time, after which he became 
the pastor of Salisbury and Union Churches. The 
following year the Rev. Daniel Jenkins became 
connected with the North Carolina Synod; he 
came from " the State of Maryland, about the be- 
ginning of November, 1833, and expressing a de- 
sire to serve our Church in this Southern section 
as a missionary," was licensed by the President of 
Synod " to preach in our destitute churches until 
the next session of the Ministerium." 

The congregations in Lincoln County, having 
had no regular pastor of the North Carolina Synod 
since the removal of Rev. Graeber from their 
midst, and having been on]y occasionally visited 
by missionaries and other members of Synod, be- 
came eventually connected with the Tennessee 

Concerning the state of the Church in 1834, the 
President of Synod reports: "The events of the 
past sy nodical year have become, in some measure, 
more encouraging than they have been for several 
years before. Tliose churches in our connection 
that could be regularly supplied, had not only 
a considerable increase since our last annual meet- 


ing, but are also general]}^ in a prosperous condi- 
tion. The gospel has been faithfully preached, 
and the holy ordinances regularly admii\istered. 
There are still a goodly number of small but re- 
spectable congregations that are vacant, which, if 
the}^ could be supplied with ministers, would add 
considerable strength to this weak but evangelical 
member of the Lutheran household of faith. 
Prospects have also appeared during the last 
year, of forming several new congregations." 

During the year 1834 the Tennessee Synod had 
no meeting, caused by the absence of so many 
ministers. The next year the Synod met at Blue 
Spring Church, Green County, Tennessee, at 
■which meeting the Rev. William Handier, Daniel 
S. Schulfeld, Christian G. Reitzel and Samuel 
C. Parmer, were ordained to the office of deacon. 
At that time the Revs. Daniel Moser, Adam Mil- 
ler, Jr., and Jacob Casner were laboring in Lin- 
coln County, IST. C. ; the Rev. H. Goodman, in Ire- 
dell County, N. C. ; the Rev. C. G. Reitzel, in 
Guilford County, N. C; and Rev. J. N. Stirewalt, 
in Rowan County, N. C. The other twelve min- 
isters of the Tennessee Synod had charges in 
other States outside of the Carolinas. 

During this year, on the third Sunday in August, 
a new Lutheran Synod was organized in the State 
of Indiana, with which the three ministers of the 
Tennessee Synod, who resided in Indiana, doubt- 
less connected themselves. They besought their 
brethren of the parent Synod not to regard this 


movement as "a separation or schism," but rather 
as a means of "strengthening" the Church. 

In the South Carolina Synod no changes of im- 
portance occurred during the year 1834. "The 
Theological Seminary located at Lexington," says 
the President of Synod, in his annual report, "has 
thus far fully equalled our most sanguine expec- 
tations." ISTine young men formed the first class 
of students of theology, namely, F. F. Harris, J. 
P. Ring, D. Bernhardt, E. A. Bolles, E. Hawkins, 
W. Berly, PI. Stoudenmyre, L. Bedenbaugh and 
P. A. Strobel. Valuable additions to the library 
of the Seminary were presented by Messrs. Henry 
Muller, Sr., of Piatt Springs, Thomas Purse, of 
Savannah, and the congregation of Ebenezer, 

In December, 1833, the Missionary Committee 
of the Synod employed the Rev. P. Rizer, " who 
arrived at Lexington, S. C, from the State and 
Synod of Maryland," as a traveling missionary in 
the States of Georgia and Alabama. " He met 
with a very cordial reception from man}'^ Lutherans 
who had emigrated from Carolina, and found them 
still attached to the doctrines and usages of our 
Church." In Monroeville, at Flatt Creek, and 
at Bogue-Chitto Creek, in the State of Alabama, 
the prospects for the immediate organization of 
Lutheran churches was so flattering, and the de- 
mand for a pastor so urgent, that on the return of 
Rev. Rizer, one of the theological students, Mr. 
F. F. Harris, was licensed, and sent at once to 
these people as their pastor. At the meeting of 


Synod in 1834, he was ordained as the pastor of 
this hopeful charge in Alabama, and remained in 
that State eight years, when he removed to Ohio. 
He was succeeded by Revs. Daily and Stouden- 
myre, but nothing is now known of these churches, 
and no Lutheran minister is at present laboring in 
that portion of Alabama. 

The President of Synod, Eev. J. Bachman, in 
his annual report, urges upon the members of 
Synod the importance and necessity of catechetical 
instruction, stating: "The mind of man requires 
instruction as well as excitement, and in all our min- 
istrations we should be cautious to enlighten the 
understanding, and to enable our hearers to give 
a reason for the hope that is in them." 

Section 2. Bev. Daniel Jenkins' Revivals in North 
Carolina — Commissioners sent by the South Caro- 
lina Synod to the North Carolina Synod, with 
Proposals in Behalf of the Lexington Theological 
Seminary — Death of Rev. Gottlieb Shoher. 

The revival system or " new measures," as it 
was then called, was not introduced into the North 
Carolina Synod to its full extent until the year 
1835, when the Rev. Daniel Jenkins, from Mary- 
land, introduced it in his congregations. It created 
considerable opposition both among the clergy and 
laity of the Lutheran Church in North Carolina. 
The subject was debated at Synod, and the Miu- 
isterium passed the following resolutions: 


'■^Resolved, That we countenance no distinction 
between those Christians who are separately 
prayed for in public, and those who retire into 
their chambers for devotion. 

^'■Resolved, That if any licentiate should depre- 
ciate religious instruction of youth by \\i\.y of cate- 
chization, or otherwise, he can never be ordained." 

At no period of time has the North Carolina 
Synod abandoned catechetical instruction, al- 
though in some few congregations this old-estab- 
lished "good rule of our Church" fell into dis- 
use. Frequently the "new measures" accom- 
plished more harm than good ; and, to use a para- 
doxical expression often quoted, several churches 
were "revived to death." The system finally cul- 
minated into regular camp meetings ; but from 
that time forward it commenced to decline, and 
the ruins of the temporary little cabins, denomi- 
nated "tents," and of the covered sheds for preach- 
ing to large assemblies, denominated "arbors," 
may still be seen in some places, but they are no 
longer used for the purpose originally intended. 

In the year 1836, Eev. Dr. Hazelius and Mr. 
Henry MuUer attended the meeting of the I^^orth 
Carolina Synod. Thej^ came as commissioners 
sent by the Synod of South Carolina for the pur- 
pose of conferring with the members of the North 
Carolina Synod, "as to the possibility and mutual 
advantage of a union of eftbrt in the support and 
patronage of the Seminary at Lexington." 

The commissioners made the following pro- 


"1. The Synod of South Carolina will allow that 
of ISTorth Carolina such share in the government 
of the institution established at Lexington, as their 
portion of the funds shall equitably entitle them to. 

" 2. The students from North Carolina that 
enter the Seminary, shall be entitled to free tui- 
tion, as well as the students from South Carolina. 

"3. The fund collected by our brethren from 
ISTorth Carolina shall remain under the control of 
the Synod of ITorth Carolina, and only its yearly 
proceeds made over to the treasurer of our Semi- 

The Synod of North Carolina having "atten- 
tively heard" the proposition of the South Caro- 
lina Synod's commissioners, unanimously — 

'■'■Resolved, To appoint two delegates, one cleri- 
cal and one lay delegate, to meet the Synod of 
South Carolina at its next session in November, 
with instructions from this body to unite our efforts 
with our brethren in South Carolina, in the sup- 
port of their Seminary." 

The delegates elected by ballot were Rev. "Wm. 
Artz and Col. John Smith ; alternates. Rev. H. 
Graeber and Moses L. Brown. 

Arrangements were then made for the creation 
of a fund for the support of the Seminary at Lex- 
ington, S. C. The committee were also instructed 
"to adhere strictly to the propositions made by 
the commissioners of the South Carolina Synod, 
and to make no agreement to raise a larger sum 
of money than can be obtained." 

At the succeeding meeting of the South Caro- 


lina Synod, Rev. Wm. Artz, delegate from the 
I^orth Carolina Synod, being present, the above 
propositions were confirmed, with a few addi- 
tional provisos, one of which was, "That the right 
be conceded to the Sj'nods respectively to rescind 
this agreement, and annul the obligations grow- 
ing out of it, whenever in the opinion of either 
body such a dissolution is advisable." 

On the 27th of June, 1838, the Rev. Gottlieb 
Shober "departed this life, after being confined 
for one day only, although for some years past his 
bodily health and native vigor of mind had been 
rapidly declining. At his death he was in the 
eighty-second year of his age. His life was spent 
in untired activity and useful labors until old age 
admonished him to seek retirement." In memory 
of his death, the x>[orth Carolina Synod passed the 
following resolutions: 

" Resolved, That this Synod has heard with deep 
regret of the death of the Rev. Gottlieb Shober, 
who has, for many years, been an efficient and 
useful member of this body. 

" Hesolved, That this Synod will ever cherish 
with grateful remembrance, the active zeal and 
eminent services of Father Shober." 

A lengthy memoir of Rev. Shober is contained 
in the Evangelical Review, vol. viii, pp. 404-415, 
from which we learn that he was a native of Beth- 
lehem, Pennsylvania, and, "at the time of his 
death, was the only survivor of those who had com- 
menced the building of the town of Salem, N. C." 

" In the spring of 1810, in company with Rev. 
Mr. Storch, he visited South Carolina, during 


which occasion he preached his first sermon." 
He was a memher of the North Carolina Synod 
for a period of twenty-eight years. 

Section 3. Increase of Lutheran Ministers in the 
Carolinas — Establishment of New Congrega- 
tions — Visit of Rev. Dr. Bachman to Europe. 

The influence of the Theological Seminary at 
Lexington, S. C, was now beginning to be felt in 
the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas; both the 
North and South Carolina Synods received from 
it large additions to the number of their ministers, 
and in other Southern States a number of its 
graduates were called to labor. It supplied a 
greatly and long felt want of the Lutheran Church 
in the South. 

During the five years preceding the meeting of 
the North Carolina Synod in 1840, the following 
additions were made to its clerical roll : 

1. Rev. Edwin A. Bolles, a graduate of the 
Lexington, S. C, Theological Seminary, was 
licensed by the South Carolina Synod in 1835, 
and became the pastor of the Lutheran church in 
Salisbury, N. C, where he, however, remained 
but a short time, and removed to Ebenezer, 
Geoi'gia. He is laboring at present in South Caro- 
lina, as State Agent for the American Bible So- 

2. Rev. Benjamin Arey, from the Theological 
Seminary of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, licensed 
by the North Carolina Synod in 1836, became at 


first located in Davidson County, and labored in 
various charges in the bounds of Synod, but iinally 
located himself permanently in Iredell County, 
K C. 

3. Rev. John Swicegood, licensed at the same 
time, made his permanent home in Davidson 
County, but frequently labored in the counties 
adjoining. He departed this life September 9th, 
1870, in the full triumphs of a Gospel faith. 

4. Rev. Elijah Hawkins, a graduate of the Sem- 
inary at Lexington, S. C, became connected with 
the Synod in 1837, and labored in Wythe County, 
Virginia, to the close of a most xiseful life. 

5. Rev. Philip A. Strobel, likewise connected 
himself with the JSTorth Carolina Synod in 1837, 
having graduated at Lexington, S. C, in 1836; 
he labored for a short time as agent for the Sem- 
inar}^, and then located himself in Concord, IST. C. 
He did good service in the N^orth Carolina Synod 
in establisliing several new churclies, and remained 
in Concord four years, when he returned to South 

6. Rev. Jacob Crim^ from the Lexington Sem- 
inary, attached himself to the North Carolina 
Synod in 1838, and labored successively in David- 
son, Rowan and Davie Counties. In 1869 he 
removed to the State of Texas, wliere he shortly 
afterwards was called to his rest. 

7. Rev. John J. Greever, a " student of the 
Gettysbm-g Theological Seminary," was licensed 
by the-North Carolina Synod in 1840; he labors 



still in Wytlie County, Virginia, where he was first 

8. Rev. IST. Aldrich, a " student of divinity of 
the Episcopal Church at Bristol College, Pennsyl- 
vania," was licensed by the North Carolina Synod 
in 1840, remained only a few months at Concord, 
E". C, when he removed to Savannah, Georgia, 
and became the successor of Rev. S. A. Mealy, as 
pastor of the Lutheran church in that city. He 
is the present pastor of St. Mark's Lutheran 
Church, in Charlotte, K C. 

9. Rev. Gideon Scherer, "a student of the 
Theological Seminary at Lexington, S. C," was 
licensed by the E'orth Carolina Synod in 1840, 
and located himself in Wythe County, Virginia. 

In the South Carolina Synod the increase in the 
number of ministers was still greater, and it was 
not long before all the vacant charges were sup- 
plied with the regular ministrations of the word 
and sacraments. 

Li the year 1831, before the Theological Semi- 
nary went into full operation, four ministers were 
licensed by the South Carolina Synod, whose 
names have not yet been mentioned, namely : 
Revs. Ilerrman Aull, William llotchkiss, George 
Haltiwanger, Sr., and Robert Cloy. Rev. Aull 
lived, labored and died in JSTewberry Distrif*t, S. C. 
Rev. Haltiwanger became the pastor of St. Mat- 
thew's Church in Orangeburg District, S. C, and 
labored with great acceptance and usefulness in 
various parts of South Carolina to the close of his 


life, April 18th, 1849. Rev. Cloj labored in Barn- 
well District, S. C. ; he died May 4th, 1853. 

From 1885 to 1840, the following additional 
names were added to the ministerial roll of the 
South Carolina Synod : 

1. Rev. James P. Ring, a graduate of the Lex- 
ington Theological Seminary, was licensed by the 
South Carolina Synod in 1835, and devoted his 
life to teaching. He was Professor of a classical 
institution in the city of Augusta, Georgia, at 
Avhich place he died, April 12th, 1852. 

2. Rev. David Bernhardt, was the son of Rev. 
C. E. Bernhardt, whose history has been given in 
a previous chapter. The son became a student 
and graduate of the Theological Seminary at Lex- 
ington, and was licensed by Synod, A.D. 1835. 
He had charge of St. Matthew's Church, Orange- 
burg District, and Sandy Run Cliurch, Lexington 
District, S. C, up to the close of his life, April 
13th, 1843. 

3. Rev. Levi Bedenbaugh, a student of Lexing- 
ton Seminary, was licensed at the same time. His 
principal field of operations has been Coweta 
County, Georgia, where he is still laboring. 

4. Rev. David Hungerpeler, was licensed in 
1836, and died April 20th, 1840. He labored in 
Barnwell District, S. C. 

5. Rev. William Berl}', a graduate of the Lex- 
ington Seminary, was licensed in 1836, labored 
for a time in Newberry District, S. C, was elected 
the second Professor of the Theological Seminary 
at Lexington in 1850, whereupon he removed to 


Lexington Court-House in 1851, where he is still 
residing, laboring as pastor there. 

6. Rev. William G. Harter, also a graduate of 
the Lexington Seminary, was licensed in 1837, 
labored in the States of South Carolina, North 
Carolina and Kentucky; he was called to his rest 
July 31st, 1864. 

7. Rev. H. Stoudenmyer was licensed in 1838, 
and labored for a time in the State of Alabama. 

8. Rev. S. R. Sheppard, a student of the Lex- 
ington Seminary, was licensed in 1838, labored for 
some time in Edgefield District, S. C, removed to 
the State of Mississippi in 1853, where he recently 
departed this life. 

9. Rev. J. Kleckly wns licensed in 1839, and 
labored in the State of Georgia, where he died a 
few years ago. 

10. Rev. William H. Smith, of the State of 
Maryland, was elected assistant pastor to Rev. 
John Bachman, D.D., in 1839, was ordained by 
the South Carolina Synod April 24th, 1839, re- 
mained three years, and returned to the l!Torth. 

11. Rev. S. Bouknight, licensed in 1840; he 
labors principally in Lexington District, S. C. 

12. Rev. J. P. Margart, a graduate of the Sem- 
inary at Lexington, licensed in 1840, labored in 
Orangeburg, Newberry and Lexington Districts, 
S. C, removed to Alabama in 1862, where he still 
resides, making strong elibrts to build up the Lu- 
theran Church in that State. 

13. Rev. George Haltiwanger, Jr., a student of 
the Lexington Theological Seminary, was licensed 


in 1840, labored in Lexington District, S. C, nntil 
1849, when he became the pastor of the Ebenezer 
charge in Georgia, where he labored to the close 
of his life; he died on the 10th of February, 1862. 

14. "Rev. C. B. Thuemmel, formerly of the 
Synod of New York," took charge of the classical 
school connected with the Theological Seminary 
at Lexington, S. C, in 1841; he labored in that 
capacity three years, when he returned to the 

15. Rev. J. Daily was licensed in 1840, and 
labored in Alabama. 

Other ministers were licensed by the South 
Carolina Synod during this period, but as their 
names have been mentioned in connection with 
the North Carolina Synod, it is not necessary to 
insert them here again. 

The Tennessee Synod was likewise blessed with 
a considerable addition to her ministerial strength, 
during the live years preceding the year 1840, as 

1. Rev. Abel J. Brown, was ordained a deacon 
in 1836, labored for several years in Lincoln 
County, IST. C, but made his home finally in Ten- 
nessee, where lie is still doing good service in his 
Master's vineyard. 

2. Rev. Jacob Killian was ordained a deacon at 
the same time, and labored in Augusta County, 
Va., where he departed this life July 5th, 1871. 

3. Rev. Jonathan R. Moser was likewise or- 
dained to the deacon's ofiice in 1836, labored a 
number of years in Lincoln County, 'N. C, but 


finally moved to Missouri, wliere he is still resid- 

4. Rev. Henry Wetzel, was ordained deacon in 
1837, is still laboring in Virginia. 

5. Rev. Adam S. Link was ordained at the same 
time, but afterwards moved to Ohio, where he 
died, March 30th, 1862. 

6. Rev. Jacob Stirewalt was likewise ordained 
deacon in 1837; he became pastor in N'ew Market, 
"Va., where he labored to the close of his life; he 
died August 26th, 1869, in his 67th year. 

7. Rev. Albert J. Fox was ordained deacon in 
1837, labored successively in North Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, and Alabama, but since 1855 has been re- 
siding near Lincolnton, 1^. C, where he is still 
laboring in the Lord's vineyard. 

The following new congregations were organ- 
ized and new church edifices erected in the Caro- 
linas during the five years preceding 1840. 

1. Luther's Church, in Rowan Count}-, N. C, 
is first mentioned by that name in the minutes of 
1830, but at what time the congregation was or- 
ganized is not stated. The Rev. Jacob Kaempfer 
was its pastor in 1830. 

2. St. Enoch^s Church, in Rowan Count}^, IST. C, 
is a colony from the Sewitz's or Luther Chapel 
congregation, and was organized in 1836; it is 
not stated when their church edifice was erected; 
it was dedicated at some time during the fall of 

3. St. PauVs Church, in Rowan County, K C, 
is first mentioned in 1837-, under the name of 


Iloklshonser's Church, with Rev. S. Rothrock as 
its pastor. A new brick church has been recently 
erected and was dedicated July 21st, 1872. 

4. St. Stephen's Church, Cabarrus County, N. 
C, was organized in 1837 by the Rev. P. A. 
Strobel, who was its iirst pastor. It was received 
under the care of the North Carolina Synod in 

5. St. Matthew's Church, Rowan County, ¥. C, 
sent a communication to the North Carolina Sy- 
nod in 1838, " stating that they have regularly 
organized themselves into a congregation, and 
pray to be received under the care of Synod; also, 
that they have chosen the Rev. B. Arey as their 

6. *S^^. Blattheio's covgregation, in Davie County, 
N. C, is first mentioned in 1839 in the minutes 
of the North Carolina Synod, when forty-three 
persons in that locality petitioned the Synod to 
send them a minister "to break unto them the 
bread of eternal truth, to baptize their children, 
and instruct their youth." 

Two new church edifices were erected in old- 
established congregations during the year 1839, 
namely: St. Paul's Church, Orange (now Ala- 
mance) County, N. C, which was dedicated on 
the third Sunday in September, 1839; and Luther 
Chapel, in Rowan County, N. C, which was dedi- 
cated about the same time. 

7. St. PauVs Church, Iredell County, N. C, and 
the above-named St. Matthew's Church, in Davie 
County, N. C, are mentioned in the minutes of 


the IlTorth Carolina Synod of 1840, as having 
" been reguUirl}^ organized during the last synodi- 
cal year," and were received, in 1840, under the 
care of Synod. 

In the bounds of the South Carolina Synod the 
following churches were added to the strength of 
the Synod. 

1. SL Andreio's Church, Lexington District, S. 
C, was organized in 1835, and during the same 
year their church edifice was erected and dedicated. 
In 1835, they petitioned Synod for the pastoral 
labors of Rev. L. Bedenbaugh, but from the min- 
utes of 1836 it appears that Rev. M. Rauch was 
their first pastor. 

2. Mount Zion Church, JSTe wherry District, S. C, 
having been organized under the pastoral care 
of Rev. J. Moser, their church edifice was dedi- 
cated on the fifth Sunday in August, 1840. 

3. Good Hojje Church, at Cloud's Creek, Edge- 
field District, S. C, having been organized some 
time in 1839, their newly-erected church edifice 
was dedicated on the 19th of April, 1840. Their 
first pastor was the Rev. R. Cloy; it was received 
under the care of Synod in 1840. 

The labors of Rev. John Bachman, D.D., LL.D., 
having been for many years very arduous, inas- 
much as he was necessitated to preach three times 
every Sunday for the long period of twenty years, 
and frequently both in the English and German 
languages, his being the only Lutheran church in 
Charleston, S. C, at that time; besides, having 
also devoted much of his time to natural science. 


he and the renowned naturalist, J. J. Audubon, 
being associated together in preparing for the 
press " The Quadrupeds of America," his health 
at length became impaired, and, at the repeated 
solicitations of his congregation, to whom his life 
and labors were exceedingly valuable, he left his 
home on a visit to Europe, in 1838, believing that 
he looked upon the shores of his native land for 
the last time. He was absent eight months, and 
was received everywhere on his transatlantic tour 
with " sympathy, kindness, and untiring hospi- 
tality." He "returned in January, 1839, with 
health partially restored," and his congregation 
engaged the Rev. William H. Smith, of Maryland, 
as an assistant minister for a few years, until his 
health was re-established, when, in 1842, he once 
more assumed the entire charge of the pastoral 
duties of his church. 

Section 4- Settlement of North- Germans in South- 
ern cities. Organization and Early History of 
St. Matthew's German Evangelical-Lutheran 
Church, Charleston, S. C. 

Many years had now elapsed since the tide of 
German emigration to i^orth and South Carolina 
had entirely ceased. The dependence for the in- 
crease of the Lutheran Church in those States 
rested mainly upon the descendants of the early 
settlers. However, about the year 1835, emigra- 



tiou from North Germany found its way also to 
Southern cities, and every fall new emigrants from 
that portion of the Fatherland continued to arrive. 

The largest number of these settlers located 
themselves in Charleston, S. C, but many have 
found homes in Wilmington, IT. C, Savannah, 
Georgia, and other Southern cities. They are 
mostly natives of Hanover, Oldenburg, Holstein, 
Mecklenburg, and the once free cities of Hamburg 
and Bremen, although a number of emigrants 
from other German states may be found among 

These North Germans are regarded as the direct 
descendants of those Saxon nations which con- 
quered ancient Britain, a portion of whom, after 
the Saxon conquest, located themselves perma- 
nently in England. That this is a fact established 
beyond dispute may be readily learned from the 
pages of history, and easily perceived from the 
contiguity of those North-German countries to 
England, their maritime character, and their lan- 
guage. It may not be generally known, that the 
North Germans speak two languages, the high 
German, which is the written language, taught at 
school and preached from the pulpit, and the low 
German (Platdeutsch), which is the original lan- 
guage of the ancient North Saxons, still spoken 
and generally used in those countries, and bears a 
remarkable resemblance to the present pure Eng- 
lish or Anglo-Saxon language. Hence, North 
Germans generally find no difiiculty in acquiring 
a knowledge of the English language soon after 


their arrival in this coiintr}^, and learn to pro- 
nounce it correctly with remarkable facility. 

As the North Germans are natives of maritime 
States, they prefer mercantile to agricultural pur- 
suits, and hence they are generally found engaged 
in mercantile employments in our Southern cities, 
though not entirely confined to that kind of life. 

Captain H. Wieting, a name familiar to all our 
North-German citizens in the Soutliei-n States, and 
his vessels, the "Johann Friederich," and the 
barque " Copernicus," of which successively he 
was commander, usually arrived, for some length 
of time, once a year in Charleston, S. C, filled 
with German passengers, who expected to make 
their future home in the South. 

These German settlers, by means of their 
economy, good management, and excellent busi- 
ness talents, have acquired considerable property, 
and control a large portion of the commercial and 
other interests in the cities and towns where they 

The Lutheran faith being the prevailing re- 
ligion in North Germany, although German Re- 
formed and Roman Catholics may likewise be 
found there, these immigrants are generally mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church, and, upon their ar- 
rival in this country, usually attach themselves 
immediately to Lutheran congregations. 

Rev. E. L. Hazelius, D.D., President of the 
South Carolina Synod, in his annual report of 
1839, speaks of the first attempt of the native Ger- 
man citizens of Charleston, S. C, in establishing 


a second, and altogether German, Lutheran 
Church, in the following manner : 

"A desire having been expressed by a consid- 
erable number of German citizens of Charleston, 
to have the Gospel preached to them in the 
language of their Fatherland, meetings of the 
Germans were held during my stay in the city 
and afterwards, for the purpose of making the 
necessary arrangements ; and I have since learned 
that articles of a Church union were drawn up and 
adopted; that $500 had been collected, and about 
as much had been subscribed for the salary of a 
German preacher. I endeavored to encourage 
these friends to proceed in the good cause." 

In the Charleston Courier may be found an 
account of the next steps that were taken in this 

" On the 3d day of December, A.D. 1840, the 
first German congregation was organized in this 
city, with the following founders: John A. Wag- 
ener, George Caulier, C. Heide, F. Mehrtens, F. 
Hilgen, J. Hiirkamp, W. H. Hoops, J. Haesloop, 
J. Stelling, Geo. Rieke, J. H. OstendorfF, J. 
Schroder, J. Kleinbeck, C. Gerdts, J. Bauman, 
and L. F. Behling. The congregation so formed 
soon made arrangements for the erection of a 
place of worship." 

They adopted a constitution for their govern- 
ment on the 9th of December, 1840, and soon 
afterwards purchased a lot on the corner of Hasell 
and Anson Streets, on which they erected a brick 
church ediUce. In the election of officers. Col. 


John A. Wagener was chosen their first Presi- 
dent, In the month of October, 1841, the corner- 
stone of this (St. Matthew's) church was laid, at 
which time the congregation ah-eady numbered 
two hundred and twenty-live members. Tlieir 
first pastor was the Rev. F. Becher, who had been, 
up to that time, a minister of the German Re- 
formed Church, but connected himself with the 
South Carolina Synod in 1841, after having taken 
charge of this new German Lutheran congregation. 
However, the Rev. Mr. Becher did not remain 
long in Charleston. In 1842 the Rev. F. W. 
Heemsoth took charge of the congregation, and 
on the 22d of June of the same year, the new 
church was dedicated, and the newly elected pas- 
tor duly installed. " Rev. Mr. Heemsoth served 
the congregation until 1848, when he resigned 
and returned to his native country, where he now 
resides," and is the beloved pastor of a large Lu- 
theran church in Germany. 

Section 5. Formation of the Western Virginia Synod, 
and Death of Rev. Henry Graeber. 

It would not be proper to notice the formation 
of the Synod of Western Virginia in the history 
of the Lutheran Church in the Carolinas, were it 
not for the fiict, that the territory of the Synod of 
Western Virginia was, for a long period of time, 
embraced in the limits of the North Carolina 
Synod, which watched over the interests of the 


Lutheran Church in Western Virginia with a 
mother's tender care, supplying that field with 
missionaries at first, and afterwards with pastors. 

But the time had now arrived, when the old 
mother Synod was to be confined within the limits 
of the State from which she derived her name; all 
her ecclesiastical operations were henceforth to be 
devoted to JSTorth Carolina alone. The interests 
of the Church demanded that the brethren in 
Southwestern Virginia were to form a Synod for 
themselves, and the sequel has proved that this 
was a step taken in the right direction, for it has 
developed the energies of that portion of the Lu- 
theran Church in a most remarkable manner, both 
in missionary and educational enterprises. 

Accordingly, on the 20th of September, 1841, a 
convention was held in Wythe County, Virginia, 
for the purpose of taking the preliminary steps 
towards the formation of a Synod, and on the 21st 
of May, 1842, "the ministers residing in Western 
Virginia, with their lay delegates, assembled in 
Zion's Church, Floyd County, Virginia." The 
ministers, who registered their names as members 
of the newly formed Synod, were : Revs. Jacob 
Scherer, Samuel Sayford, Elijah Hawkins, John 
J. Greever, Gideon Scherer and Stephen Hudy. 
The officers of Synod then elected were : E,ev. 
Jacob Scherer, President; Rev. Elijah Hawkins, 
Secretary; and Mr. Joseph Brown, Treasurer. 
The strength of Synod then reported was, fifteen 
congregations and seven hundred and seventy- 
eight communicants. 


From the Sj'iiod of North Carolina, estahlisliod 
in the year 1803, and which at one time embraced 
a large scope of tcrritoi-j, the following Synods 
have gone out, and are still doing good service in 
the vineyard of the Lord : 

The Tennessee Synod, organized A.D. 1820. 

The South Carolina Synod, organized A.D. 1824. 

The Western Virginia Synod, organized A.D. 

From these again the following additional 
Synods have been formed: The Georgia Synod, 
the Mississippi Synod, the Holston Synod, and 
the Concordia Synod. The Lutheran Church in 
the West, and particularly in IlHnois, was also 
cradled and nourished in its infancy by the ISTorth 
Carolina Synod. 

The Rev. Henry Graeber, who at one time 
wielded a considerable influence in the IsTorth 
Carolina Synod, and who, on account of his ster- 
ling virtues and power of his native intellect, as 
well as by his energy of character, accomplished 
much good, was now called to his rest, while yet 
in the strength of his years, and in the height of 
his usefulness. After a short illness he unexpect- 
edly departed this life, September 11th, 1843. 
The President of Synod, Eev. Wm. Artz, gives 
us the following account of this sad event, con- 
nected with a brief memoir of Rev. Graeber's life: 

"When the names of the members of our min- 
isterial association shall be called, and every one 
present shall take his seat, the place of our worthy 
and beloved brother, the Rev. Henry Graeber, 


will be vacaut. How sad ! How unexpected ! 
He has ceased from his labors in the vineyard of 
the Lord on earth, and has entered the rest above, 
to reap the eternal reward which Jesus has prom- 
ised to all his faithful servants. 

' His conflicts with his busy foes 

For evermore shall cease, 
None shall his happiness oppose, 

Nor interrupt his peace. 
But bright rewards shall recompense 

His faithful service here, 
And perfect love shall banish thence 

Each gloomy doubt and fear.' 

" Our worthy brother, the Rev. Henry Graeber, 
was born of Christian parents in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, in the year of our Lord 1793, the 28th of 
January. He prosecuted the study of divinity 
chiefly under the able and pious instructions of 
the Rev. Messrs. Melsheimer and Lochman. He 
obtained license to preach the Gospel from the 
Synod of Pennsylvania, on the 7th of June, in the 
year 1818, and was shortly afterwards set apart to 
this holy work by the imposition of hands and 
prayer. jSTine years of his ministerial life he spent 
as pastor of several congregations in Frederick 
Count}^, Maryland, and the remaining sixteen 
years were spent in several congregations in Lin- 
coln, Rowan, and Cabarrus Counties, in the bounds 
of our Synod, of which he was an efficient mem- 
ber, and in which he repeatedly filled with honor 
the highest offices. He was a liberal supporter of 
benevolent institutions, and a warm and decided 
friend of an enlightened and educated ministry. 


He was himself an able and faithful minister of 
the New Testament, rightly dividing- the word of 
eternal truth, and giving to both saints and sinners 
their portion in due season. And I need not 
add, in the presence of those who knew him long, 
and who knew him well, that through the course 
of his ministerial life, he uniformly adorned the 
doctrines which he preached by zeal, fidelity, firm- 
ness, and charity, and all those virtues that are so 
essential to the character of the Christian minister. 
He died of nervous fever on the 11th of September 
last, in the 51st year of his age. While his ashes 
sleep in the peaceful tomb, may his memory be 
^cherished by us with fraternal affection." 

His body lies entombed in the Organ Church 
graveyard, not far distant from the place where 
repose the remains of Rev. C. A. G. Storch, and 
where at this time the bodies of four Lutheran min- 
isters sleep until the morning of the resurrection. 
The following epitaph has been inscribed on the 
marble slab which covers his mortal remains : 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Henry 
Graeber, who was born on the 28th of January, 
1793; and departed this life on the 11th of Sep- 
tember, 1843. Aged 50 years, 7 months, and 13 

' The Gospel was his joy and song, 

E'en to his hitest breath ; 
The truth he had proclaimed so long, 

Was his support in death. 
The grave is now his favored spot, 

To sleep in Jesus blessed. 
There, where the wicked trouble not, 
He laid his head to rest.' " 


Section 6. Endowment of a Second Professorship in 
the Theological Seminary at Lexington^ S. G. — 
Memoir of Henry Midler^ Sr. 

The educational interests of the Lutheran 
Churcli in the Carolinas had now become so 
greatly developed, that it became necessary to 
endow an additional professorship for the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Lexington, S. C. Provision 
had been made for several years past to have a 
classical Professor connected with the Seminary, 
and the Rev. "Washington Muller, Rev. C. B. 
Thuemmel, and Mr. S. E. Caughman had each 
successively been appointed to this position by 
the Board of Directors, and had acted in that 
capacity; but for want of a permanent endowment 
of this professorship, the arrangement was sub- 
jected to repeated interruption. 

The discussion of this matter, as well as that of 
the location of the Seminary, during the year 1848, 
in the columns of the Lutheran Observer, brought 
the subject prominently before the Church, and 
at the next meeting of the South Carolina Synod, 
held at Sandy Run Church, in Lexington District, 
the President of Synod recommended " the ap- 
pointment of a special committee to investigate 
and report upon this whole subject." 

The committee appointed in accordance with 
the recommendation of the President were: Revs. 
John Bachman, D.D., John F. W. Leppard and 
J. B. Anthony, of the clergy; and Messrs. George 


M. Fulmer, John C. Geiger and John Ranch, of 
the hiity, who gave the matter a thorough and 
prayerful consideration, closing their lengthy re- 
port as follows : 

" In the midst of our anxious and prayerful de- 
liberations, a providential and thrilling scene pre- 
sented itself, that gave a presentiment of God's 
favor and our prospect of success. One of our 
benevolent lay members, whose untiring zeal and 
liberality has ever kept him far in advance of all 
our other benefactors, and whose praise is in all 
the churches, rose to present to this object the 
sum of $4000, on condition that individuals from 
the various portions of our Church should pledge 
themselves to make up a similar amount, to be 
appropriated to the same benevolent object. From 
that moment we regarded the work as done. We 
have only to say to ourselves, to our brethren, the 
ministers, delegates, and members of our churches, 
* go,' and in proportion to your circumstances, 'do 
ye likewise,' and the object of our anxious solici- 
tude and ardent prayers will be accomplished. We 
have been purchased by the blood of Christ — let 
us evidence our gratitude by contributing to send 
the light of salvation to those for whom he died. 

" The Church demands these small pecuniary 
sacrifices — let us say to our people and to the 
world, we esteem it an honor and a privilege to 
respond to her call. Here, in the presence of the 
Living God, surrounded by the ministers, and 
fathers, and representatives of our beloved Church, 
let us resolve that ere we separate for our distant 


homes, nay, ere yon sun shall set, ere another 
night shall intervene to awaken the feelings of 
selfishness, or throw a shadow of doubt over the 
bright picture of Christian benevolence which is 
now before us, let us resolve in the strength, the 
fear, and love, and in imitation of our benevolent 
Master, whose office on earth was to go about 
doing good, that this work shall be consummated. 
Let us resolve with the pious men of old : ' O 
Jerusalem, if I forget thee, let my right hand for- 
get her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let 
my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I 
remember not Jerusalem, my chief joy.' " 
John Bachman, George M. Fulmer, 

John F. W. Leppard, John C. Geiger, 
J. B. Anthony, John Rauch. 

This stirring appeal had the desired effect — the 
inspiration of a sense of this new duty and of love 
to the Church pervaded the whole assembly, and 
before the Synod closed that memorable day's 
session, the required sum was pledged, secured, 
and afterwards paid in as the instalments became 
due. An additional sum of $3223 was subse- 
quently added to this fund, through a seven 
months' agency of Rev. G. T>. Bernheim, who was 
employed by the Board of Directors for this pur- 

The following resolution of thanks to Mr. Henry 
Muller, Sr., was then adopted : 

'^JResolved, That the thanks of this Synod be pre- 


sented to our venerable and esteemed friend and 
benefactor, Henry MuUer, Sr., for his many labors 
and sacrifices in behalf of our Theological Semin- 
ary, and the various interests of the Church, for 
his generous contributions from year to year, and 
for his liberal donation to the Seminary, at our 
present session, of $4000." 

Mr. Muller's benefactions toward this object did 
not cease with that donation; at his own expense 
he had a dwelling erected, costing about $2000, 
for the use of the second Professor, and donated it 
to the Synod, so that this new enterprise for the 
welfare of the Church could go into operation 

ISTo one can speak too highly of Mr. Henry 
Muller's humble and devoted Christianity, and of 
his never-failing and munificent acts of benevo- 
lence. 'Not only did the Theological Seminary 
receive a very large share of his benefactions, but 
churches, Sunday-schools, ministers of the Gospel, 
indigent students of theology, and many other 
persons were assisted by him with amounts in 
proportion to their necessities. Never in travel- 
ing over seventeen States of our Union has the 
author seen Mr. Muller's equal in every respect; 
such members are a blessing to any Church. 

The amount of his wealth was not enormous ; 
many there are in almost any Synod, who possess 
as much property, and even more than he did. 
Besides, Mr. Muller had a large family of children, 
to whom he gave all the advantages of a most liberal 
education; but he had also a large heart, beaming 


with the love of Christ, and regarding himself 
merely as a steward, he was ready to aid any and 
every worthy object that was presented to him. 

As a just tribute to his memory, the following 
account of his life will not be uninteresting: 

Ernest Henry David Muller was born in the 
Kingdom of Saxony, IsTovember 20th, 1774, and 
was left an orphan at the early age of five or six 
years. He was brought up in the city of Bremen as 
a merchant, and came with his brother to America, 
December 16th, 1805, being then in his thirty-first 
year. He located himself at Granby, in Lexing- 
ton District, and engaged in merchandising, but 
afterwards moved his place of business to Sandy 
Run. He was married to a Miss Geiger, a de- 
scendant of the early German settlers of Saxe- 
Gotha Township, Lexington District, and resided 
near Piatt Springs. He was the father of eleven 
children, five sons and six daughters, nine of 
whom survived him. He departed this life in 
great peace on the 12th of October, 1850, aged 75 
years, 10 months and 22 days. 

"In him," says the President of Synod, "the 
Church has lost one of its most ardent lovers, the 
institution at Lexington one of its warmest friends, 
and the Board of Directors one of its most active 
and useful members." 

The following preamble and resolutions were 
adopted by Synod in memory of this mournful 

" Whereas, It has pleased the kind Disposer of 
all human events to remove from the endearments 


of his family and friends — from the sphere of 
active duty in society, and his labors of love in the 
Church — the late Henry Muller, the Treasurer of 
our Seminary; and whereas it is a pious duty to 
cherish the memory and record for the imitation 
of posterity the virtues of the benevolent and 
pious, be it therefore — 

"1. Resolved, That this Synod will cherish the 
memory of our deceased brother, whose whole 
life was an exhibition of those virtues which 
emphatically characterize the just man. That 
they feel grateful for the untiring zeal, industry 
and accuracy with which he performed the duties 
of Treasurer of the Seminary, from the time when 
the institution was iirst organized until the day of 
his death — and that we will ever bear in remem- 
brance his acts of muniiicence, by which we were 
enabled to establish a second professorship in the 
Seminary, and those deeds of charity which char- 
acterized his whole life, which rendered him an 
ornament to the Christian Church while living, 
and which will embalm his memory in the hearts 
of pious men of all denominations after his re- 
moval from the earth. 

"2. Resolved, That this Synod will use their ut- 
most eftbrts to promote the best interests of those 
institutions in our Church which our deceased 
brother so strenuously labored to cherish and ad- 
vance; and that we feel thankful to the great 
Head of the Church that we have enjoyed the 
benefit of being stimulated by so noble an example, 


who, althoiigli dead, still speaketh to us of the 
high and holy duty of Christian beneiicence. 

"3. Resolved, That this Synod secure to the 
family of the deceased Henry Muller, and their 
descendants, one scholarship for the Seminary, as 
long as the institution continues to exist. 

"4. Resolved, That this Synod express their sym- 
pathy and condolence with the bereaved family of 
the deceased ; that the Secretary transmit a copy 
of these resolutions to the bereaved widow and 
mourning fixmily of the deceased, and that they be 
published in our minutes and in the Lutheran 

Section 7. Colony of German Settlers at Walha.Ua, 
S. C. — Additional New Congregations organized 
— The 3Iississippi and Texas Missions. 

The number of German settlers in Charleston, 
S. C, having increased rapidly within the past 
few years, it was deemed advisable to locate a 
German colony somewhere in the interior of the 
State. Accordingly, about the year 1850, a land 
company was formed among the Germans resid- 
ing in Charleston, through the energetic labors of 
Col. John A. Wagener, a public-spirited and en- 
terprising German, and a large body of land was 
purchased in Pickens District, S. C, of Col. 
Gresham and others. 

The land was admirably located, being in the 
mountain regions of Carolina, exceedingly fertile 
and well adapted for the cultivation of all the nee- 


essary cereals, fruits and vegetables, with an abun- 
dant supply of excellent water, free from the heat 
of less elevated latitudes, and possessing a most 
salubrious climate, making this settlement a most 
desirable summer retreat for strangers f?-om the 
low country. A town was soon laid out, and re- 
ceived the ancient German name, Walhalla, and 
the reraainhig land was divided into farms and 
sold to German settlers. So rapidly did the popu- 
lation in the new settlement increase, that Wal- 
halla has become a place of importance, even to 
native American citizens. It has, of course, a 
Lutheran church, for nearly all the original set- 
tlers are of that faith. This church was erected 
in 1855, under the pastoral care of Rev. C. F. Ban- 
semer; it was built with a spire 112 feet in height; 
but there are three churches of other denomina- 
tions likewise located in the town. Newberry 
College, the literary institution of the Lutheran 
Synod of South Carolina, has been recently re- 
moved to Walhalla, all of which, with its Female 
Seminary, its trade and its abundant railroad fa- 
cilities, will make Walhalla eventually one of the 
largest inland towns in the mountain districts of 
Carolina. It numbers now about 1500 inhabitants, 
and has recently become the county seat of Oconee 
County, a newly-formed judicial section of the 

In l^orth Carolina, under the ministry of Rev. 
W. G. Ilarter, a new Lutheran church was erected 
in the town of Concord, and the Lutheran portion 
of the old Coldwater Creek congregation traus- 



planted thither, receiving the name St. James at 
the day of its dedication, which event occurred on 
the 6th of April, 1843. The dedication sermon 
was preached by Rev. Henry Graeber from the 
text Luke 14 : 23: " Compel them to come in, that 
my house may be filled." 

In the year 1850, a new congregation was or- 
ganized in Rowan County, N. C, "seven miles 
from Salisbury, on the Beattie's Ford Road, with 
twenty-two members," under the ministr}^ of Rev. 
B. ]Sr. Hopkins. It afterwards received the name 
of Salem Church. In the town of N"ewton, Ca- 
tawba County, a new mission church was estab- 
lished during the same year. v 

The Church in North Carolina under the care 
of the Tennessee Synod became also greatly en- 
larged, but it is impossible to particularize the 
organization of new congregations, inasmuch as 
these items are not reported in the minutes of that 

" On the fourth Sabbath in May," 1842, "a new 
Lutheran church by the name of Corinth, in the 
District of Edgefield, S. C, was dedicated to the 
service of the triune God. The dedicatory ser- 
mon was preached by Rev. G. Haltiwanger, Sr., 
and a sermon by Rev. Wm. Berlj' on the doctrines, 
government and usages of the Lutheran Church 
in this country. Rev. Messrs. AuU and Leppard 
were present on the occasion, and rendered their 
appropriate share of service." 

In 1843, under the ministry of Rev. G. H. 
Brown, a new Lutheran congregation was organ- 


ized and a church erected in Newberry District, 
S. C, receiving the name of Beth-Eden. It was 
dedicated on the second Sunday in September; 
the ministers present on that occasion were Revs. 
J. C. Hope, II. Aull and the pastor in charge. 

"Another church building was erected by the 
St. Matthew's congregation, to be a branch of the 
old church, which was dedicated to the service of 
the triune God on Sunday, the 26th of March, 
1843. Brethren in attendance — pastor in charge 
and Brother Sheppard. This constitutes one of 
the three churches connected with St. Matthews," 
in Orangeburg District, S. C. 

St. David's Church, in Lexington District, S. C, 
was organized and received in connection with 
the South Carolina Synod in 1845. 

In 1849 three new churches were dedicated for 
newly-organized Lutheran congregations in South 
Carolina, namely, one located on the Monk's 
Corner Road, St. Matthew's Parish, Orangeburg 
District, on the first Sunday in June. It is pre- 
sumed that this is the church called "2V««'(y 

Macedonia Church, in Lexington District, was 
dedicated on the fourth Sunday in September by 
Rev. Mr. Berly. 

Another church, near Leesville, S. C, was con- 
secrated on the fourth Sunday in October by Revs. 
S, Bouknight, S. R. Sheppard and J. B. Lowman. 

The Mississippi mission was commenced by the 
Synod of South Carolina in the year 1846, when 
the Rev. G. H. Brown resigned his pleasant Beth- 


Eden charge, and from conscientious convictions 
of duty felt himself called to labor for the Church 
in that promising field, where Lutheran colonists 
from North and South Carolina had located them- 
selves. The new missionary enterprise was not a 
mere experiment, for, " after many discourage- 
ments and severe trials," it became eminently suc- 
cessful ; the Lord blessed the labors of his fxithful 
servant, the Eev. Mr. Brown, who had not been 
long in Mississippi when he called for more laborers, 
and in 1847, the Rev. James D. Stingley came to 
his assistance, who was soon followed by the Revs. 
S. R. Sheppard, C. D. Austin and J. T. Warner. 
A Synod was formed in that State in 1855, and 
the Lutheran Church in Mississippi, after having 
overcome many difficulties, appears at present to 
be in a prosperous condition. The Revs. Brown, 
Stingley and Sheppard have all been called to 
their final rest and reward, but their works still 
follow them. 

In the year 1850, the South Carolina Synod 
sent the Rev. George F. Guebner as a missionary 
to the State of Texas, who, at first, traveled over 
a considerable portion of its territor}-, organizing 
congregations, but finally located himself in the 
city of Galveston. Rev. Guebner remained there 
but a few years, when his health failed him, and 
he removed to one of the Northwestern States, 
residing, a few years ago, in the State of Indiana, 
and being in connection with the Evangelical 
Union of the West. The Texas mission, however, 
is not a failure; ministers from Germany located 


themselves there soon afterwards, and in consider- 
able numbers, who now have a flourishing Synod 
in that State. 

Section 8. SkUe of the Lutheran Church in the Caro- 
li7ias, in the year 1850. 

During the twenty-five or thirty years i)receding 
the year 1850, the Lutheran Church in North and 
South Carolina made rapid progress in almost 
every respect, and without any material addition 
to her strength by foreign immigration, yea, even 
with a constant drain upon her strength by the 
removal of many of her members to the West. 
Nor has she ever made any effort to propagate 
her doctrines legitimately among those of no 
ecclesiastical connection, but rather shrank from 
all public notoriety, modestly laboring for the 
good of tliose, whom God had specially committed 
to her care ; she has, notwithstanding, accom- 
plished an amount of good fully equal to the talent 
intrusted to her keeping. God has upheld her by 
His own right hand, and preserved her for a work 
and purpose tliat will glorify His name; and, judg- 
ing from the past, will make her future still more 

In 1820, when the Tennessee Synod was organ- 
ized, only five ministers became connected with 
it; and in 1850 the number had increased to 
twenty-eight ministers, and, had not other Synods 
been formed, with which some of its ministers be- 


came conuected, the increase on its clerical roll 
would have been much larger. 

The principal additions to its number of minis- 
ters since 1840, were Revs. John Roth and Joel 
W. Hull, who were ordained as deacons, Decem- 
ber 13th, 1841; Rev. Dennis D. Swaney, ordained 
as deacon in 1842; Revs. Jesse R. Peterson, Poly- 
carp C. Henkel, Jacob M. SchaefFer, who were 
ordained to the otRce of deacon, October 5th, 1843; 
Revs. J. M. Wagner, Timothy Moser, ordained to 
the same office, October 10th, 1844; Revs. James 
K. Ilancher, Thomas Grouse, ordained as deacons 
in 1845; Rev. Adam Efird, ordained as above in 
1847; Rev. D. M. Henkel, ordained October 5th, 
1848; Revs. Socrates Henkel, D. Efird, J. B. Em- 
mert, and James Fleenor, ordained to the deacon's 
office in 1850. Of these, Revs. Hull, Peterson,. 
P. C. Henkel, T. Moser, T. Grouse, A. Efird, and 
D. Efird, were laboring in North Garolina in 1850. 
The Efird brothers soon afterwards removed to 
South Garolina, and Rev. J. M. Wagner subse- 
quently labored several years in North Garolina. 
Rev. Adam Efird has since departed this life, Sep- 
tember 13th, 1870. 

The North Carolina Synod was likewise largely 
increased by an addition of ministerial strength, 
but the number of its ministers became greatly 
reduced in 1842, by the organization of the West- 
ern Virginia Synod, at which time the North 
Garolina Synod became restricted within the 
limits of its own proper State boundary, whilst at 
the same time, nearly one-half of the strength of 


the Lutheran Church in North Ctirolina is em- 
braced in the Tennessee Synod. 

The ministers who connected themselves with 
the i^orth Carolina Synod since 1840, were the 

Rev. John D. Scheck, of the South Carolina 
Synod, who became the pastor successively of the 
Salisbury, St. John's, Cabarrus County, and the 
Alamance pastorates. During his ministry, and 
in 1845, the large brick St. John's Church, in Ca- 
barrus County, was erected, and was dedicated 
August 22d, 1846. Its dimensions are eighty by 
tifty-five feet, and is at present the fifth house of 
worship, which has been built for this congrega- 
tion, since the first settlement of Germans on Buf- 
falo Creek, and was considered at the time the 
largest and most commodious house of worship in 
Western Worth Carolina. 

Hev. William G. Harter, also from the South 
Carolina Synod, became the pastor of the Concord 
Church, whose history has already been men- 

Rev. Joseph A. Linn, a student both at Lexing- 
ton, South Carolina, and' Gettysburg, Pennsylva- 
nia, and licensed in 1844, became the pastor of the 
Gold Hill charge, in Rowan County, where he 
was much beloved, and generally useful to the 
Lutheran Church in North Carolina. His death 
was a sad one : returning home on Sunday from 
one of his churches, he was thrown from his horse, 
which fractured his head, and he expired the fol- 
lowing Wednesday, March 16th, 1864. 

Rev. J. B. Anthony was received by the North 


Carolina Synod May 6tb, 1844, and labored some 
twenty years in the bounds of the Il^orth and South 
Carolina Synods, but is at present residing in the 
State of Pennsylvania, as pastor of the York Sul- 
phur Springs charge. 

Revs. Fink, CofFman, and Hopkins were added 
to the list of ministers successively in 1847, 1848, 
and 1849, but their names had soon to be stricken 
from the roll. 

Rev. Levi C. Grosedose, a student from Lexing- 
ton, S. C, and Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was li- 
censed in 1849 by the West Virginia Synod, and 
has been doing good service in the North Carolina 
Synod since 1850, being at present the pastor of 
the St. John's charge in Cabarrus County, N. C. 

The Synod of South Carolina manifested at this 
time a more rapid growth and a greater degree of 
prosperity than either the North Carolina or Ten- 
nessee Synods; this was owing to its Theological 
Seminary and extensive missionary operations 
outside of the limits of the State. In 1824 this 
Synod was organized with seven ministers, and in 
1849 it had forty-six ordained and licensed minis- 
ters on its clerical roll; however, this number has 
since been reduced by the formation of the Mis- 
sissippi and Georgia Synods. 

During the ten years preceding the year 1850, 
the following ministers were added to the clerical 
strength of the South Carolina Synod: 

Bev. John F. W. Lejjpard, who was licensed No- 
vember 30th, 1841, was the pastor of St. Stephen's 
Church, Lexington Court-Iiouse, and Sandy Run 


Church. He was adjunct Professor of Theology 
at the Lexington Seminary during the years 1848 
and 1849; he was an eloquent preacher, and a 
man greatly beloved, but departed this life, Feb- 
ruary ^13th, 1852. 

Bcv. P. Kistler was licensed at the same time, 
and labored successively in South and North Caro- 
lina. He has connected himself with another de- 

Beo. C. F. Bansemer entered the ministry, Feb- 
ruary 20th, 1842; was for several years pastor of 
the Lutheran Church in Walhalla, S. C, and Pres- 
ident of North Carolina College, at Mt. Pleasant, 
N. C, in 1867 and 1868. 

Rev. F. W. Heemsoih was received as a member 
of Synod in 1842; was pastor of the German Lu- 
theran Church in Charleston, S. C, but returned 
to Germany in 1848. 

Bev. Elias B. Hort was licensed in 1842; became 
the pastor of the Lutheran Church in Columbia, 
S. C, where he remained in office to the close of 
his life. He died January 15th, 1863. 

Bev. George H. Brown's history has been given; 
he was licensed in 1842. 

Bevs. George B. Haigler and James H. Bailey 
were licensed November 11th, 1845. The former 
labored for a time in St. Matthew's Parish, Orange- 
burg District, after which he removed to Alabama. 
The latter is still doing good service in Lexington 
County, S. C. 

Bev. L. 3IiUler, admitted as a member of Synod 
in 1848. He is still the [.astor of St. Matthew's 



German Lutheran Church in Charleston, S. C. 
His congregation has recently built a large and 
magnificent church edifice, which was dedicated 
March 28th, 1872. 

Revs. E. Elmore, Eph. Kiefier, J. B. Lowman, B. 
N. Hopkins and Ephraim DufFord, were licensed 
N'ovember 24th, 1848. Revs. Elmore and Xiefter 
labored in Georgia; Revs. Lowman and Dufibrd 
are still laboring in South Carolina. 

Rev. A. J. Karn became the pastor of the Lu- 
theran Church at Savannah, Georgia, in 1848, and 
connected himself with the South Carolina Synod 
the next year. "He died December 19th, 1860, 
in Chicago, Illinois, aged forty years." 

Revs. George F. Guebner, G. D. Bernheim, 
Mark Posey, C. J). Austin, E. Caughman, A. W. 
Liudler, D. Sheely and S. W. Bedenbaugh, were 
admitted to the ministry JSTovember 14th, 1849, 
all of whom are still living except Rev. Posey, who 
died at Franconia, Alabama, August 26th, 1852. 
Revs. Caughman, Lindler and Sheely are still 
laboring in South Carolina ; Rev. Bedenbaugh in 
Georgia, The history of the others has already 
been furnished, all of whom are still actively en- 
gaged in the work of the ministry. 

Sedio7i 9. Concluding Remarks. 

In order to understand the age in which we live, 
it is important and necessary that we should care- 
fully study the history of the past. The various 


and succeeding epochs of the world are not a num- 
ber of disjointed parts rudely thrown together, 
which might as well have happened at some other 
time, but a successive course of events all occur- 
ring "when the fulness of time was come." 

The present is a development of the past; it is 
the child of a parent that has stamped upon it 
many of the characteristics and manifestations ot 
the past. And as individuals are possessed of vir- 
tues and faults, so is every age in which man lives 
an intermixture of excellencies and errors, which 
the study of history enables us to discover, so that 
we may walk in the light of the one, and studi- 
ously avoid the other. 

In ecclesiastical affairs it is equally important 
and even more necessary diligently to study the 
history of the past, inasmuch as an error com- 
mitted in the Church invariably leads to eternally 
fatal consequences. And that departures and 
errors have occurred in the Church is well known; 
these should be ever kept in view, like so many 
pillars of salt, with "Remember Lot's wife " in- 
scribed upon them, so as to apprise us of our dan- 
gers, and point out to us the path of safety. 

We can become wiser than our forefathers, only 
when we have mastered their knowledge and ex- 
perience, and add our own thereto; but never by 
obliterating the past, and starting upon a career 
in the world, unprepared to meet and avoid its 
dangers, and unfitted to take advantage of the op- 
portunities it oiFers us. 

As the Lutheran Church professes to be, and is, 


in intimate connection with the past, let her not 
unwisely assume the character and put on the garb 
of infancy, casting away her priceless history and 
experience, and starting upon a voyage on the 
ocean of life without compass, rudder, anchor, or 

These thoughts apply equally as well to the 
local history of the Lutheran Church. Here in 
America, yes in every Province or State, events 
have occurred which have had their influence 
upon her character, and which it is our duty to 
know and to study. Had there been no depar- 
tures either in faith or practice, there would never 
have been any divisions; this is a truth which ec- 
clesiastical history teaches us on almost every 
page. It was once thought wise and praiseworthy 
to cast aside the shackles of the past, by which the 
Lutheran Church was believed to have been en- 
slaved, and start her upon a new career with im- 
proved doctrines, altered forms of worship and a 
new cultus; but events have proved, that nothing 
has been gained by this departure, but rather — that 
thereby she " was wounded in the house of her 

It is needless now to conceal the divisions that 
are apparent in the Lutheran Church in the Caro- 
linas, as well as in America — they do exist ; and 
all our lamentations, &c., cannot heal them; they 
are the legitimate developments of the past ; let 
us rather study them in the light of past experi- 
ence, in order that we may discover the mistakes 
then made, which prepared the way for such di- 


visions, and endeavor to lieal them at their ver^; 
root. Let us no longer make the attempt "to 
agree to disagree," but honestly ask for the old 
paths, diligently study " the faith once delivered 
to the saints," so that we may intelligently and 
" earnestly contend for it ;" let us in this way seek 
to become united in faith and practice, not from 
motives of policy, but as an honest conviction of 

May then also this history of the Lutheran 
Church in the Carolinas inspire our people and 
their ministers with a greater respect for their 
time-honored Church, and build upon the founda- 
tion which their forefathers in the days of the Re- 
formers have laid, and do this with such a zeal 
and energy, as proceeds only from a conscientious 
conviction of duty; then indeed will their labor be 
productive both of the dissemination of the pure 
doctrines of God's word, and of the glory of God 
in the advancement of our Savior's kingdom on 
earth. The- fact, that inquiry has been awakened 
in regard to these things in the Lutheran Church 
both in Europe and in every section in America, 
is a hopeful indication of her future healthy devel- 
opment, and of her increased activity and pros- 

" Thou shalt arise and have mercy upon Zion : 
for the time to favor her, yea, the set time, is come. 
For thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and 
favor the dust thereof." Psalm 102 : 13 and 14.